1033 Fez massacre

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1033 Fez massacre
1033 Fez massacre is located in Morocco
1033 Fez massacre
The location of Fez, Morocco
LocationFez, Morocco
Date1033 AD
TargetMoroccan Jews
Deaths6,000+ Jews
PerpetratorsMuslim Zenata Berber tribe of Banu Ifran

The 1033 Fez massacre was an event where, following their conquest of the city from the Maghrawa tribe, the forces of Abu'l Kamal Tamim,[1] chief of the Banu Ifran tribe, perpetrated a massacre of Jews in Fez in an anti-Jewish pogrom.

The city of Fez in Morocco had been contested between the Zenata Berber tribes of Miknasa, Maghrawa and Banu Ifran for the previous half century, in the aftermath of the fall of the Idrisid dynasty.[1] In 1033, according to Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406), Abu'l Kamal Tamim, the Banu Ifran chief, was lord of Salé on the Atlantic coast, while Fez was under the control of Hammama, chief of the Maghrawa.[2]

Tamim's forces killed over six thousand Jews, appropriated their belongings, and captured the Jewish women of the city.[3][4][5][6] The killings took place in the month of Jumaada al-Akhir 424 AH (May–June 1033 AD).[3] The killings have been called a "pogrom" by some modern writers.[7][8]

After fleeing east to Oujda and rallying the Maghrawa forces, Hammama recaptured Fez in 1037–1038, forcing Tamim to flee to Salé.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Brill, E. J. (1993). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936. BRILL. p. 77. ISBN 978-90-04-09789-6.
  2. ^ a b Khaldūn, Ibn (1856) [14th century]. Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale (in French). Translated by Baron de Slane. Imprimerie du Gouvernement. pp. 251–252.
  3. ^ a b Assaleh, Abu-Mohammed (1828). Historia dos soberanos mohametanos: das primeiras quatro dysnastias e de parte da quinta, que reinarao na Mauritania. Jozé de Santo Antonio Moura (trans.). Lisbon: Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa. p. 117. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
  4. ^ Moura, Jozé de Santo Antonio (1827). "Memoria sobre as dinastias mohammetanas, que tem reinado na Mauritania, com a serie chronologica dos soberanos de cada huma dellas". Memórias de Academia das Ciências de Lisboa. Lisbon: Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa. pp. 47–140. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
  5. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1976). Jewish History Atlas (2nd ed.). Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 22. ISBN 9780297772590.
  6. ^ Boum, Aomar; Park, Thomas K. (2016). "Maghrawa Dynasty". Historical Dictionary of Morocco. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 319. ISBN 978-1-4422-6297-3.
  7. ^ Morris, Jan (1959). The Hashemite kings. Pantheon. p. 85
  8. ^ Beker, Avi (1998). Jewish communities of the world. Lerner Publications. p. 203. ISBN 0-8225-1934-8.