1739 in music
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- March 27 Johann Sebastian Bach performs the Brockes-Passion TWV 5: 1 at St. Nicholas Church, Leipzig.
- September – Leopold Mozart is expelled from the Benedictine University of Salzburg for poor attendance.
- 1739–1749 Bach revises his St John Passion BWV 245 (BC D 2e)--version never performed during his lifetime (version we know today).
- 1739–1742 Bach starts revising some of his Weimar period Chorale preludes in a new manuscript (the so-called Great Eighteen Chorale Preludes BWV 651-668). Included at this period are BWV 651–663. The manuscript would also contain his Sonatas BWV 525–530 (1727–1732) and also his Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her" BWV 769 (1747).
- Johann Sebastian Bach – Clavier Übung, book 3, a collection of organ music
- George Frederic Handel – Israel in Egypt, an oratorio, premièred in London
- Domenico Alberti — Olimpiade
- Leonardo Leo — La Finta Frascatana (also known as Amor vuol sofferenze)
- Giovanni Battista Pescetti — Angelica e Medoro
- Pietro Pulli — Il carnevale e la pazzia
- Jean-Philippe Rameau
- Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer — Zaïde, reine de Grenade
- May 12 – Johann Baptist Wanhal, composer (died 1813)
- August 28 – Agostino Accorimboni, opera composer (died 1818)
- September 7 or 8 – Joseph Legros, singer and composer (died 1793)
- October 24 – Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, composer (died 1807)
- November 2 – Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, composer (died 1799)
- November 5 – Hugh Montgomerie, 12th Earl of Eglinton, politician and composer (died 1819)
- April 25 – Santiago de Murcia, guitarist and composer (born 1673)
- May 9 – Carlo Ignazio Monza, composer (born c. 1680)
- May 27 – Johann Gottfried Bernhard Bach, organist, son of Johann Sebastian Bach (born 1715)
- July 24 – Benedetto Marcello, composer (born 1686)
- September 12 – Reinhard Keiser, composer (born 1674)
- date unknown – Antonio Bioni, opera composer (born 1698)
- probable – Jean-Adam Guilain, organist and harpsichordist (born c. 1680)