1911 in science
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- June 28 – The Nakhla meteorite (from Mars) lands in the area of Alexandria, Egypt, purportedly killing a dog.
- May 19 – Parks Canada, the world's first national park service, is established as the Dominion Parks Branch under the Department of the Interior.
- July 7 – The United States, Russia, the United Kingdom and Japan, meeting in Washington, D.C., sign the North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911, prohibiting open-water seal hunting of the endangered fur seal in the North Pacific Ocean, the first international treaty to address wildlife conservation issues. In the next six years, the seal population increases by 30%.
- January 3 – 1911 Kebin earthquake: An earthquake of 7.7 moment magnitude strikes near Almaty in Russian Turkestan.
- December 14 – Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen and a team of four become the first people to reach the South Pole.
- Robert Remak's doctoral dissertation Über die Zerlegung der endlichen Gruppen in indirekte unzerlegbare Faktoren establishes that any two decompositions of a finite group into a direct product are related by a central automorphism.
- Eugen Bleuler expands on his definition of schizophrenia as a condition distinct from Dementia praecox, in Dementia Praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien.
- April 8 – Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovers the phenonomena of superconductivity.
- June 24–30 – Domenico Pacini runs a series of measurements of underwater ionization in the Gulf of Genoa, demonstrating that the radiation later recognised as cosmic rays cannot be originated by the Earth's crust.
- October – The first Solvay Congress of physicists convenes.
- Ernest Rutherford explains the Geiger–Marsden experiment and derives the Rutherford cross section by deducing the existence of a compact atomic nucleus from scattering experiments. He proposes the Rutherford model of the atom and demonstrates that J. J. Thomson's plum pudding model is incorrect.
- Charles Wilson finishes a sophisticated cloud chamber.
- The Ponzo illusion, a geometrical-optical illusion, is first demonstrated by Italian psychologist Mario Ponzo.
- January 18 – Eugene Ely lands on the deck of the USS Pennsylvania anchored in San Francisco Bay, the first aircraft landing on a ship.
- June 5 – Charles F. Kettering files a United States patent for an electric starter motor.
- November 4 – MS Selandia, the first large ocean-going diesel ship, is launched in Denmark; Ivar Knudsen is the diesel engineer. The 1909-launched Dutch diesel tanker Vulcanus also enters service this year.
- John Joseph Rawlings files a United Kingdom patent for a wall plug.
- The Lewis automatic light machine gun is invented by United States Army Colonel Isaac Newton Lewis, based on initial work by Samuel Maclean.
- March–May – A serialized version of Frederick Winslow Taylor's monograph, The Principles of Scientific Management appears in The American Magazine, boosting the efficiency movement.
- January 26 – Polykarp Kusch (died 1993), German-born winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics.
- February 14 – Willem Johan Kolff (died 2009), Dutch inventor of hemodialysis.
- March 26 – Bernard Katz (died 2003), German-born winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- April 3 – Michael Woodruff (died 2001), English pioneer of organ transplant surgery.
- April 6 – Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen (died 1979), German winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- April 8 – Melvin Calvin (died 1997), American winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- April 16 – William T. Stearn (died 2001), English botanist.
- April 18 – Maurice Goldhaber (died 2011), Austrian-born physicist.
- May 22 – Anatol Rapoport (died 2007), Russian-born mathematical psychologist.
- June 13 – Luis Alvarez (died 1988), American winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics.
- June 25 – William Howard Stein (died 1980), American winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- July 4 – Frederick Seitz (died 2008), American solid-state physicist.
- July 5 – Emil L. Smith (died 2009), American biochemist who studied protein structure and function as well as biochemical evolution.
- July 9 – John A. Wheeler (died 2008), American theoretical physicist.
- August 9 – William A. Fowler (died 1995), American winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics.
- September 29 – R. V. Jones (died 1997), English physicist, expert in electronic military defence.
- October 5 – Pierre Dansereau (died 2011), French Canadian ecologist.
- November 27 – Fe del Mundo (died 2011), Filipino pediatrician and National Scientist of the Philippines.
- December 23 – Niels Kaj Jerne (died 1994), English-born Danish winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- January 17 – Sir Francis Galton (born 1822), English explorer and biologist.
- March 1 – Jacobus van 't Hoff (born 1852), Dutch chemist.
- May 21 – Williamina Fleming (born 1857), American astronomer.
- May 24 – Ernst Remak (born 1849), German neurologist.
- June 26 - Signe Häggman (born 1863), Finnish pioneer of physical education of the disabled.
- December 2 – George Davidson (born 1825), English-born geodesist, astronomer, geographer, surveyor and engineer in the United States.
- December 10 – Joseph Dalton Hooker (born 1817), English botanist.
- December 13 (O.S. November 30) – Nikolay Beketov (born 1827), Russian chemist.
- "The Nakhla Meteorite". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
- "Seal Treaty Signed". The New York Times. 1911-07-08.
- Oda, Shigeru (1989). International Control of Sea Resources. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 76.
- "Thousands Dead Or Hurt In Earthquake". Pittsburgh Press. 5 January 1911. p. 1.
- Stotz-Ingenlath, Gabriele (2000). "Epistemological aspects of Eugen Bleuler's conception of schizophrenia in 1911" (PDF). Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. 3 (2): 153–9. doi:10.1023/A:1009919309015. PMID 11079343. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- "Eugen Bleuler". Whonamedit?. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Zilboorg, Gregory (1941). A History of Medical Psychology. New York: Norton.
- He presents his findings on April 28. van Delft, Dirk; Kes, Peter (September 2010). "The discovery of superconductivity". Physics Today. 63 (9): 38–43. Bibcode:2010PhT....63i..38V. doi:10.1063/1.3490499. Retrieved 2013-04-08.
- Ponzo, M. (1911). "Intorno ad alcune illusioni nel campo delle sensazioni tattili sull'illusione di Aristotele e fenomeni analoghi". Archives Italiennes de Biologie.
- No. 1,150,523.
- "Rawlplug History". Rawlplug. 2007. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- Skennerton, Ian (2001). Small Arms Identification Series No. 14: .303 Lewis Machine Gun. Gold Coast, QLD (Australia): Arms & Militaria Press. p. 5. ISBN 0-949749-42-7.