|Big Bayou Canot rail accident|
|Date||September 22, 1993 |
|Location||Mobile, Alabama, U.S.|
|Cause||Barge collision with bridge / wrong design|
On September 22, 1993, an Amtrak passenger train, Sunset Limited derailed on the CSX Transportation Big Bayou Canot Bridge near Mobile, Alabama, United States. It was caused by displacement of a span and deformation of the rails when a tow of heavy barges collided with the rail bridge eight minutes earlier. Forty-seven people were killed and 103 more were injured. To date, it is the deadliest train wreck in both Amtrak's history and Alabama's railway history. It is also the worst rail disaster in the United States since the 1958 Newark Bay rail accident, in which 48 people died.
Immediately prior to the accident, a barge being pushed by the towboat Mauvilla (owned and operated by Warrior and Gulf Navigation of Chickasaw, Alabama) had made a wrong turn on the Mobile River and entered the Big Bayou Canot, an un-navigable channel of water crossed by a CSX Transportation rail bridge.
The towboat's pilot, Willie Odom, was not properly trained on how to read his radar and so, due to very poor visibility in heavy fog and his lack of experience, did not realize he was off course. The boat also lacked a compass and a chart of the waters. Odom believed that he was still on the Mobile River and had identified the bridge in the radar as another tug boat. After the investigation, he was not found to be criminally liable for the accident.
The bridge was struck by the Mauvilla at about 2:45 a.m. The span had been designed to rotate so it could be converted to a swing bridge by adding suitable equipment. No such conversion had ever been performed but the span had not been adequately secured against unintended movement. The collision forced the unsecured end of the bridge span approximately 3 feet (1 m) out of alignment and severely kinked the track.
At 2:53 a.m., Amtrak's Sunset Limited train, powered by three locomotives (one GE Genesis P40DC number 819 in the front and two EMD F40PHs, numbers 262 and 312) en route from Los Angeles, California, to Miami, Florida, with 220 passengers and crew aboard, crossed the bridge at around 70 miles per hour (110 km/h) and derailed at the kink. The first of its three locomotives slammed into the displaced span, causing that part of the bridge to collapse into the water beneath. The lead locomotive embedded itself nose-first into the canal bank and the other two locomotives, together with the baggage car, sleeping car and two of the six passenger cars, plunged into the water. The locomotives' fuel tanks, each of which held several thousand gallons of diesel fuel, ruptured upon impact, resulting in a massive fuel spill and a fire. Forty-seven people, 42 of whom were passengers, were killed – many by drowning, others by fire/smoke inhalation. Another 103 were injured. The towboat's four crew members were not injured. Odom helped save seventeen people after the crash using the same towboat that had been pushing the barge that hit the bridge.
Despite the displacement of the bridge, the continuously welded rails did not break. As a result, the track circuit controlling the bridge approach block signals remained closed (intact) and the nearest signal continued to display a clear (green) aspect. Had one of the rails been severed by the bridge's displacement, the track circuit would have opened, causing the approach signal to display a stop (red) aspect and the preceding signal a yellow (caution) approach indication. This might have given the Amtrak engineer sufficient time to stop his train or at least reduce its speed in an effort to minimize the accident's severity.
The National Geographic documentary program Seconds From Disaster also examined the accident. In addition to corroborating findings of the official accident report, the program revealed that the train had been delayed in New Orleans by repairs to an air conditioner unit and a toilet. This had put it a half-hour behind schedule. If not for this delay, the Sunset Limited would have passed over the Big Bayou Canot bridge twenty minutes before the bridge was hit by the barge.
As a result of its investigation of this accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made a comprehensive series of recommendations, on September 19, 1994, to the U.S. Department of Transportation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Coast Guard, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Amtrak, the American Waterways Operators, Inc., the Warrior & Gulf Navigation Company, the Association of American Railroads, and the American Short Line Railroad Association. Following a recommendation to maintain a record of onboard passenger numbers, Amtrak now records passenger lists electronically.
- Eleven-year-old wheelchair user Andrea Chancey, the "miracle child" with cerebral palsy whose parents both died in the crash.
- Ken Ivory and Michael Dopheide, honored by the Coast Guard for saving lives after the crash.
- Christian theologian R. C. Sproul, who discussed his experience of the crash on occasion.
- "Derailment of Amtrak Train NO. 2 on the CSXT Big Bayou Canot Bridge Accident Report". National Transportation Safety Board. September 19, 1994. Archived from the original on March 18, 2021. Retrieved February 6, 2018. - See copy of the entire report at the U.S. Department of Transportation.
- Labaton, Stephen (June 22, 1994). "Barge Pilot Blamed in Fatal Amtrak Wreck". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
- "No Criminal Liability Is Found in Amtrak Bayou Derailment". Los Angeles Times. March 26, 1994. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
- Wreck of the Sunset Limited episode of 'Seconds from Disaster', at IMDb, 10 August 2004
- Wreck of the Sunset Limited. National Geographic. Archived from the original on 2019-04-18. Retrieved September 2, 2015 – via YouTube.
- "25 years later: Sunset Limited crash survivor relives each new Amtrak accident". Pensacola News Journal. September 15, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
- Sproul, R. C. (October 25, 2010). "Train Wreck". Ligonier Ministries. Archived from the original on September 14, 2022. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- Holloway, David Mobile Press-Register 200th Anniversary: Sunset Limited train wreck memories not diminished by passing years at al.com, 1 July 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2014
- Sproul, R. C. Train Wreck Eyewitness account of aftermath, at Ligonier Ministries blog. Retrieved 3 June 2014
- Summary and photos at Trainweb.org. Retrieved 3 June 2014
- Graphical re-enactment of accident cause at TMBA Inc Animation Studio, New York. Retrieved 3 June 2014
- U.S. Coast Guard: The short film Aerial and Boat Views of Amtrak Train Derailment, Mobile, Alabama (1993) is available for free viewing and download at the Internet Archive.