Xu Sheng

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Xu Sheng
General of Sun Quan
Born (Unknown)
Died c. 225[1]
Names
Simplified Chinese 徐盛
Traditional Chinese 徐盛
Pinyin Xú Shèng
Wade–Giles Hsü Sheng
Courtesy name Wenxiang (Chinese: 文嚮; pinyin: Wénxiàng; Wade–Giles: Wen-hsiang)

Xu Sheng (died c. 225),[1][2] courtesy name Wenxiang, was a military general serving under the warlord Sun Quan in the late Eastern Han Dynasty and the early Three Kingdoms period.

Early life and career[edit]

Xu Sheng was a native of Ju (莒), Langya (琅邪) commandery, which is in present-day Ju County, Rizhao, Shandong. When chaos broke out in central and northern China towards the end of the Han Dynasty, Xu Sheng moved from his hometown to Wu commandery (吳; capital in present-day Suzhou, Jiangsu) in southern China, where he gained a reputation for his bravery. He was later recruited by the warlord Sun Quan, who controlled much of the territories in Jiangdong at that time. Sun Quan appointed Xu Sheng as a "Major of Separate Command" (別部司馬), placed him in command of 500 troops, and sent him to defend Chaisang (柴桑; southwest of present-day Jiujiang, Jiangxi) from Huang Zu, the Administrator of Jiangxia commandery (江夏郡; capital in present-day Yunmeng County, Xiaogan, Hubei).[3]

Huang Zu once sent his son Huang She (黃射) to lead a few thousand troops to attack Chaisang. At that time, Xu Sheng had less than 200 men with him, so they fired arrows at Huang She's advancing forces and wounded over 1,000 enemy soldiers. Xu Sheng then ordered the city gates to be opened and they charged out and defeated the enemy. Huang She no longer posed a threat to Xu Sheng after that battle. Xu Sheng was promoted to Colonel (校尉) and appointed as Prefect (令) of Wuhu. Later, he defeated some bandits in Nan'e (南阿), Lincheng (臨城), and was promoted to "General of the Household" (中郎將) and was tasked with overseeing a regiment.[4]

Wars with Cao Cao and Liu Bei[edit]

In 213, when Sun Quan's rival Cao Cao led an army to attack Ruxu (濡須; north of present-day Wuwei County, Wuhu, Anhui), Xu Sheng accompanied Sun Quan to the battlefront to resist the enemy, leading to the Battle of Ruxu. Cao Cao launched a heavy assault on Hengjiang (橫江; southeast of present-day He County, Anhui, on the northern shore of the Chang River), so Xu Sheng and Sun Quan's other generals led their forces to defend that position. Due to strong winds, their mengchongs (a type of warship) were blown across the river towards Cao Cao's side. Sun Quan's generals were all terrified and did not dare to land on the enemy's grounds. However, Xu Sheng led his men on a charge towards the enemy, and succeeded in felling a few, driving the rest back. When the winds stopped, Sun Quan's forces returned to their side and Xu Sheng received high praise from his lord.[5]

In 214-215, Sun Quan led his armies to attack Hefei, a strategic fortress defended by Cao Cao's general Zhang Liao, leading to the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford. During an early skirmish, when Sun Quan's forces were just setting up their camps outside Hefei, Zhang Liao suddenly led hundreds of troops on a fierce assault, completely catching the enemy off guard. Xu Sheng was defeated and his men fled, but were coerced into returning to battle after two deserters (one from Xu Sheng's unit and the other from Song Qian's) were executed by Pan Zhang.[6] Xu Sheng lost his mao (矛; a type of long spear) in the earlier clash but his weapon was later retrieved on the battlefield by He Qi.[7] Sun Quan's forces were forced to retreat after a plague broke out, and Sun Quan suffered an unexpected defeat at Xiaoyao Ford, where he arranged an amiss retreat procedure.

