|Born||1966 (age 48–49)
|Residence||Malaysia and United States|
|Fields||Earth Science, Solar Physics|
|Institutions||Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics|
|Alma mater||University of Southern California|
|Thesis||Non-equilibrium kinetics in high-temperature gases (1991)|
|Doctoral advisor||Joseph Kunc|
|Notable awards||Petr Beckmann Award (2004)|
Wei-Hock "Willie" Soon (born 1966) is a solar physicist whose current research interest is solar influences on the Earth's climate. Soon is a part-time employee of the Smithsonian at the Solar and Stellar Physics (SSP) Division of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He is also a receiving editor for the journal New Astronomy. Soon co-authored The Maunder Minimum and the Variable Sun–Earth Connection with Steven H. Yaskell. The book treats historical and proxy records of climate change coinciding with the Maunder Minimum, a period from 1645 to about 1715 when sunspots became exceedingly rare.
Soon disputes the current scientific understanding of climate change, and contends that most global warming is caused by solar variation rather than by human activity. He gained visibility in part due to scientific criticism of the methodology of a paper which he co-wrote. Climate scientists have rebutted Soon's arguments, and the Smithsonian does not support his conclusions, but he is frequently cited by politicians opposed to climate-change legislation.
In the past decade Soon's research has been funded largely by fossil-fuel interests, which provided over $1.2 million in funding over 10 years, including $409,000 from The Southern Company and $230,000 from Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation. These funding sources were not disclosed in a number of papers published since 2008, leading the Smithsonian Institution to investigate whether Soon had violated conflict-of-interest policies. Soon says he has "always complied with what I understood to be disclosure practices in my field generally".
Early life and education
Willie Soon was born in Kangar, Malaysia, in 1966. He attended Khoon Aik Primary School in Kangar, Perlis, then Sekolah Menengah Syed Sirajudin Secondary School in Jejawi, Perlis, and Sekolah Menengah Dato Sheikh Ahmad Secondary School in Arau, Perlis. To further his education he emigrated to the United States in 1980 and attended the University of Southern California, receiving a B.Sc. in 1985, followed by a M.Sc. in 1987 and then a Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering [with distinction] in 1991.  His doctoral thesis was titled Non-equilibrium kinetics in high-temperature gases. He received the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society Graduate Scholastic Award in 1989 and the Rockwell Dennis Hunt Scholastic Award from the University of Southern California in 1991.
After completing his plasma physics Ph.D. and upon the advice of his thesis advisor, Soon did post-doctoral research at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and has been doing research in astrophysics and earth science there as a non-tenured employee since 1991. He has also been an astronomer at the Mount Wilson Observatory, a senior scientist at the George C. Marshall Institute think tank, the chief science adviser to the Science and Public Policy Institute, and an Adjunct Professor of the Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies of the University of Putra, Malaysia. In 2004 Soon was awarded the "Petr Beckmann Award for outstanding contributions to the defense of scientific truth" by the conservative group Doctors for Disaster Preparedness. In 2014, Soon received the Courage in Defense of Science award from the George C. Marshall Institute. 
2003: Climate Research controversy
In 2003, Willie Soon was first author on a review paper in the journal Climate Research, with Sallie Baliunas as co-author. This paper concluded that "the 20th century is probably not the warmest nor a uniquely extreme climatic period of the last millennium."
Shortly thereafter, 13 scientists published a rebuttal to the paper. There were three main objections: (1) Soon and Baliunas used data reflective of changes in moisture, rather than temperature; (2) they failed to distinguish between regional and hemispheric mean temperature anomalies; and (3) they reconstructed past temperatures from proxy evidence not capable of resolving decadal trends. Soon, Baliunas and David Legates published a response to these objections.
After disagreement with the publisher and other members of the editorial board, Hans von Storch, Clare Goodess, and two more members of the journal's ten-member editorial board resigned in protest against what they felt was a failure of the peer review process on the part of the journal. Otto Kinne, managing director of the journal's parent company, eventually stated that "CR [Climate Research] should have been more careful and insisted on solid evidence and cautious formulations before publication" and that "CR should have requested appropriate revisions of the manuscript prior to publication."
