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July 6[edit]

Clarification of laws and rulings for Trade Secret article[edit]

I posted this in the Talk:Trade_secret#requests_for_expansion_of_information last year, but have had no response. Hopefully someone here can help.

"I'm having trouble finding the legal precedents of possible repercussions of a person publishing a trade secret on behalf of another. This has been brought up in Scientology lawsuits and the AACS key. My understanding is that it is misappropriation of a trade secret, but the actual application of this to, say, internet publication seems undecided.
"The California Supreme Court appears to have ruled that it is free speech to publish the secret, but that the publication can have an injunction applied. Does that mean the publisher cannot really be prosecuted or sued? What about the Coke formula revealed in the book Big Secrets, or was that relatively free of legal action only because it was published before USTA? Are there people who can shed more light on this area of US law? )SamuelRiv (talk) 06:06, 16 March 2013 (UTC)"

Bonus points for editing the wiki page if you can point to specific court cases. Super extra bonus points if you can find if this has been addressed in other countries or in international law. Thanks for the help. SamuelRiv (talk) 02:10, 6 July 2014 (UTC)

Vampires and the sun[edit]

Vampire (Lugosi) by flashlight.

According to vampire lore, if a vampire is outside in sunlight, they are killed by the sun. Is it just the sun in the solar system that does this, or would the light from another star kill a vampire? Clearly it doesn't when they are out at night on earth, but would it affect them if they were on another planet? Could a vampire go into space? And can reflected sunlight kill a vampire? Horatio Snickers (talk) 12:26, 6 July 2014 (UTC)