Xu Sheng was promoted to "General Who Builds Martial Might" (建武將軍), granted the title of "Marquis of a Chief Village" (都亭侯), appointed as Administrator of Lujiang (廬江太守) and given Lincheng County (臨城縣) as his taxable fief. Between 221-222, when the Battle of Xiaoting broke out between Sun Quan and Liu Bei, Xu Sheng participated in the war and succeeded in capturing many enemy camps and making contributions when Sun Quan's forces launched a counterattack after enduring defeats in earlier engagements.[8]

War with Wei, and death[edit]

In late 222, Cao Pi ordered his general Cao Xiu to lead the Wei armies to attack Dongkou (洞口; present-day Dongkou County, Hunan). In response to the invasion, Xu Sheng, along with Lü Fan and Quan Cong led Sun Quan's forces across the river to defend Dongkou. However, they encountered a storm and many of their troops and ships were lost. Sun Quan's generals were browbeaten because they had lost about half of their ships in the storm, but were overjoyed when they heard of the arrival of He Qi, who actually reached Dongkou behind schedule and was not affected by the disaster. Coincidentally, He Qi was obsessed with luxuries so his ships were finely decorated and his weapons were of top quality. Cao Xiu was shocked when he witnessed the grandeur display of He Qi's refulgent navy so he paused the attack and withdrew. Xu Sheng managed to gather his surviving troops and form a defence line along the shore. A naval battle ensued, during which Cao Xiu targeted Lü Fan while sending his subordinates to attack Xu Sheng. Xu Sheng was outnumbered but he managed to hold his position. Both sides eventually withdrew their forces.[9][10]

In late 224, when Cao Pi mobilised a large army to attack Sun Quan, Xu Sheng suggested to pitch encampments from Jianye (建業; the capital of Sun Quan's domain, in present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu), erect fake towers within each camp, and suspend some warships on the river. Sun Quan's other generals disagreed and felt that such "defences" would serve no purpose, but Xu Sheng ignored them and proceeded with his plan.

Xu Sheng's ruse effectively led to the construction of a "wall" along the river banks that served as a border stretching over hundreds of li. When Cao Pi reached Guangling commandery (廣陵郡; covering parts of present-day Jiangsu), he saw Sun Quan's "strong defences" and the high tide and sighed, "Wei has thousands of armed cavalry units but they cannot be deployed here".[11] He then withdrew his forces. Sun Quan's generals finally recognised Xu Sheng's idea.[12]

Xu Sheng died sometime during the Huangwu era (222-229) in the reign of Sun Quan, before the latter declared himself "Emperor of Eastern Wu". His militia and marquis title were inherited by his son, Xu Kai (徐楷).[13]

Appraisal[edit]

Xu Sheng was known for his confidence and fervent loyalty towards Sun Quan, as demonstrated in the incident when Xing Zhen (邢貞) came to confer the title of "King of Wu" (吳王) on Sun Quan. In 220, Sun Quan became a vassal of the state of Cao Wei, which replaced the Han Dynasty after the Wei founder, Cao Pi, forced Emperor Xian of Han to abdicate the throne to him. Cao Pi sent Xing Zhen as an emissary to meet Sun Quan and confer the title of "King of Wu" (吳王) on the latter. Xing Zhen behaved arrogantly in front of Sun Quan, which incurred much anger from Sun's subjects, including Zhang Zhao and Xu Sheng. Xu Sheng told his colleagues, "Isn't it humiliating to watch our lord submit to Xing Zhen and not be able to serve him with our lives and help him conquer Xuchang, Luoyang and Bashu?" Tears rolled down his face. When Xing Zhen heard Xu Sheng's remark, he told an aide, "It's obvious from the reactions of the subjects of Jiangdong that they will not remain subservient for long."[14] Xing Zhen was right, because in 222, Sun Quan declared independence from Wei but continued ruling his domain under the title "King of Wu" before proclaiming himself "Emperor of Eastern Wu" in 229.

Xu Sheng's self-ego did not always lead to positive actions though. After the Battle of Ruxu in 217, Zhou Tai was appointed as the commander of the garrison at Ruxu, with Xu Sheng and Zhu Ran as his subordinates. However, both of them were unwilling to submit to Zhou Tai's command, citing the latter's humble origins in comparison to their more affluent family backgrounds. When Sun Quan heard about it, he made a personal trip to Ruxu and hosted a party for all the officers there, during which he asked Zhou Tai to display his battle scars for all to see. He later awarded Zhou with an imperial parasol. After that incident, Xu Sheng and Zhu Ran agreed to submit to Zhou Tai's command.[15]

