Đakovo concentration camp

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Đakovo concentration camp
Concentration camp
Peace in Heaven 2013 Đakovo Croatia.jpg
Peace in Heaven by Dina Merhav, the monument commemorating the Holocaust victims from Đakovo concentration camp
Location Đakovo, Independent State of Croatia (modern-day Croatia)
Operated by Independent State of Croatia
Original use the mill Cerereale owned by local Catholic bishopric
Operational 1 December 1941 - 7 July 1942
Inmates Jewish women and children
Number of inmates 3,000
Killed at least 516 or 650

The Đakovo concentration camp (Croatian: Đakovo koncentracioni logor) was a concentration camp established in 1941 in Đakovo, Independent State of Croatia (modern-day Croatia). It was established in the deserted flour mill Cereale owned by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Đakovo. The camp was established on 1 December 1941 mainly for Jewish women and children, including some Serb girls. It was operational until its disestablishment on 7 July 1942. Around 3,000 women and children were its inmates and subjected to beatings, rapes, dog attacks and death from sickness and starvation. At least 650 women and children died in it. During the camp's disestablishment, the remaining inmates were transported to other camps and killed.

Establishment[edit]

The Diocese of Đakovo (Bishop Akšamović, canon Dr. Rogić and Ustasha Asandić, the manager of the diocesan estates) did not give its approval for the establishment of the camp in their flour mill with the explanation that the Diocese needed the mill.[1] In spite of their opposition, Ustaše established concentration camp in early December 1941[2] mostly for Jewish women and children, 3,000 of them being inmates of the camp.[3]

Inmates[edit]

The first two transports of inmates brought 1,830 Jewish women and children and 50 Serb girls to Đakovo camp, followed by transport of about 1,200 women and children transported from Stara Gradiška camp on 24 February 1942.[4]

One fifth of inmates were registered as victims of this camp, most of them died after Ustaše took over complete control of the camp[5] on 29 March 1942.[6] They began a terrible terror of camps inmates who were subjected to beatings, death from sickness, starvation, Ustaše threw bread crumbs among starving children and set guard dogs to attack them,[7] girls were raped and killed.[8][9] More than 516 or 650[10] corpses of people who died in Đakovo concentration camp are buried in Đakovo cemetery.[11]

Ustaše forcibly transported hundreds of people infected with typhus from Stara Gradiška to Đakovo camp to spread the disease.[12]

Disestablishment[edit]

The camp was disestablished in period 15 June - 7 July 1942.[13] The disestablishment was organized by Jozo Matković, Ustaše Lieutenant. The remaining inmates numbering between 2,000 and 3,000 Jewish women and children were transported to Jasenovac and killed.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Bulajić 2002, p. 150) The Djakovo Diocese, headed by Bishop Antun Akšamović opposed the use of its mill as a camp for internees and did everything in its power to prevent the establishment of the camp. When the representatives of the Osijek Police Department came to the Djakovo Diocese together with the representatives of the Jewish Community in Osijek to discuss this issue, Bishop Akšamović, canon Dr. Rogic and Ustasha Commander Asandic395, an engineer who managed the diocesan estates, energetically dismissed the pleas of the delegation for allowing the mill to be used to accommodate Jews and set up a camp, with the explanation that the Diocese needed those premises.
  2. ^ (Colić 1973, p. 384): "Logor u Djakovu osnovan je početkom decembra 1941"
  3. ^ (Jelić-Butić 1977, p. 186): "U prosincu 1941. osnovan je logor u Đakovu, namijenjen prvenstveno židovskim ženama i djeci, kojih je bilo oko 3.000."
  4. ^ (Bulatović 1990, p. 73): "U prva dva transporta stiglo je u logor Đakovo 1830 jevrejskih žena i djece i 50 srpskih djevojaka."
  5. ^ (Centar 1984, p. 217): " Broj evidentiranih logorskih žrtava sahranjenih na Jevrejskom groblju u Đakovu iznosio je peti dio od ukupnog broja zatočenih. Uzme li se u obzir da je najveći dio logorašica stradao neposredno nakon što su ustaše preuzele upravu logora, ..."
  6. ^ (Švob 2004, p. 318): "Mjesec dana nakon dolaska transporta iz Stare Gradiške, 29.3.1942. ustaše preuzimaju logor."
  7. ^ (Council 1998, p. 69): "Often the children were subjected to whatever cruelty the whim of the Ustashi dictated. In the Djakovo camp, the Ustashi amused themselves by throwing bread crumbs among the starving children and then setting guard dogs on them."
  8. ^ (Švob 2004, p. 318): "Nastao je strašan teror, premlaćivanje, umiranje od bolesti, izgladnjivanje, napadanje djece psima, prisiljavanje ....."
  9. ^ (Bulajić 2002, p. 174): "The second phase of the Djakovo camp, where after a short while the number of prisoners reached around three thousand, which was far beyond available space, was launched on 24 February 1942, when the Ustasha took full control of the camp. The treatment of prisoners was real hell."
  10. ^ (ABSEES 1973, p. 267):" JEWS Some 65O women and children, buried in the Djakovo Jewish cemetery, died in the local ustasi concentration camp between December 19^1 and June 19^2, deported there mainly from other towns of Bosnia and Herzegovina."
  11. ^ (Bulatović 1990, p. 74)
  12. ^ (Arsdale 2006, p. 72): "hundreds of typhus infected inmates from the Stara Gradiska camp were forcibly transported to another camp near Djakovo so as to spread the infection."
  13. ^ (Goldstein 2001, p. 324): "U razdoblju od 15. lipnja do 7. srpnja 1942. likvidiran je koncentracioni logor u Đakovu"
  14. ^ (Basta 1986, p. 176): "Posebno ističem da je u početku ljeta izvršena u Jasenovcu likvidacija logorg Đakovo. Tom je likvidacijom rukovodio Joso Matković, ustaški poručnik. Kod te likvidacije logora Đakovo računam da je pobijeno oko 2-3 hiljade Židovki i njihove ..."

Sources[edit]

Coordinates: 45°11′01″N 18°14′37″E / 45.1836°N 18.2436°E / 45.1836; 18.2436