There are probably authors who have addressed this question in their fictions, but since each such author will have invented an answer to suit the needs of the story, I don't see how this can possibly be answered from authoritative sources. --ColinFine (talk) 13:38, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
Well, the moon does not kill a vampire and that is reflected sun. Also, a vampire has no reflection since it cannot see itself in a mirror, so I believe it cannot be harmed by reflected sunlight. This is just my theory, of course. Here is a good Wikipedia article on Vampire literature that goes into traits of vampires in fiction. Originally, in the Dracula novel, by Bram Stoker, the vampire could walk around in sunlight, but in a weakened state. All the best, Fylbecatulous talk 14:04, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
Since vampires are fictional, each author is at liberty to come up with any set of attributes for them. These are frequently ill-thought-through, self-contradictory, etc. You can't reason about how they work for all of those reasons. Sunlight is just a bunch of photons with some set of energies and frequencies - whichever of those kill the vampire cannot be energies and frequencies that occur in artificial light or from fires or from creatures like fireflies. As has already been pointed out, frequencies reflected by the moon don't harm them either - which eliminates another huge slice of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some authors have claimed that the first rays of a rising sun suffice to save our heroine - so clearly frequencies that are strongly attenuated by our atmosphere are not to blame - and large quantities of solar energy are not required. However, on overcast days, the cloud cover is sufficient to shield the vampire - so these dangerous frequencies are clearly attenuated sufficiently by water vapor.
Consider also what it takes for photons reflected or emitted by the vampire's body to be plainly visible by the human eye - yet be absorbed by all forms of reflecting devices (vampires cannot be seen in a mirror) and be of frequency/energy levels that won't kill other vampires who happen to be standing nearby.
Taken together, this suggests that a highly specific frequency of light at almost any energy level is needed. So it's possible that some other solar systems would provide daytime refuge for them.
However, many vampire biographers claim that the vampire must sleep in a coffin lined with soil from his native transylvania. When vampires attempt to colonize other star systems, they'll need to take vast quantities of this soil with them or else their population size will be severely limited in the future.
Truly, it's pointless to ask serious questions about fictional entities here on the Wikipedia reference desk. SteveBaker (talk) 14:24, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
Nit pick: Clouds are not water vapour, but water droplets. Water vapour is largely transparent to visible light (but not infrared). --Stephan Schulz (talk) 16:18, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
This is the same type of question as the now-boxed "Time travel and Jaws". Should this one likewise be boxed up? ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 17:31, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
Yes, done. About time this go to ANI as well, should the OP revert. μηδείς (talk) 02:32, 7 July 2014 (UTC)
I have removed the box as there appears to be no real consensus to box this post. I will not bow to your threat to report this. I should firstly state that this is clearly a very different question to "Time travel and Jaws", and has actually led to some interesting discussion about the nature of which light sources can inflict damage upon a vampire. By all means report this to ANI if this is what you believe is the best thing to do, but I cannot see what the problem is in using a reference desk to ask questions. Horatio Snickers (talk) 15:00, 7 July 2014 (UTC)
Horatio, your question makes the assumption that vampires are the same in every work, as if they're real or something. It ends up being a matter of opinion, which is why this thread was rightfully closed. If you had asked "are there works of vampire fiction that address these issues..." that'd be different. But as the question is currently worded, I have to agree that it's inappropriate. Ian.thomson (talk) 15:08, 7 July 2014 (UTC)
The OP asked about vampire lore not works of fiction. Lore is traditional knowledge about nature and their culture that people get from their parents and other older people, not from books. The term is found in Old English lar "learning, what is taught, knowledge, science, doctrine, art of teaching," from Proto-Germanic *laizo (Old Saxon lera, Old Frisian lare, Middle Dutch lere, Dutch leer, Old High German lera, German Lehre "teaching, precept, doctrine". Oral tradition is the transmissison of cultural material through vocal utterance, and was long held to be a key descriptor of folklore. As an academic discipline, it refers both to a set of objects of study and a method by which they are studied—the method may be called variously "oral traditional theory", "the theory of Oral-formulaic composition" and the "Parry-Lord theory" (after two of its founders).
The question is about the extreme phototoxic vulnerability of the hematophageous Undead meta-person traditionally called a Vampire. The effect, as reported in fiction, exceeds Type III (aka hepatic photosensitivity) which is the most common type of photosensitivity reaction seen in animals. A link was proposed by biochemist David Dolphin between vampire folklore and the enzyme disorder Porphyria which is derived from the Greek πορφύρα, porphyra, meaning "purple pigment". The name refers to the purple discolouration of feces and urine when exposed to light in patients during an attack. Although original descriptions are attributed to Hippocrates, the disease was first explained biochemically by Felix Hoppe-Seyler in 1871 and acute porphyrias were described by the Dutch physician Barend Stokvis in 1889.
A Swedish police enquiry seeks information on suspected vampire activity near Sankt Eriksplan in Stockholm. It may or may not be entirely non-coincidental that Stockholm and Transylvania are in similar time zones and within bat migration range. (talk) 22:56, 7 July 2014 (UTC)
Orally transmitted fiction doesn't cease to be fiction. --Jayron32 21:11, 8 July 2014 (UTC)
Keep that thought in church. (talk) 22:30, 10 July 2014 (UTC)
A related question: Does the ignition effect require oxygen? If not, given that they don't breathe, perhaps vampires are well suited to work in space. —Tamfang (talk) 09:52, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
Even if it doesn't require oxygen they may be useful in space as a form of monopropellant. Katie R (talk) 15:38, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

US state capitals: size[edit]

Formerly New question

We know that the capital of a U.S. state isn't always the largest city with its name. One city of this kind is Springfield, Illinois. It's only the third largest Springfield in the United States. The largest is Springfield, Missouri and the second is Springfield, Massachusetts.

