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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|101 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||101 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||653|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 223|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy X Alexander, 7|
|Ancient Greek era||169th Olympiad, year 4|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)|
2596 or 2536
— to —
庚辰年 (Metal Dragon)
2597 or 2537
|Coptic calendar||−384 – −383|
|Ethiopian calendar||−108 – −107|
|- Vikram Samvat||−44 – −43|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||3000–3001|
|Iranian calendar||722 BP – 721 BP|
|Islamic calendar||744 BH – 743 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2012 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||211/212 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||442–443|
26 or −355 or −1127
— to —
27 or −354 or −1126
Year 101 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Marius and Aquillius (or, less frequently, year 653 Ab urbe condita) and the Fourth Year of Taichu. The denomination 101 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- July 30 – Battle of Vercellae (Battle of the Raudine Plain or Battle of Campi Raudii): The Roman consuls Gaius Marius and Manius Aquillius defeat the Cimbri.
- Ptolemy Apion inherits the kingdom of Cyrenaica.
- War of the Heavenly Horses: Han general Li Guangli detaches forces to attack Yucheng. After a failed attack by Wang Shengshen and Hu Chongguo, in which Wang is killed, a new Han detachment under Shangguan Jie defeats and captures the king of Yucheng. The king is then killed by the soldiers escorting him to Li Guangli.
- Han-Xiongnu War: At the beginning of the year, Xulihu Chanyu dies from illness and is succeeded by Qiedihou Chanyu. Qiedihou releases the Han envoys detained by the Xiongnu and receives gifts from Emperor Wu of Han.
- Boiorix, king of the Cimbri (killed at the Battle of Vercellae)
- Cleopatra III, queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom (assassinated by her son Ptolemy X Alexander I)
- ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 201–202. ISBN 978-1628944167.
- ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 208. ISBN 978-1628944167.