35th Army (Russia)

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35th Army (I Formation) (1941-c.1946)
9th Mechanized Army (c.1946-48)
35th Army (II Formation) (1969-present)
Active July 1941 - c.1946
Country Russia/Soviet Union
Branch Russian Ground Forces
Size three divisions
Part of Far East Military District
Garrison/HQ Belogorsk, Amur Oblast
Engagements Harbin-Kirin Operation
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Nikanor Zakhvatayev

The 35th Red Banner Army is a field army of the Russian Ground Forces. The army was first formed in July 1941 with the Far Eastern Front. After spending most of World War II guarding the border in Primorsky Krai, the army fought in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 1945.

World War II[edit]

The 35th Army was formed from the 18th Rifle Corps in July 1941, part of the Far Eastern Front. It included the 35th, 66th and 78th Rifle Divisions, the 109th Fortified Region and smaller artillery and infantry units. It defended the Soviet border in Primorsky Krai. 18th Rifle Corps commander Major General Vladimir Zaytsev became the army commander. [1]On 1 May 1945 35th Army joined the Maritime Group of Forces. In June, Lieutenant General and Hero of the Soviet Union Nikanor Zakhvatayev became the army commander.[2] Zaytsev was still a major general and became the army's deputy commander.[3] The Maritime Group of Forces was transformed on 5 August 1945 to the 1st Far East Front. It had as part of its structure the 66th, 264th and 363rd Rifle Divisions, the 8th and 109th Fortified Regions, the 125th, 208th, and 209th Tank Brigades, and a number of artillery and other units.[4] With these forces the army participated in the Harbin-Kirin Offensive Operation during the Soviet invasion of Manchuria. [5]

During the Harbin-Kirin Offensive, the army was tasked with attacking from positions southwest of Lesozavodsk towards Mishan. The army was to defeat elements of the Kwantung Army on the left bank of the Songacha River and capture the Hutou Fortified Area. Parts of the army were assigned to defend the right bank of the Ussuri and Songacha Rivers, as well as defending railways and roads in the Guberovo and Spassk-Dalny areas. At the beginning of the offensive, the army crossed the Ussuri and Songacha Rivers using transports of the Amur Flotilla and captured Hulin. It captured Mishan on 12 August and by the end of the next day had captured Dunan. The army then captured Kentey-Alin and Boli on 16 August. The army cut off the Kwangtung Army's line of retreat at Mudanjiang. By 19 August, the army was in the Linkou County. The army was then involved in disarming surrendered Japanese soldiers. On 1 October 1945, the army became part of the Primorsky Military District and was disbanded within a month.[6]

Cold War 1969 onwards[edit]

The 35th Army today draws its history from the 29th Rifle Corps' (ru:29-й стрелковый корпус) fourth formation.

29th Rifle Corps[edit]

Originally formed in June 1943, the fourth formation of the 29th Rifle Corps comprised the 73rd Rifle Division, 102nd Rifle Division, and 217th Rifle Division on 10 May 1945. Five months later, the corps had the same three divisions, but they were in the North Caucasus Military District. The 73rd was based at Novorossiysk, the 102nd at Armavir and the 217th at Nalchik.[7]

In May 1946, the corps was reorganized and by the beginning of 1947 included the 8th, 9th and 39th Separate Rifle Brigades. The 8th was based at Maykop, the 9th at Armavir and the 39th at Stavropol. In March 1947, the 9th Separate Rifle Brigade was disbanded. On 23 July 1949, the corps became the 29th Mountain Rifle Corps. The 8th Separate Rifle Brigade became the 9th Mountain Rifle Division and the 39th became the 73rd Mountain Rifle Division. In 1954, the corps was redesignated as a regular rifle corps again. [7]

On 10 October 1957, the 29th Rifle Corps became the 29th Army Corps. The 9th and 73rd Mountain Rifle Divisions became motor rifle divisions. In 1960, the 29th Army Corps was at Krasnodar and had the 9th and 73rd Motor Rifle Divisions. In 1966 it moved to Belogorsk in Amur Oblast. On 22 February 1968, 29th Army Corps was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.[7]

35th Army[edit]

In June 1969 the 29th Army Corps became the 35th Army. In 1968-69 four divisions were gathered to become part of the corps, later army, in the Far East: 265th Motor Rifle Division arrived in 1968, 266th Motor Rifle Division arrived from the North Caucasus Military District and the 31st Guards Motor Rifle Division from the Baltic Military District in 1969, and the 192nd Motor Rifle Division was activated that same year.[7]