Is there another capital city that's not the largest city in the United States with that name?? If so, name all the largest cities in the United States with that name up to the capital city. (For Springfield, this list would be Springfield, Missouri; Springfield, Massachusetts; Springfield, Illinois.) Georgia guy (talk) 13:51, 6 July 2014 (UTC)

That information should easily be found in Wikipedia. Get to work. :) ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 16:17, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
Start with List_of_capitals_in_the_United_States, and click on their names, then find the disambiguation page that will list all places with that name. Many cities have an infobox that will give census data, but smaller townships and unincorporated areas often won't have population figures on their pages. SemanticMantis (talk) 16:43, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
But dis-ambiguation pages don't compare populations of cities; they only list cities. Georgia guy (talk) 16:46, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
Then click through to each city and see the population. Staecker (talk) 16:52, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
Augusta, Georgia seems to be larger than Augusta, Maine, the capital. —Kusma (t·c) 17:25, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
Let the OP (a Georgia guy, ironically) do his own homework. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 17:29, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
Yes, Augusta, Georgia is more than 10 times as big as Augusta, Maine. I've gone through the dis-ambiguation page and it seems that other Augustas are even smaller. Georgia guy (talk) 17:42, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
And Concord, California, is more populous than Concord, New Hampshire. Deor (talk) 19:01, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
I am revising the heading of this section from New question to US state capitals: size, in harmony with WP:TPOC, point 12 (Section headings). Please see Microcontent: How to Write Headlines, Page Titles, and Subject Lines. The new heading facilitates recognition of the topic in links and watchlists and tables of contents.
Wavelength (talk) 19:06, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
And I posted an "anchor" to avoid breaking links. And I say again, the OP needs to research this question himself rather than expecting others to do his homework for him. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 22:50, 6 July 2014 (UTC)
I already posted an anchor, "{{formerly}}", one of those mentioned at WP:TPOC, section 12 (Section headings).
Wavelength (talk) 01:55, 7 July 2014 (UTC)
Aha, something new, to me anyway. Works like an anchor except the former title is visible, right? ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 02:44, 7 July 2014 (UTC)
Yes, that is right.—Wavelength (talk) 01:10, 8 July 2014 (UTC)
Charleston, South Carolina is larger than Charleston, West Virginia. However, Albany, New York is slightly larger than Albany, Georgia. (Just being thorough.)    → Michael J    15:28, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

July 7[edit]

Royal Cannon Golden Nuggets[edit]

What were/are Royal Cannon Golden Nuggets? They come/came in a tin approx. 2.25in x 3.5 in. x 1 in. The tin has a lid but does not have a manufacturers name but is decorated with graphics depicting a cannon with trunnions on a wooden carriage and crossed bands with an anchor. Are they English? Were they a food, candy or other product. When were they manufactured?Tcstamps88 (talk) 23:07, 7 July 2014 (UTC)

Do you mean the tobacco tin as pictured here. There appears to be several for sale on eBay. CBWeather, Talk, Seal meat for supper? 01:46, 8 July 2014 (UTC)
And yes they were British. CBWeather, Talk, Seal meat for supper? 01:48, 8 July 2014 (UTC)
Can I clarify this, please? You're saying that the produce was pipe tobacco, right? AlexTiefling (talk) 09:06, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
Hard to say. The only things I could find were on auction sites and said they tobacco/cigarette tins. There was one site here that says it is a spice tin. CBWeather, Talk, Seal meat for supper? 00:40, 10 July 2014 (UTC)

July 8[edit]

Incorrect information posted???[edit]

I believe that Rex Harrison starred opposite Audrey Hepburn (not Julie Andrews) in "My Fair Lady". Am I correct??? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 00:07, 8 July 2014 (UTC)

Audrey Hepburn was in the movie version, and Julie Andrews was in the stage version. RudolfRed (talk) 00:35, 8 July 2014 (UTC)
And Rex Harrison was in both, in case that wasn't clear. Far as I know, soundtrack albums for both the stage and film versions are available. Side note: Andrews did all her own singing in the stage version, Harrison did all his own singing (such as it was) in both, while Hepburn sang only one song in the film, which was actually more of a recitation: the "Just You Wait" song. The rest of her songs were overdubbed by Marni Nixon. The extras on the DVD version I have, has a clip of Hepburn singing "Wouldn't It Be Loverly", and it's easy to see why they overdubbed with Marni. Hepburn could carry a tune just fine, but she didn't have the strength and range of voice they wanted. Marni did. Unfortunately, that overdubbing became public knowledge, and cost Audrey a chance at an Oscar. Julie, who had been turned away from the movie, instead won an Oscar as Mary Poppins. That's how things go in Hollywood sometimes. :) ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 03:02, 8 July 2014 (UTC)
I rather liked her "Loverly", but she clearly lacked enough power for "Show Me". —Tamfang (talk) 09:49, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
To clarify further, there's My Fair Lady, the musical play; and My Fair Lady (film). ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 03:05, 8 July 2014 (UTC)