2011: Funding controversy
In 2011, it was revealed that Soon received over $1,000,000 from petroleum and coal interests since 2001. Documents obtained by Greenpeace under the US Freedom of Information Act show that the Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation gave Soon two grants totaling $175,000 in 2005–06 and again in 2010. Multiple grants from the American Petroleum Institute between 2001 and 2007 totalled $274,000, and grants from Exxon Mobil totalled $335,000 between 2005 and 2010. Other coal and oil industry sources which funded him include the Mobil Foundation, the Texaco Foundation and the Electric Power Research Institute. Soon has stated unequivocally that he has "never been motivated by financial reward in any of my scientific research" and "would have accepted money from Greenpeace if they had offered it to do my research."
For health reasons, in 2011 Soon went from full time employment by the Smithsonian at the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics to a part-time position. The Center's spokesman said "Willie’s opinions regarding climate change are his personal views not shared within our research organization". Its former director Irwin Shapiro said no attempt had been made to suppress Soon’s views, and there had been no complaints from other scientists there: "As far as I can tell, no one pays any attention to him." Soon has been defended by others agreeing with his views. In 2013, theoretical physicist Freeman Dyson wrote in an email to The Boston Globe: "The whole point of science is to question accepted dogmas. For that reason, I respect Willie Soon as a good scientist and a courageous citizen." Senator Jim Inhofe has cited Soon, and Inhofe's former adviser Marc Morano said that "Willie Soon is a hero of the skeptical movement. When you are an early pioneer, you are going to face the scrutiny and attacks." Soon has links with conservative groups which promote his writings to influence the public debate on climate change, including The Heartland Institute, the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow and the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow. In a speech at The Heritage Foundation, he accused the IPCC of being "a pure bully" engaged in "blatant manipulations of fact", and said "Stop politicizing science! Just stop!"
January 2015 Monckton et al. paper
Soon co-authored a paper with William M. Briggs, David Legates, and Christopher Monckton published by the Chinese Science Bulletin in 2015. Climatologist Gavin Schmidt described the paper as "complete trash". He said that the model used is not new, "they arbitrarily restrict its parameters and then declare all other models wrong."
2015: Allegations of disclosure violations
Soon as a researcher at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a part-time employee of the Smithsonian Institution, a government agency covered by the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Greenpeace worker Kert Davies made a succession of FOIA requests for Soon's correspondence and grant arrangements, and in 2014 was given documents disclosing arrangements both Soon and the CfA had with funders. Later in 2014 Davies left Greenpeace to become executive director of the newly founded non-profit Climate Investigations Center.
The Smithsonian does not fund Soon, who "pursues external grants to fund his research." This funding had exceeded US$1.5 million since 2001; under standard observatory procedures, more than half of the $1.2 million funding since 2005 had gone towards the Smithsonian's facility operating costs, with the remainder being passed on to Soon as his salary. Other researchers there have a similar arrangement, but nearly all of their funding comes through peer-reviewed award processes from government bodies such as NASA. Soon's funding included at least $230,000 from the oil-industry supported Charles G. Koch Foundation and $469,560 from the Southern Company which uses coal to generate electricity. Exxon Mobil and the American Petroleum Institute also provided funding, but that funding has lately been replaced by anonymous donors through the Donors Trust, which has become the largest funder of political opposition to action on climate change. A 2008 contract agreed by the CfA required it to notify the Southern Company before disclosing that Southern had provided funding, and both the CfA and Soon were to provide Southern with advance copies of any publications "for comment and input" but the company could not block publications or require changes.
The Chinese Science Bulletin has a strict policy requiring disclosure of "all relationships or interests that could influence or bias the work", including “professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research", for example previous receipt of research grants. The Monckton et al. paper published in January 2015 included a statement by the authors, including Soon, that they had no conflict of interest, and Davies wrote to the journal about the undisclosed funding shown by the documents. On 24 January the journal replied that they would "look into the matter as appropriate". The story was published by The Boston Globe on 26 January with a statement by Monckton that allegations of failure to disclose a material conflict of interest were untrue, as the authors had not "received any funding whatsoever for our research, which was conducted in our own time". He said that the Heartland Institute had provided funding to make the paper available to the public on the journal's website.
On February 21, publications including The Guardian and the New York Times reported that Soon had failed to disclose conflicts of interest in at least 11 papers since 2008, and alleged that Soon had violated ethical guidelines of at least 8 of those journals publishing his work. Charles R. Alcock, director of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, described the disclosure violations as "inappropriate behavior" that they would "have to handle with Dr. Soon internally". On the same day, Nature reported that the CfA had launched an investigation into whether Soon had properly reported the funding arrangements shown in the documents. Alcock said "We want to get the facts straight. If there is evidence of failure to disclose, yes, we have a problem." He said that the contract with Southern preventing disclosure of their funding "was a mistake", and in a later email reply to questions said "We will not permit similar wording in future grant agreements". The Smithsonian announced that its Inspector General would investigate, and in addition there was to be a full review of the Smithsonian's ethics and disclosure policies about sponsored research, led by Rita R. Colwell.