On 16 May 1977, the 31st Guards Motor Rifle Division became the 21st Guards Tank Division. In February 1980, the 67th Motor Rifle Division was transferred to the army from the Leningrad Military District.[7]

In 1988 the 35th Army consisted of the:[8]

Headquarters 35th Red Banner Army (Belogorsk, Amur Oblast):

  • 21st Guards Tank Division (Belogorsk): 2nd Guards Tank Regiment, 125th Guards Tank Regiment (Ekaterinoslavka), 111th Guards Tank Regiment, 277th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment, 64th Guards Artillery Regiment, 1064th Guards Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment
  • 67th Мotor Rifle Division (Skovorodino): 422nd Tank Regiment, 1212th Motor Rifle Regiment, 1216th Motor Rifle Regiment, 1217th Motor Rifle Regiment, 1302nd Artillery Regiment, 1042nd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment
  • 192nd Motor Rifle Division (Blagoveshchensk): 371st Tank Regiment (Svobodnyy), 190th Motor Rifle Regiment (Shimanovsk), 684th Motor Rifle Regiment (Svobodnyy), 679th Motor Rifle Regiment (Blagoveshensk), 1219th Artillery Regiment (Svobodnyy), 1414th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment (Blagoveshchensk)
  • 265th Мotor Rifle Division (Vozzhaevka (Возжаевка)(Belogorsk-15), Belogorsky District) : 373rd Tank Regiment, 212th, 421st and 695th Motor Rifle Regiments, artillery regiment, anti-aircraft rocket regiment[8]
  • 266th Мotor Rifle Division (Raychikhinsk/Raichikhinsk): 376th Tank Regiment, 155th, 430th, 785th Motor Rifle Regiments, artillery regiment, anti-aircraft rocket regiment[8]
  • Army Troops[9]
    • Pontoon-Bridge Regiment (понтонно-мостовой полк) (Arkhara)
    • 43rd Material Support Brigade
    • 156th Separate Radio Engineering Regiment
    • 1899th Separate Radio Engineering Regiment
    • 49th Separate Tank Regiment
    • 161st Separate Communications Regiment
    • 1719th Separate Radio Relay and Cable Battalion (Belogorsk)
    • 1283rd Separate Engineer-Sapper Battalion (Berezovka, Altai/Березовка)
    • 153rd Rocket Brigade; 71st Antiaircraft Missile Brigade (Svobodny, Amur Oblast/Свободный)
    • 364th Separate Helicopter Regiment (Srednebeloe)

The 35th Army is still stationed in the Far East Military District with its headquarters at Belogorsk. Until the 2008-2011 reform, it consisted of three divisions: the 21st Guards (Belogorsk) and 270th (Krasnaya Rechka, Khabarovsk) Motor Rifle Divisions, and the 128th Machine-Gun Artillery Division (Babstovo), along with smaller combat and support units.

In 2009, the 128th Machine-Gun Artillery Division became the 69th Separate Fortress Brigade.[10] In 2010, the 270th Motor Rifle Division became the 243rd Weapons and Equipment Storage Base.[11] The 21st Guards Motor Rifle Division appears to have become the 38th Separate Guards Motor Rifle Brigade.

Commanders (1969-1991)[edit]

The following officers commanded the 35th Army from 1969 to 1991.[7]

Sources and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Biography of Lieutenant-General Vladimir Aleksandrovich Zaitsev - (Владимир Александрович Зайцев) (1899 – 1955), Soviet Union". generals.dk. Retrieved 2016-02-13. 
  2. ^ "Захватаев Никонор Дмитриевич" [Zakhvatayev Nikanor Dmitryevich]. www.warheroes.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2016-02-13. 
  3. ^ "ЗАЙЦЕВ Владимир Александрович" [Zaytsev Vladimir Alexandrovich]. myfront.in.ua (in Russian). Retrieved 2016-02-13. 
  4. ^ Combat composition of the Soviet Army, 1 May 1945
  5. ^ "35-я армия" [35th Army]. samsv.narod.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2016-02-13. 
  6. ^ "35-я армия" [35th Army]. victory.mil.ru (in Russian). Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Holm, 35th Combined Arms Army
  8. ^ a b c Feskov et al 2013, 594, Holm.
  9. ^ Feskov,, V.I.; K.A. Kalashnikov, V.I. Golikov (2004). The Soviet Army in the Years of the 'Cold War' (1945-1991). Tomsk: Tomsk University Press. ISBN 5-7511-1819-7. 
  10. ^ Holm, Michael. "272nd Motorised Rifle Division". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved 2016-02-09. 
  11. ^ Holm, Michael. "270th Motorised Rifle Division". www.ww2.dk. Retrieved 2016-02-09.