Name for a Paraphilia[edit]

Talking to a friend over coffee, he was explaining to me that he is aroused by watching women "flip out", especially if they look angry - or if they are breaking things, smashing things, etc. At any rate, despite reading a decent amount of texts on sexology/sexual psychology, I don't think I've ever heard of this specifically, is there a name for it? Is it common/uncommon? Thanks for any help:-)Phoenixia1177 (talk) 20:26, 8 July 2014 (UTC)

Rule 34 being what it is, "anger fetish" gives us a few hits, so that might be the best term to use. "Orgophilia" and "Thumophilia" (from the Greek ὀργὴ, "wrath", and θυμός, "indignation") might be possibilities for something more technical-sounding, but I don't think either of them have actually been used. Tevildo (talk) 20:51, 8 July 2014 (UTC)
Not sure of a medical-sounding word, but make-up sex is pretty hot and common. Wouldn't apply to watching a video of a stranger alone, though, if that's your friend's thing. InedibleHulk (talk) 21:44, July 8, 2014 (UTC)
Not quite right, but re: breaking things, there's Crush_fetish. I'd imagine you could get additional answers at a site such as fetlife. SemanticMantis (talk) 17:42, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
See also Catfight. On Senfield once, they were discussing what's interesting about watching two women fight. Their conclusion was that when it's over, they might kiss. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 18:33, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

July 9[edit]


Outside of fiction (J.R. Tolkien, etc.), what examples (if any) are there of real-life eucatastrophes? (talk) 08:26, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

The best examples I can think of are when battles are turned by events outside of the control of the participants, for example the way the weather wreaked havoc on the Spanish Armada, quite possibly saving England from a certain overwhelming invasion, or when bad weather similarly saved Japan from Mongol invasion. There was the American retreat from Brooklyn during the Revolutionary War which was only successful due to unusually foggy conditions to cover their retreat; without such a miraculous retreat Washington and his army would have been captured and eliminated early in the War, all but ending the war in it's infancy. --Jayron32 15:13, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
You'd need a real-life protagonist, wouldn't you? In fiction, there's only the one narrative, so distinguishing between good catastrophes and bad is easy. But the Mongol, Spanish and British quests above were all terribly ruined. Take any disaster, and you'll find a silver lining. Find the lining, and you find the saved.
The Johnstown flood (to pick one that's not "too soon") got the ball rolling for disaster victims to seek compensation from a not-quite-guilty party. Also inspired many works of art, which put food on starving artists' tables. For every shop destroyed and shopowner killed, a business opportunity arises for another merchant (and the builders). Without the flood, who knows where they'd have been instead? InedibleHulk (talk) 15:50, July 9, 2014 (UTC)
These things may not seem dramatic to us in retrospect, but what about events like the discovery of the Spindletop oil field? Marco polo (talk) 16:05, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
Also don't forget that the Johnstown flood also created the first successful response for the American Red Cross in mitigating the effects for the disaster victims. --Jayron32 18:32, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
Actually the first Red Cross response was the Great Fire of 1881. (talk) 15:36, 10 July 2014 (UTC)
Hulk's point is apt; the events Jayron mentions are eucatastrophic from one perspective, but catastrophic from another. The space pen was once unexpectedly used to avert disaster during the moon landing, see e.g. here [1]. I'd say that's eucatastrophic (at least for those who weren't hoping that the astronauts died, being stranded on the moon). SemanticMantis (talk) 17:39, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
Yes, but success for Frodo was also catastrophe for Sauron, so my responses are at least as apt as Tolkein's own specific example. --Jayron32 18:33, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
The thing is, Sauron's position as protagonist doesn't exist. In fiction, these things must be written by someone, for someone. Once it's written, it's self-contained. In life, lives go on regardless of the chronicler. InedibleHulk (talk) 18:39, July 9, 2014 (UTC)
Ok, I see Jayron's point too. As for Sauron as protagonist, that does exist, see The_Last_Ringbearer. It's even been freely released in English by the author [2]! I have not read it yet, as I just became aware, but now it is on my list :) SemanticMantis (talk) 20:02, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
Well, I'll be damned. InedibleHulk (talk) 15:35, July 10, 2014 (UTC)