On March 2, 2015, the Heartland Institute released a statement by Soon, which said he had "been the target of attacks in the press by various radical environmental and politically motivated groups". He described this as "a shameless attempt to silence my scientific research and writings, and to make an example out of me as a warning to any other researcher who may dare question in the slightest their fervently held orthodoxy of anthropogenic global warming." Some of the journals that had published Soon's work had begun reviewing the papers in relation to their policies requiring disclosure: Soon said he had "always complied with what I understood to be disclosure practices in my field generally". He would be "happy to comply" if they required further disclosure, and "would ask only that other authors—on all sides of the debate—are also required to make similar disclosures."
He also requested that journalists who had reported on his actions similarly examined disclosure by other scientists. An investigation by InsideClimate News could find no cases where mainstream climatologists had failed to disclose the funding of their research. Unlike Soon, who had approached private funders directly, their funding was almost entirely obtained through open competitive peer-reviewed applications to public bodies. Andrew Dessler said "People always acknowledge their grants, and that's not really an issue". Though it was almost certain that a disclosure issue could arise, intentionally or otherwise, no instances were known. The nearest case was raised by Steven Milloy's "Junk Science" blog when Nature Climate Change published a 2012 study by Kerry Emanuel, who was paid a fixed amount by two companies to sit on their board. Although the companies did not fund his research, the journal then added disclosure of these board memberships. The blog raised the same concern about a paper published a year later, but Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences decided this disclosure was not required.
In April 2015, a Southern Company spokesman said "Our agreement with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory expires later this year and there are no plans to renew it". It still required Soon to produce a study on "Solar Activity Variation on Multiple Timescales" by November 2015.
- List of scientists opposing the mainstream scientific assessment of global warming
- Proxy (climate)
- Solar variation
- "Sunny Occupation". The Star. April 18, 2005.
- Justin Gillis; John Schwartz (February 21, 2015). "Deeper Ties to Corporate Cash for Doubtful Climate Researcher". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-02-21.
- Solar, Stellar, and Planetary Sciences, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Quote: "SOON, Willie, Astrophysicist ... Research specialties: Observational analysis and physical modeling of phenomena relevant to the Sun, Sun-like stars, and the Earth."
- "New Astronomy Editorial Board". Elsevier. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
- Soon, Willie Wei-Hock; Yaskell, Steven H. (2003). The Maunder Minimum and the Variable Sun-Earth Connection. World Scientific Publishing. ISBN 981-238-275-5.
- "Testimony of Dr. Willie Soon". United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. July 29, 2003. Retrieved 2011-06-17.
- Baum, Eric W. (April 14, 2009). "Sunspots May Cause Climate Fluctuations: Harvard astrophysicist says recent cooler temps are a result of fewer sunspots". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- Monastersky, Richard (September 2003). "Storm Brews Over Global Warming". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
- Goldenberg, Suzanne (February 21, 2015). "Work of prominent climate change denier was funded by energy industry". The Guardian.
- Warrick, Joby (February 24, 2015). "House Dems: Did Big Oil seek to sway scientists in climate debate?". Washington Post.
- Malakoff, David (February 23, 2015). "Smithsonian asks legal watchdog to investigate climate skeptic's disclosure practices". Science Insider (American Association for the Advancement of Science).
- "Lawmakers Seek Information on Funding for Climate Change Critics". New York Times. February 25, 2015.
- "Solar, Stellar, and Planetary Sciences: Research Staff". Smithsonian Office of Fellowships and Internships (OFI). Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- CV and publication list for Willie Soon, 2014
- Soon, Wei-Hock (1991). "Non-equilibrium kinetics in high-temperature gases". University of Southern California. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- "Rockwell Dennis Hunt Scholastic Award". Skull and Dagger Honor Society, University of Southern California. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- Soon, Willie et al. (2001). Global Warming: A Guide to the Science (PDF). Fraser Institute. p. viii.
- Pearce, Fred (2010). The Climate Files: The Battle for the Truth about Global Warming. Random House. p. xvi. ISBN 978-0-85265-229-9.
