2MASS J04414489+2301513

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2MASS J04414489+2301513
Brown dwarf 2M J044144 and planet.jpg
2MASS J04414489+2301513 is a brown dwarf with a companion about 5–10 times the mass of Jupiter.
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Taurus
2MASS J04414489+2301513
Right ascension 04h 41m 44.898s[1]
Declination +23° 01′ 51.39″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V)
2MASS J04414565+2301580
Right ascension 04h 41m 45.652s[1]
Declination +23° 01′ 58.07″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 15.20[2]
Spectral type M8.5[3]
Distance 470 ± 50 ly
(145 ± 15[4] pc)
2MASS J04414565+2301580
Proper motion (μ) RA: 5.6[2] mas/yr
Dec.: −22.1[2] mas/yr
2MASS J04414489+2301513
Mass 19 ± 3 / 9.8 ± 1.8[4] MJup
Luminosity 0.00347 / 0.00093[4] L
Temperature 2100 / 1800[4] K
Age 1[3] Myr
2MASS J04414565+2301580
Mass 0.20+1.0
 M / 35 ± 5[4] MJup
Luminosity 0.14 / 0.00741[4] L
Temperature 3400 / 2800[4] K
Age 1[3] Myr
Other designations
WDS J04417+2302AB
Database references
SIMBAD 2M J044144
2M J044145

2MASS J04414489+2301513 (often abbreviated as 2M J044144) is a young brown dwarf approximately 470 light years (145 parsecs) away with an orbiting companion about 5–10 times the mass of Jupiter.[5] The mass of the primary brown dwarf is roughly 20 times the mass of Jupiter and its age is roughly one million years.[3]

It is not clear whether this companion object is a sub-brown dwarf or a planet. The companion is very large with respect to its parent brown dwarf, and must have formed within 1 million years or so. This seems to be too big and too fast to form like a regular planet from a disk around the central object.[3]

The 2MASS J04414489+2301513 system
Companion Mass Observed separation
Discovery year
b 7.5 ± 2.5 MJ 15 ± 0.6 2010

2MASS J04414489+2301513 has another companion, 2MASS J04414565+2301580 (abbreviated as 2M J044145), which is another binary star. At a separation of 0.23 arcseconds to the northeast, it has a similar proper motion to 2M J044144 and is likely physically associated with the system.[6] The primary component has a spectral type of M4.5 and a red apparent magnitude of 14.2.[4] Both components seem to be accreting mass from their stellar disks, as shown by their emission lines.[4] The four stars have a total mass of only 26% of the Sun, making it the quadruple star system with the lowest mass known.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Cutri, R. M.; et al. (2003). "2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources". VizieR On-line Data Catalog. 2246. Bibcode:2003yCat.2246....0C. 
  2. ^ a b c Zacharias, N. (2012). "The fourth US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog. 1322. Bibcode:2012yCat.1322....0Z. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Todorov, K.; Luhman, K. L.; McLeod, K. K. (2010). "Discovery of a Planetary-Mass Companion to a Brown Dwarf in Taurus". The Astrophysical Journal. 714: L84. arXiv:1004.0539Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/714/1/L84. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bowler, Brendan P.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. (2015). "Near-infrared Spectroscopy of 2M0441+2301 AabBab: A Quadruple System Spanning the Stellar to Planetary Mass Regimes". The Astrophysical Journal. 811 (2): L30. arXiv:1509.01658Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...811L..30B. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/811/2/L30. 
  5. ^ "Hubble spots giant planet orbiting tiny star". USA Today. 2010-04-07. Retrieved 2013-02-24. 
  6. ^ Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L.; Konopacky, Q. M.; McLeod, K. K.; Apai, D.; Ghez, A. M.; Pascucci, I.; Robberto, M. (2014). "A Search for Companions to Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon Star-Forming Regions". The Astrophysical Journal. 788: 40. arXiv:1404.0213Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...788...40T. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/788/1/40.