An interestingly similar but different phenomenon can be found at Pyrrhic victory. --Dweller (talk) 10:31, 10 July 2014 (UTC)

Question on the use of the National Hydrography Dataset[edit]

I have learned that the lengths of streams in the United States can be gotten from the National Hydrography Dataset, but I am unsure exactly what is the procedure for doing so? No settings that I have tried on have worked, and after several hours of Googling recently, the only information I have found on this has been to convoluted to understand. --Jakob (talk) 16:21, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

There is a Measure Distance button on the Advanced map toolbar. You can use it to trace the length of a stream and it'll give you the figure. Dalliance (talk) 12:22, 10 July 2014 (UTC)

Double wedding anniversaries[edit]

This cropped up recently and I haven't been able to find anything much online to help out-are there any records of people celebrating two classic wedding anniversaries(diamond,ruby,golden) with two different spouses(monogamously of course!)?

Given human lifespan and marriage age,

  • two ruby anniversaries would be possible: marry at 16,ruby at 56,new wedding,ruby at 96
  • ruby and golden anniversary just about possible:marry at 16,ruby at 56,new wedding,golden at 106
  • two golden anniversaries hypothetical if unlikely:marry at 16,golden at 66,new wedding,golden at 116

And if no-one has managed to achieve this,what's the record for the longest pair of marriages to different spouses? Lemon martini (talk) 20:43, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

Are you after "Longest combined duration of two marriages for the same person", or "Greatest duration exceeded by both of a person's marriages"? The answers are liable to be very different. (For the former, look for examples of the marriages of elderly, widowed, US Civil War vets.) AlexTiefling (talk) 20:51, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

That's what I wanted:Longest combined duration of two marriages for the same person-that doesn't yield much on Google-we have List_of_people_with_the_longest_marriages but that's not too helpful as it stops at a minimum of 80 years.

The greatest span of one couple's marriages is going to be very different-if you have a very old person who marries a very young person,the span could be colossal-you end up with something like the John Tyler situation. Lemon martini (talk) 21:07, 9 July 2014 (UT

Convenience link for everyone: OP seems to be referring to John Tyler. He was the 10th president of the US and was married twice. Dismas|(talk) 21:16, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
No, by my second option I don't mean lengths of marriages for both parties in the same marriage; I mean "what's the longest time, t, such that a person has had two discrete marriages both of length at least t?" AlexTiefling (talk) 21:20, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
And to get the ball rolling, here's someone who celebrated two silver weddings (eg t>25 years): [3] AlexTiefling (talk) 21:35, 9 July 2014 (UTC)
And here's a couple who had three silver weddings between two of them: [4] (in other words, each of them has t>25 years.) AlexTiefling (talk) 21:40, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

Ah my brain has finally got onto your wavelength :)It's had a heavy day's work so forgive it-it keeps wanting to sleep. 'What is the highest number wedding anniversary that anyone has celebrated twice with two different spouses?' That's better-that's the jist of what I'm trying to get to. Lemon martini (talk) 21:56, 9 July 2014 (UTC)