- "Global Warming Science and Public Policy". Science and Public Policy Institute. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
- "Speakers 20th Annual Meeting of DDP Colorado Springs, CO, July 27–28, 2002". Doctors for Disaster Preparedness. Retrieved 2012-06-28.
- "Doctors for Disaster Preparedness Newsletter" 21 (4). Doctors for Disaster Preparedness. July 2004. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- 2014 Winner of the Courage in Defense of Science
- Soon, Willie; Baliunas, Sallie (2003). "Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years". Climate Research 23 (2): 89–110. doi:10.3354/cr023089.
- "20th Century Climate Not so Hot" (Press release). Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. March 31, 2003. CFA Release No. 03-10. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
- "Leading Climate Scientists Reaffirm View that Late 20th Century Warming Was Unusual and Resulted From Human Activity" (Press release). American Geophysical Union. July 7, 2003. AGU Release No. 03-19. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17.
- Mann, Michael et al. (2003). "On past temperatures and anomalous late-20th-century warmth". Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 84 (27): 256–256. Bibcode:2003EOSTr..84..256M. doi:10.1029/2003EO270003.
- Soon, Willie et al. (2003). "Comment on "On past temperatures and anomalous late-20th century warmth"". Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 84 (44): 473–476. Bibcode:2003EOSTr..84..473S. doi:10.1029/2003EO440007.
- Goodess, Clare (November 2003). "Stormy Times for Climate Research". SGR Newsletter No. 28. Retrieved 2015-03-11.
- Kinne, Otto (2003). "Climate Research: an article unleashed worldwide storms" (PDF). Climate Research 24: 197–198. doi:10.3354/cr024197. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
- Sanchez, Irene (November 13, 2005). "Warming study draws fire". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 2009-05-30.
- Mooney, Chris (April 13, 2004). "Earth Last". The American Prospect. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
- Revkin, Andrew (August 5, 2003). "Politics Reasserts Itself in the Debate Over Climate Change and Its Hazards". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
- Gardner, Timothy (June 28, 2011). "US climate skeptic Soon funded by oil, coal firms". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-06-28.
- Vidal, John (June 17, 2011). "Climate sceptic Willie Soon received $1m from oil companies, papers show". The Guardian. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
- Rowland, Christopher (5 November 2013). "Researcher helps sow climate-change doubt". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- Monckton, C.; Soon, W. W. -H.; Legates, D. R.; Briggs, W. M. (2015). "Why models run hot: Results from an irreducibly simple climate model". Science Bulletin 60: 122. doi:10.1007/s11434-014-0699-2.
- Brian Merchant (21 January 2015). "How Climate Change Denial Still Gets Published in Peer-Reviewed Journals". Motherboard. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Tollefson, Jeff (21 February 2015). "Documents spur investigation of climate sceptic". Nature (Nature Publishing Group). doi:10.1038/nature.2015.16972. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- Basken, Paul (25 February 2015). "A Climate Crusader Melts, Exposing a Profitable Link to Harvard’s Name". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Hasemyer, David (April 7, 2015). "Utility Giant Cuts Ties With Willie Soon". InsideClimate News. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- Lane, Sylvan (January 26, 2015). "Climate change skeptic accused of violating disclosure rules". Boston Globe.
- Schwartz, John (February 25, 2015). "Lawmakers Seek Information on Funding for Climate Change Critics". The New York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
- "Smithsonian - Smithsonian Statement on Willie Soon, researcher at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory". Facebook. February 23, 2015. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- "Smithsonian Statement: Dr. Wei-Hock (Willie) Soon". Newsdesk. February 26, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Dr. Willie Soon (March 2, 2015). "Statement by Dr. Willie Soon". Heartland Institute. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Gillis, Justin (March 2, 2015). "Climate Change Researcher Offers a Defense of His Practices". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- Glenza, Jessica (March 3, 2015). "Energy company could end funding for climate change denier". the Guardian. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- Song, Lisa (March 9, 2015). "Willie Soon's Funding Sources and Disclosure Practices Unusual in Climate Research". InsideClimate News. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
- Dr. Willie Soon: Selected Works, George C. Marshall Institute
- Testimony of Dr. Willie Soon, United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, July 29, 2003
- Willie Soon – Acid Oceans, Osteoporosis of the Sea, and the CO2 Monster, Doctors for Disaster Preparedness Meeting, June 12, 2010
- Willie Soon – Almighty CO2, Giant Boa Snake and the Sun, International Conference on Climate Change, May 22, 2012