5 nanometer

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The 5 nanometer (5 nm) node is the technology node following the 7 nm node. Although Intel has not yet divulged any certain plans to manufacturers or retailers, their 2009 roadmap projects an end-user release by approximately 2020.[1][2] 5 nm was once assumed by some experts to be the end of Moore's law.[3] Transistors smaller than 7nm will experience quantum tunnelling through their logic gates.[4] It is also hypothesized by several analysts that it may take longer for 5nm to hit the market in comparison to the rough 2 years presented by Moore's law, because of the costs involved.[5]

Technology demos[edit]

In 2006, a team of Korean researchers from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and the National Nano Fab Center codeveloped a 3 nm transistor, the world's smallest nanoelectronic device based on conventional technology, called a fin field-effect transistor (FinFET).[6][7] It was the smallest transistor ever produced.

In 2008, transistors one atom thick and ten atoms wide were made by UK researchers. They were carved from graphene, predicted by some to one day oust silicon as the basis of future computing. Graphene is a material made from flat sheets of carbon in a honeycomb arrangement, and is a leading contender. A team at the University of Manchester, UK, used it to make some of the smallest transistors at this time: devices only 1 nm across that contain just a few carbon rings.[8]

In 2010, an Australian team announced that they fabricated a single functional transistor out of 7 atoms that measured 4 nm in length.[9][10][11]

In 2012 a single atom transistor was fabricated using a phosphorus atom bound to a silicon surface (between two significantly larger electrodes).[12] This transistor could be said to be a 180 picometer transistor, the Van der Waals radius of a phosphorus atom; though its covalent radius bound to silicon is likely smaller.[13] Making transistors smaller than this will require either using elements with smaller atomic radii, or using subatomic particles—like electrons or protons—as functional transistors.


  1. ^ "Intel Outlines Process Technology Roadmap". Xbit. 2009-08-22. 
  2. ^ "インテル、32nmプロセスの順調な立ち上がりをアピール" [Intel touts steady rise of 32nm processors] (in Japanese). PC Watch. 2009-08-21. 
  3. ^ "End of Moore's Law: It's not just about physics". CNET. August 28, 2013. 
  4. ^ Pirzada, Usman. "Intel ISSCC: 14nm all figured out, 10nm is on track, Moores Law still alive and kicking Read more: http://wccftech.com/intel-isscc-14nm/#ixzz3ekQ1q1hw". WCCF Tech. Retrieved 07/2/2015.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  5. ^ "End of Moore's Law: It's not just about physics". CNET. August 28, 2013. 
  6. ^ Still Room at the Bottom.(nanometer transistor developed by Yang-kyu Choi from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology )
  7. ^ Lee, Hyunjin et al. (2006). "Sub-5nm All-Around Gate FinFET for Ultimate Scaling". Symposium on VLSI Technology, 2006: 58–59. doi:10.1109/VLSIT.2006.1705215. 
  8. ^ Atom-thick material runs rings around silicon
  9. ^ Fuechsle, Martin et al. (2010). "Spectroscopy of few-electron single-crystal silicon quantum dots". Nature Nanotechnology 5 (7): 502–505. doi:10.1038/nnano.2010.95. 
  10. ^ Ng, Jansen (May 24, 2010). "Researchers Create Seven Atom Transistor, Working on Quantum Computer". Daily Tech. 
  11. ^ Beale, Bob (May 24, 2010). "Quantum leap: World's smallest transistor built with just 7 atoms". Phys.Org. 
  12. ^ Fuechsle, M.; Miwa, J. A.; Mahapatra, S.; Ryu, H.; Lee, S.; Warschkow, O.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y. (2012). "A single-atom transistor". Nature Nanotechnology 7 (4): 242. doi:10.1038/nnano.2012.21.  edit
  13. ^ "Team designs world's smallest transistor". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 

Preceded by
7 nm
CMOS manufacturing processes Succeeded by