Using Google search terms of "two (type) weddings", I haven't been able to find a better example than the couple who each had two silver weddings. There are no examples I can find of two ruby or even pearl weddings for the same person. AlexTiefling (talk) 13:18, 10 July 2014 (UTC)
In my English it's "silver anniversary", not a "silver wedding", so that search won't find those. I tried phrase searches on "two 30th anniversaries", then "second 30th anniversary", then "second 30th wedding anniversary". I only saw irrelevant hits in the first two searches, but the third one found this news story about a John T. Johnson of Rakewood (apparently someplace near Rake, Iowa) who was married in 1915, widowed in 1946, remarried in 1948, and still married when the story was printed in 1978. I did not try repeating these searches with higher numbers. -- (talk) 05:20, 11 July 2014 (UTC)
Aha - that would be why I was getting so many UK stories; your Mr Johnson is our new record holder... AlexTiefling (talk) 09:45, 11 July 2014 (UTC)
WP:OR warning! My own father was married in 1948, widowed in 1982, remarried in 1985, and is still going (as is his second wife) in 2014. So that's (almost) 34 years, plus 29 years not out. His wife (my stepmother) was first married in 1945 and widowed in 1977 - so she has had 32 years, plus 29. Ghmyrtle (talk) 10:51, 11 July 2014 (UTC)
Excellent. Please report back in 2019. -- (talk) 23:32, 11 July 2014 (UTC)
Why 2019? Your Mr Johnson had 31 years plus 30(+). My dad has had 34 plus 29 - so, hopefully, his second pearl anniversary next year. I'd never really thought of it as remarkable, until this discussion. Ghmyrtle (talk) 08:14, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

July 10[edit]

TV audio accessory recommendation[edit]

I just bought a Sony Bravia LED 48' hi-def TV (KDL-48W600B; cnet specs). Good hi-def picture but just shit audio. Tinny. Awful. It makes me so mad. They do it on purpose of course, so they can sell their "sound bars", which appear to be an incredible ripoff. Anyway, anyone have a suggestion for how to make my audio match my picture? I live in a relatively small one-bedroom and can't fit any large speakers. Budget is about $200 (I'm in the U.S., if that's relevant). Oh, and if relevant, please advise what types of cables I will need to purchase for whatever you recommend. Thanks!-- (talk) 04:41, 10 July 2014 (UTC)

Personally, I would get something like a creative 2.1 computer speaker set (two speakers and a bass unit) and use this. Perfectly adequate sound at a lower cost than the Sony sound bars. Zzubnik (talk) 09:40, 10 July 2014 (UTC)
Yes, that's what I was going to suggest. You can get such a system for maybe $30. That does mean you will have wires, though, and if you spread the speakers out, for optimal sound, they could get in the way (this somewhat depends on the layout of the room). Wireless speakers are a solution to ugly wires, but those systems are more prone to interference (although wired systems can sometimes pick up interference from cell phones, so keep those a few feet away from each other).
Also, such systems typically aren't good at extreme volume (either they won't go loud or will be damaged if they do). So, if you want a loud system, you will need to pay more.
You won't need any cables beyond what comes with the speakers, but you might need a converter jack depending on what audio outputs your TV has. Those 2.1 systems are typically set up to plug into a single headphone jack. If instead of that you have L and R audio output jacks on your TV, then you will need a converter to combine those into a single jack (maybe $5). Also note that if you have a cable box or analog-to-digital converter box feeding the signal to the TV, you may have audio outputs directly on that.
If you own a good set of headphones, you could also plug those into the TV. I'm not suggesting this as a permanent solution, but this will give you an idea for how much better the audio could sound with good speakers. It's always possible that it's not just the speakers, but that the audio processing itself is crap, in which case new speakers won't help much, unless you can bypass the TV and plug in directly to the cable box or digital-to-audio converter.
Oh, and a note on the bass on those 2.1 units: it can be impressive, but can also keep people up at night. So, if others are trying to sleep while you watch TV, you will need to turn the bass down. BTW, if you haven't already done so, try turning the bass to max and treble to minimum on your TV, and see if that helps any. You would think the presets would be set to make it sound as good as possible, but maybe not if they want to sell you better audio. (Also, to the ears of the Chinese who presumably built it, high pitch may sound better.) StuRat (talk) 15:05, 10 July 2014 (UTC)
As of 2008, at least, Bravias are mainly made in Slovakia. InedibleHulk (talk) 15:51, July 10, 2014 (UTC)
European ones, anyway. Japan serves Asia, and Mexico for North America. InedibleHulk (talk) 16:00, July 10, 2014 (UTC)