Xu Sheng was also known for his tendency to worry too much. When he was serving as the Prefect of Wuhu, he arrested one of Jiang Qin's subordinates and sought permission from Sun Quan to have that man executed. However, Sun Quan declined because Jiang Qin was away battling bandits in Yuzhang (豫章). Since then, Xu Sheng had been apprehensive of Jiang Qin. During the Battle of Ruxu in 217, Jiang Qin and Lü Meng were placed in charge of military discipline among Sun Quan's forces. Xu Sheng was worried that Jiang Qin might use the opportunity to find fault with him, but much to his surprise, Jiang praised him in front of Sun Quan.[16] When Sun Quan asked Jiang Qin why he did so, Jiang replied that Xu Sheng was "loyal and hardworking, possessed both courage and talent, and was capable of leading thousands of troops".[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Sanguozhi stated that Xu Sheng died sometime during the Huangwu era (222-229) in the reign of Sun Quan. Quote: Sanguozhi vol. 55: (黃武中卒。)
  2. ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 911. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0. 
  3. ^ (徐盛字文嚮,琅邪莒人也。 ... 遭亂,客居吳,以勇氣聞。孫權統事,以為別部司馬,授兵五百人,守柴桑長,拒黃祖。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  4. ^ (祖子射,甞率數千人下攻盛。盛時吏士不滿二百,與相拒擊,傷射吏士千餘人。已乃開門出戰,大破之。射遂絕迹不復為寇。 ... 權以為校尉、蕪湖令。復討臨城南阿山賊有功,徙中郎將,督校兵。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  5. ^ (曹公出濡須,從權禦之。魏甞大出橫江,盛與諸將俱赴討。時乘蒙衝,遇迅風,船落敵岸下,諸將恐懼,未有出者,盛獨將兵,上突斫敵,敵披退走,有所傷殺,風止便還,權大壯之。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  6. ^ (合肥之役,張遼奄至,諸將不備,陳武鬬死,宋謙、徐盛皆披走,璋身次在後,便馳進,橫馬斬謙、盛兵走者二人,兵皆還戰。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  7. ^ (二十年,從權征合肥。時城中出戰,徐盛被創失矛,齊引兵拒擊,得盛所失。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  8. ^ (後遷建武將軍,封都亭侯,領廬江太守,賜臨城縣為奉邑。 ... 劉備次西陵,盛攻取諸屯,所向有功。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  9. ^ (曹休出洞口,盛與呂範、全琮渡江拒守。遭大風,船人多喪,盛收餘兵,與休夾江。休使兵將就船攻盛,盛以少禦多,敵不能克,各引軍退。遷安東將軍,封蕪湖侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  10. ^ (黃武初,魏使曹休來伐,齊以道遠後至,因住新市為拒。會洞口諸軍遭風流溺,所亡中分,將士失色,賴齊未濟,偏軍獨全,諸將倚以為埶。齊性奢綺,尤好軍事,兵甲器械極為精好,所乘船雕刻丹鏤,青蓋絳襜,干櫓戈矛,葩瓜文畫,弓弩矢箭,咸取上材,蒙衝鬬艦之屬,望之若山。休等憚之,遂引軍還。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  11. ^ (魏氏春秋云:文帝歎曰:「魏雖有武騎千羣,無所用也。」) Wei Shi Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  12. ^ (後魏文帝大出,有渡江之志,盛建計從建業築圍,作薄落,圍上設假樓,江中浮船。諸將以為無益,盛不聽,固立之。文帝到廣陵,望圍愕然,彌漫數百里,而江水盛長,便引軍退。諸將乃伏。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  13. ^ (黃武中卒。子楷,襲爵領兵。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  14. ^ (及權為魏稱藩,魏使邢貞拜權為吳王。權出都亭候貞,貞有驕色,張昭旣怒,而盛忿憤,顧謂同列曰:「盛等不能奮身出命,為國家并許洛,吞巴蜀,而令吾君與貞盟,不亦辱乎!」因涕泣橫流。貞聞之,謂其旅曰:「江東將相如此,非乆下人者也。」) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  15. ^ (曹公出濡須,泰復赴擊,曹公退,留督濡須,拜平虜將軍。時朱然、徐盛等皆在所部,並不伏也, ... 於是盛等乃伏。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  16. ^ (初,欽屯宣城,甞討豫章賊。蕪湖令徐盛收欽屯吏,表斬之,權以欽在遠不許,盛由是自嫌於欽。曹公出濡須,欽與呂蒙持諸軍節度。盛常畏欽因事害己,而欽每稱其善。盛旣服德,論者美焉。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  17. ^ (江表傳曰:權謂欽曰:「盛前白卿,卿今舉盛,欲慕祁奚邪?」欽對曰:「臣聞公舉不挾私怨,盛忠而勤彊,有膽略器用,好萬人督也。今大事未定,臣當助國求才,豈敢挾私恨以蔽賢乎!」權嘉之。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 55.