1913 in science
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- February 9 – Meteor procession of February 9, 1913 visible along a great circle arc 6,040 miles (9,720 km) across the Americas. Astronomer Clarence Chant concludes that the source was a small, short-lived natural satellite of the Earth.
- Berlin Observatory moves to Babelsberg.
- February – Daniel J. O'Conor and Herbert A. Faber file for a United States patent on the composite plastic laminate Formica.
- Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and Lafayette Mendel and Thomas Burr Osborne at Yale University independently discover Vitamin A.
- Protactinium is first identified by Oswald Helmuth Göhring and Kasimir Fajans.
- Henry Moseley shows that nuclear charge is the real basis for numbering the elements and discovers a systematic relation between wavelength and atomic number by using x-ray spectra obtained by diffraction in crystals. Frederick Soddy proposes that isotopes (a term which he introduces) may have differing atomic weights.
- J. J. Thomson shows that charged subatomic particles can be separated by their mass-to-charge ratio, the technique known as mass spectrometry.
- The Bergius process was first developed and patented by German chemist Friedrich Bergius in 1913.
History of science
- March – First publication of Isis, the journal of the history of science edited by George Sarton, in Ghent.
- Pierre Duhem begins publication of Le Système du Monde: Histoire des Doctrines cosmologiques de Platon à Copernic in Paris.
- March 6 – First publication of Ludwig Wittgenstein's philosophy of mathematics, a polemical review of Peter Coffey's The Science of Logic written in 1912 when Wittgenstein was an undergraduate studying with Bertrand Russell.
- Publication of the 3rd volume of Principia Mathematica by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell, one of the most important and seminal works in mathematical logic and philosophy.
- Émile Borel first states the infinite monkey theorem in the way it will subsequently become known.
- William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg work out the Bragg condition for strong X-ray reflection.
- Niels Bohr presents his quantum model of the atom.
- William Crookes creates sunglass lenses.
- Robert Millikan measures the fundamental unit of electric charge.
- Georges Sagnac demonstrates the Sagnac effect, showing that light propagates at a speed independent of the speed of its source.
- Johannes Stark demonstrates that strong electric fields will split the Balmer spectral line series of hydrogen.
Physiology and medicine
- Nikolay Anichkov first demonstrates the significance and role of cholesterol in atherosclerosis pathogenesis.
- Albert Schweitzer sets up the Albert Schweitzer Hospital at Lambaréné in French Equatorial Africa.
- John B. Watson publishes the article "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" — sometimes called "The Behaviorist Manifesto".
- April 29 – Swedish American engineer Gideon Sundback of Hoboken, New Jersey, patents the all-purpose zipper.
- May 26 (May 13 O.S.) – Igor Sikorsky flies the world's first 4-engine fixed-wing aircraft, his Bolshoi Baltisky biplane, near Saint Petersburg.
- August – Invention of stainless steel by Harry Brearley in Sheffield, England (concurrent with the invention of another type in the United States by Elwood Haynes).
- French inventor René Lorin patents the ramjet, but attempts to build a prototype fail due to inadequate materials.
- Die Naturwissenschaften first published by Die Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.
- Journal of Ecology first published.
- January 31 – Murray Bowen (died 1990), American psychiatrist and pioneer of family therapy.
- February 28 – David Hawkins (died 2002), American philosopher of science and mathematics and science educator.
- March 2 – Georgy Flyorov (died 1990), Russian physicist who is known for his discovery of the spontaneous fission.
- March 26 – Paul Erdős (died 1996), Hungarian mathematician.
- April 20 – Willi Hennig (died 1976), German entomologist and pioneer of cladistics.
- April 30 – Genevieve Grotjan Feinstein (died 2006), American mathematician and cryptanalyst.
- May 13 – Erich Lackner (died 1992), Austrian-born German civil engineer.
- June 10 – Edward Abraham (died 1999), English biochemist.
- August 20 – Roger Wolcott Sperry (died 1994), American neuropsychologist, neurobiologist and Nobel laureate.
- August 22 – Bruno Pontecorvo (died 1993), Italian-born physicist.
- October 10 – Remy Chauvin (died 2009), French biologist and entomologist.
- November 12 – Joel Elkes (died 2015), Königsberg-born pharmacologist.
- January 2 – Léon Teisserenc de Bort (born 1855), French meteorologist.
- January 18 – George Alexander Gibson (born 1854), Scottish physician and geologist.
- February 20 – Robert von Lieben (born 1878), Austrian physicist.
- April 14 – Carl Hagenbeck (born 1844), German zoologist.
- April 26 – Sigismond Jaccoud (born 1830), Swiss-born French physician.
- May 28 – John Lubbock (born 1834), English naturalist and archaeologist.
- August 3 – Josephine Cochrane (born 1839), American inventor of the first commercially successful dishwasher.
- September 29 – Rudolf Diesel (born 1858), German mechanical engineer (lost overboard this night).
- November 7 – Alfred Russel Wallace (born 1823), British biologist.
- Chant, C. (1913). "An Extraordinary Meteoric Display". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 7: 145–19. Bibcode:1913JRASC...7..145C.
- O'Keefe, J. A. (1991). "The Cyrillid Shower: Remnant of a Circumterrestrial Ring?". Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 22: 995. Bibcode:1991LPI....22..995O.
- "Our Legacy – Early Years". Formica Corporation. Archived from the original on 2011-03-24. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
- Original papers published in Journal of Biological Chemistry. Rosenfeld, Louis (April 1997). "Vitamine—vitamin: The early years of discovery". Clinical Chemistry. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. 43 (4): 680–685.
- Weisstein, Eric W. (1996). "Moseley, Henry (1887–1915)". Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography. Wolfram Research Products. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "Frederick Soddy: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901–1921. Elsevier. 1966. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "Early Mass Spectrometry". A History of Mass Spectrometry. Scripps Center for Mass Spectrometry. 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-03-03. Retrieved 2007-03-26.
- "Review". The Cambridge Review. 34 (853): 351.
- Borel, Émile (1913). "Mécanique statistique et irréversibilité". Journal de Physique, 5e série. 3: 189–196.
- Bohr, N. (1913). "On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules" (PDF). Philosophical Magazine. Series 6. London. 26: 1–25. doi:10.1080/14786441308634955. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- Bohr, N. (1913). "Part II – Systems containing only a Single Nucleus" (PDF). Philosophical Magazine. 26: 476–502. doi:10.1080/14786441308634993. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- "Niels Bohr: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1922–1941. Elsevier. 1966. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sagnac, Georges (1913). Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. 157: 708–710. .
- Sagnac, Georges (1913). . Comptes rendus. 157: 1410–1413.
- Quintin, M. (1996). "Qui a découvert la fluorescence X ?". Journal de Physique IV. 6 (4). Retrieved 2012-06-21.
- Anitschkow, N.; Chalatow, S. (1983). "On experimental cholesterin steatosis and its significance in the origin of some pathological processes". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 3: 178–182. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.3.2.178. Originally published 1913 in Centralblatt für allgemeine Pathologie und pathologische Anatomie (in German) XXIV: 1-9.
- Psychological Review 20: pp. 158-177.
- Sikorsky, Sergei I. (2007). The Sikorsky Legacy. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-7385-4995-8. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
- Oakes, Elizabeth H., ed. (2007). "Sikorsky, Igor". Encyclopedia of World Scientists (Rev. ed.). Infobase Publishing. p. 667.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. p. 94. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Zucker, Robert D.; Biblarz, Oscar (2002). Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-05967-6.
- "Paul Erdős - Hungarian mathematician". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 21 February 2018.