Television sets are sold in such a wide variety of screen sizes and types that a degree of responsibility is demanded of the buyer who has only themself to blame if their choice is a bad one. Comfortable viewing distance is proportional to screen size; a 48-inch diagonal screen is comfortably viewed sitting at 12 feet from the screen, which is an ungainly dimension for a small bedroom. For good audio reproduction, absolute size is important. CRT sets with excellent sound are cheap now and a used Panasonic or Philips 32-inch set (with a huge cabinet that will occupy a corner of the room) should satisfy most ears, without the distraction of disparate picture and sound locations. (talk) 18:51, 10 July 2014 (UTC)



Pre-Normandy Invasion secrecy would have hidden the purpose of RAF Staplehurst as a prototype for temporary Advanced Landing Grounds built in France after D-Day. Compare the airfield's appearance 2 weeks before D-Day 21 May 1944 with what little is there today; it's been disused since 1944. There is a forum sharing information on the 363rd Fighter Group in Staplehurst that may find the info you seek. For more research, the [] Airfields of Britain Conservation Trust website notes that units present at Staplehurst included No. 126 Airfield, the 363rd FG and Squadrons 401, 411 and 412. (talk) 18:12, 10 July 2014 (UTC)

July 11[edit]

Button down shirts bottom button slit horizontal[edit]

Most of the button down shirts I have have, for the last button down at the bottom, a horizontal slit, while all the other buttons have vertical slits. Why is that bottom button slit horizontal? (talk) 11:55, 11 July 2014 (UTC)

Because it allows the button to take more stress from pulling and movement without stretching out the shirt or the hole itself. --Viennese Waltz 11:59, 11 July 2014 (UTC)
Yep, there is often also a different color and stronger thread used there. This site also agrees with us [5]. SemanticMantis (talk) 16:04, 11 July 2014 (UTC)

MK 46 - 30mm Gun Weapon System[edit]

Does Wikipedia have an article on the MK 46 - 30mm Gun Weapon System? Here is the US Navy Fact File entry, thanks a frown emits — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 19:50, 11 July 2014 (UTC)

See Mk44 Bushmaster II for our article on the gun. We don't seem to have an article on the weapon system as a whole. Tevildo (talk) 19:56, 11 July 2014 (UTC)
Thank you Tevildo — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:12, 11 July 2014 (UTC)
What does "thanks a frown emits" mean? Sounds like something Google-translated through several languages. Edison (talk) 00:09, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

July 12[edit]

An American retiree in Canada, England, Scotland, Australia, or New Zealand[edit]

Is it common for retirees from the US to move to any of the above places? On the one hand, well-off foreigners would support the local economies. If they had pensions, US Social Security and savings, they would not go on the dole. On the other hand, they might consume health services. Are any of these places more or less welcoming toward retired foreigners? Edison (talk) 00:01, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

