Cham–Annamese War (1471)

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Cham–Annamese War of 1471
Date 1471
Location Champa, Annam
Result Annam victory
Belligerents
Champa Annam
Commanders and leaders
P'an-Lo T'ou-Ts'iuan (POW)[1] Lê Thánh Tông
Strength
100,000 including elephant corps 300,000
Casualties and losses
60,000

The Cham-Vietnamese War of 1471 began when Emperor Lê Thánh Tông of Annam launched a military expedition that is widely regarded as marking the downfall of Champa. The Vietnamese forces attacked and sacked the capital Vijaya, and decimated the Cham army. As a result of the conflict, Champa was forced to cede territory to Vietnam and from thereafter ceased to pose a threat to Vietnamese territory.

Invasion[edit]

The Chams' earlier attack on Angkor led the Khmers to ignore the Chams' request for assistance when Vietnam invaded.[2]

The Cham feared an imminent Vietnamese attack, and requested that Ming China bring the Vietnamese back in line by force and clearly demarcate the border between Champa and Vietnam. China only verbally rebuked the Vietnamese for their invasions, which the Vietnamese ignored, proceeding to attack and destroy the Cham.[3]

The Vietnamese then readied their forces for war. On November 28,[4] 1470, Le Thanh Tong formally launched his attack as a 100,000-strong Vietnamese naval expedition set out that day, followed by another Vietnamese army consisting of 150,000 men on December 8.[5]

The Vietnamese army was reorganized to copy the Chinese army, with gunpowder weapons. Le Thanh Tong raised a 300,000-strong army which outnumbered the 100,000-strong Cham army, although at a massive financial cost which drained the Vietnamese treasury of 1,000 gold liang each day.[6]

Aftermath[edit]

The Vietnamese conducted a genocide campaign against the Cham, slaughtering 60,000 when taking the capital. The Vietnamese committed arson and theft and burned massive parts of Champa, seizing the entire country. The Cham told the Chinese that "Annam destroyed our country". The Chinese Ming Dynasty records record the Vietnamese destruction of Champa. The Vietnamese enslaved several thousand Cham and enacted forced assimilation of Vietnamese culture onto Chams. The Chams informed the Chinese that they continued to fight against the Vietnamese occupation of their land, which had been turned into the 13th province of Vietnam.[7]

The Chinese government sent a censor, Ch'en Chun, to Champa in 1474 to install the Champa King, but he discovered Vietnamese soldiers had taken over Champa and were blocking his entry. He proceeded to Malacca instead and its ruler sent back tribute to China.[8] Malacca sent envoys to China again in 1481 to inform the Chinese that while going back to Malacca in 1469 from a trip to China, the Vietnamese attacked them, castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was in control of Champa and also that the Vietnamese sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back due to lack of permission from the Chinese to engage in war. The Chinese Emperor scolded them, ordering the Malaccans to strike back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked.[9][10]

The Champa kingdom was destroyed by the invasion, leaving small rump states which lasted until 1832, when Vietnamese emperor Minh Mang initiated the final conquest of the remnants of Champa. Around 162,000 Cham remain in Vietnam today.[11]

The trade in Vietnamese ceramics was damaged due to the plummet in trade by Cham merchants after the invasion.[12]

The Chinese scholar 吳樸 Wu Pu recommended that to help stop the Vietnamese, China should help resuscitate the Champa Kingdom.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nick Ray; Peter Dragicevich; Regis St. Louis (2007). Vietnam. Lonely Planet. pp. 278–. ISBN 978-1-74104-306-8.  Vietnam: A Travel Survival Kit. Lonely Planet Publications. 2007. p. 278.  Daniel Robinson; Robert Storey (1 September 1993). Vietnam: a travel survival kit. Lonely Planet. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-86442-197-5. 
  2. ^ Oscar Chapuis (1995). A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 46. ISBN 0-313-29622-7. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  3. ^ Denis Crispin Twitchett, John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8. Cambridge University Press. p. 318. ISBN 0-521-24333-5. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  4. ^ Moose, Christina J. Great events from history: The Renaissance & early modern era, 1454-1600. Salem Press, 2005; p. 4 & 83
  5. ^ Nhung Tuyet Tran, Anthony Reid. Vịêt Nam: borderless histories. University of Wisconsin Press, Aug 29, 2006; p. 100
  6. ^ Ben Kiernan (2009). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-300-14425-3. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  7. ^ Ben Kiernan (2009). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-300-14425-3. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  8. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost (1887). Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1. LONDON: Trübner & Co. p. 251. Retrieved 2011-01-09. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  9. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost (1887). Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1. LONDON: Trübner & Co. p. 252. Retrieved 2011-01-09. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  10. ^ Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  11. ^ Oscar Chapuis (1995). A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 46. ISBN 0-313-29622-7. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  12. ^ Angela Schottenhammer; Roderich Ptak (2006). The Perception of Maritime Space in Traditional Chinese Sources. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-3-447-05340-2. 
  13. ^ http://www.eacrh.net/ojs/index.php/crossroads/article/view/43/Vol8_Yamazaki_html
  •  This article incorporates text from Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost, a publication from 1887 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost, a publication from 1887 now in the public domain in the United States.