For England and Scotland - which are not independent countries but both part of the UK and therefore have a single set of immigration rules - what you would appear to be talking about is seeking to live here as a "retired person of independent means". You can find information on this on this page of If you click through to read the detailed guidance you'll find it states "[t]his route is closed to new entrants to the UK. Only people already in the UK in this category can apply for leave to remain or indefinite leave to remain."
You can check the visa requirements for US citizens at this address. As a US citizen, one can easily enter the UK as a tourist or to visit family for up to 6 months (no visa is required). Longer stays to visit family will require a visa. You'll note on the link above that among the possible reasons to enter the UK for which you may require a visa "to live as a retired person of independent means" is not an option. The situation may be different if you have some UK ancestry as you may be eligible for a UK ancestry visa, which would allow you to reside for up to 5 years (and may be extendable and may be the start of a path to permanent residence), but you'll note that there is an expectation that you would be coming to work rather than to live as a retired person with even this visa.
You'll note that the UK is a geographically small and fairly densely populated country and already welcomes many migrants from within the European Economic Area (EEA) due to its EU treaty obligations (and likewise many Britons choose to use their equivalent rights to live elsewhere in Europe). People from outside the EEA are generally allowed to live in the UK temporarily on the basis that they are studying, or that they are working (and access to visas that allow work on a long-term basis is - broadly speaking - limited to those in "high skills" occupations). Although many migrants from outside the EEA won't have access to public funds - broadly speaking "the dole" as you mentioned - they would still have access to free healthcare, which is a particular expense of people in their later years, as well as other generally provided services; as pensioners, unless they are particularly well-off, they will be paying relatively little income tax (pensioners pay no tax on the first £10,500 of income) [6].
According to our Americans in the United Kingdom article, there were 177,185 persons of US birth in the UK at the time of the last census (2011), which is a tiny fraction of the population of either country, so clearly there isn't a sizable community of US retirees here, especially as many of those will be the spouses of British (or other European) citizens, people of working age who are working for a shorter or longer time in the UK, and indeed at least some British (etc.) citizens who happened to be born in the US. Valiantis (talk) 00:57, 12 July 2014 (UTC)
Just to round out my previous post. If you are very well-off, you may be able to obtain an Investor visa [7]. You will need to have (as a minimum) a spare million pounds sterling to invest. Valiantis (talk) 01:09, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

For Canada, here's the relevant government web site. According to this recent newspaper article, Canada used to have something like the "investor visa" that Valiantis describes for the UK, but it has been discontinued; the article also says that the total number of US citizens retiring to Canada in recent years is only about 1,500 per year.

Note also that US citizens are subject to US income taxes on all their income wherever they live, while residents in Canada are subject to Canadian income taxes on all their income. There is a tax treaty that generally avoids double taxation, but generally a U.S. citizen resident in Canada will have to file tax returns in both places and will end up paying in total something like the higher of the two countries' tax rate. But tax law is very complicated and there may be some situations that work differently. I would expect similar requirements to apply for other countries of residence. -- (talk) 04:09, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

I think it may be more common for Canadians to retire south than vice versa. Our snowbirds often migrate to the Florida wetlands in large, complex flocks, and are protected under federal law, thanks to dedicated preservation efforts. InedibleHulk (talk) 07:23, July 12, 2014 (UTC)

I just went hunting for the Australian situation, and it looks like we don't want retirees. Immigration to Australia#Current government immigration programmes says we will take skilled immigrants, so the trick might be to come here with a useful skill, work for a year or two, then retire. I just have this suspicion that having plenty of money to invest would make a difference too. HiLo48 (talk) 08:10, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

Area code scams[edit]

There have been long-distance telephone scams from area codes 809, 284, 649, and 876.

Are any other area codes involved in this scam?
Wavelength (talk) 01:44, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

Corporate Research[edit]

Are there businesses or online tools that might be able to help me identify who has bid on, or won a US Government contract identified by a solicitation number? Pay services are ok. What type of professional might offer such services? (talk) 13:17, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

BMW Mercedes-Benz Volkswagen Porsche Audi seven to eight seaters[edit]

Which cars of BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, Porsche and Audi has seven to eight seaters? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 15:44, 12 July 2014 (UTC)

The VW bus, specifically the "shuttle" configuration, seats 8-9: Volkswagen Transporter (T5)#Body_types. StuRat (talk) 16:08, 12 July 2014 (UTC)
The Mercedes minivan can also be configured to seat 8: Mercedes-Benz V-Class#Second generation (W639; 2003–present). StuRat (talk) 16:12, 12 July 2014 (UTC)