5 nanometer

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In semiconductor manufacturing, the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors defines the 5 nanometer (5 nm) node as the technology node following the 7 nm node.

Transistors at the 7 nm scale were first produced by researchers in the first decade of the 21st century – the process scale may represent the end of Moore's Law scaling for electronic devices.

As of 2017, no 5 nm scale devices have been commercially produced.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

The 5 nm node was once assumed by some experts to be the end of Moore's law.[1] Transistors smaller than 7 nm will experience quantum tunnelling through their logic gates.[2] Due to the costs involved in development, 5 nm is predicted to take longer to reach market than the 2 years estimated by Moore's law.[1]

Beyond 7 nm, major technological advances would have to be made; possible candidates include vortex laser,[3] MOSFET-BJT dual-mode transistor,[4] 3D packaging,[5] microfluidic cooling,[6] PCMOS,[7] vacuum transistors,[8] t-rays,[9] extreme ultraviolet lithography,[10] carbon nanotube transistors,[11] silicon photonics,[12] graphene,[13] phosphorene,[14] organic semiconductors,[15] gallium arsenide,[16] indium gallium arsenide,[17] nano-patterning,[18] and reconfigurable chaos-based microchips.[19]

Technology demos[edit]

In 2006, a team of Korean researchers from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and the National Nano Fab Center codeveloped a 3 nm transistor, the world's smallest nanoelectronic device based on conventional technology, called a fin field-effect transistor (FinFET).[20][21] It was the smallest transistor ever produced.

In 2008, transistors one atom thick and ten atoms wide were made by UK researchers. They were carved from graphene, a potential alternative to silicon as the basis of future computing. Graphene is a material made from flat sheets of carbon in a honeycomb arrangement, and is a leading contender. A team at the University of Manchester, UK, used it to make some of the smallest transistors at this time: devices only 1 nm across that contain just a few carbon rings.[22]

In 2010, an Australian team announced that they fabricated a single functional transistor out of 7 atoms that measured 4 nm in length.[23][24][25]

In 2012, a team of scientists at Chungbuk National University in South Korea have created a transistor that's only 2 nm in size.[26]

In 2012, a single-atom transistor was fabricated using a phosphorus atom bound to a silicon surface (between two significantly larger electrodes).[27] This transistor could be said to be a 180 picometer transistor, the Van der Waals radius of a phosphorus atom; though its covalent radius bound to silicon is likely smaller.[28] Making transistors smaller than this will require either using elements with smaller atomic radii, or using subatomic particles—like electrons or protons—as functional transistors.

In 2015 IMEC and Cadence had fabricated 5 nm test chips. The fabricated test chips are not fully functional devices but rather are to evaluate patterning of interconnect layers.[29][30]

In 2015 Intel described a lateral nanowire (or gate-all-around) FET concept for the 5-nm node.[31]

In 2016 researchers at Berkeley Lab created a transistor with a working 1-nanometer gate.[32][33]

Commercialization[edit]

Although Intel has not yet divulged any certain plans to manufacturers or retailers, their 2009 roadmap projected an end-user release by approximately 2020.[34][35]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "End of Moore's Law: It's not just about physics". CNET. August 28, 2013. 
  2. ^ Pirzada, Usman. "Intel ISSCC: 14nm all figured out, 10nm is on track, Moores Law still alive and kicking". WCCF Tech. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
  3. ^ http://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/laser-vortex-moores-law/
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ http://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2016/07/itrs-roadmap-2021-moores-law/
  6. ^ http://www.techrepublic.com/article/microfluidic-cooling-may-prevent-the-demise-of-moores-law/
  7. ^ http://www.extremetech.com/computing/129665-can-probabilistic-computing-save-moores-law
  8. ^ http://gizmodo.com/how-the-aged-vacuum-tube-could-save-moores-law-1595213474
  9. ^ https://www.siliconrepublic.com/machines/t-rays-computer-memory-mipt
  10. ^ http://www.wsj.com/articles/asml-steps-up-to-chip-industry-challenge-1475435759
  11. ^ http://gizmodo.com/carbon-nanotube-transistors-thatll-save-moores-law-are-1598486315
  12. ^ http://www.extremetech.com/computing/167866-moores-law-could-be-saved-by-super-fast-electronics-and-photonic-tech
  13. ^ http://www.theregister.co.uk/2016/07/11/scientists_grow_atomically_thick_transistors_on_graphene/
  14. ^ http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1327145
  15. ^ http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1327921
  16. ^ http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1323892
  17. ^ http://www.computerworld.com/article/2913597/computer-processors/intel-could-prolong-moores-law-with-new-materials-transistors.html
  18. ^ http://semiengineering.com/can-nano-patterning-save-moores-law/
  19. ^ https://www.engadget.com/2016/09/26/researchers-think-chaos-theory-can-get-us-past-moores-law/
  20. ^ Still Room at the Bottom.(nanometer transistor developed by Yang-kyu Choi from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology )
  21. ^ Lee, Hyunjin; et al. (2006). "Sub-5nm All-Around Gate FinFET for Ultimate Scaling". Symposium on VLSI Technology, 2006: 58–59. doi:10.1109/VLSIT.2006.1705215. 
  22. ^ Atom-thick material runs rings around silicon
  23. ^ Fuechsle, Martin; et al. (2010). "Spectroscopy of few-electron single-crystal silicon quantum dots". Nature Nanotechnology. 5 (7): 502–505. doi:10.1038/nnano.2010.95. 
  24. ^ Ng, Jansen (May 24, 2010). "Researchers Create Seven Atom Transistor, Working on Quantum Computer". Daily Tech. 
  25. ^ Beale, Bob (May 24, 2010). "Quantum leap: World's smallest transistor built with just 7 atoms". Phys.Org. 
  26. ^ http://gizmodo.com/5807151/2-nanometer-quantum-transistors-are-the-worlds-smallest
  27. ^ Fuechsle, M.; Miwa, J. A.; Mahapatra, S.; Ryu, H.; Lee, S.; Warschkow, O.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y. (2012). "A single-atom transistor". Nature Nanotechnology. 7 (4): 242. doi:10.1038/nnano.2012.21. PMID 22343383. 
  28. ^ "Team designs world's smallest transistor". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  29. ^ "IMEC and Cadence Disclose 5nm Test Chip". Retrieved 25 Nov 2015. 
  30. ^ "The Roadmap to 5nm: Convergence of Many Solutions Needed". Retrieved 25 Nov 2015. 
  31. ^ Mark LaPedus (2016-01-20). "5nm Fab Challenges". Intel presented a paper that generated sparks and fueled speculation regarding the future direction of the leading-edge IC industry. The company described a next-generation transistor called the nanowire FET, which is a finFET turned on its side with a gate wrapped around it. Intel's nanowire FET, sometimes called a gate-all-around FET, is said to meet the device requirements for 5nm, as defined by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). 
  32. ^ Desai, S. B.; Madhvapathy, S. R.; Sachid, A. B.; Llinas, J. P.; Wang, Q.; Ahn, G. H.; Pitner, G.; Kim, M. J.; Bokor, J.; Hu, C.; Wong, H.- S. P.; Javey, A. (2016). "MoS". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 354 (6308): 99–102. doi:10.1126/science.aah4698. 
  33. ^ Yang, Sarah (2016-10-06). "Smallest. Transistor. Ever. | Berkeley Lab". News Center. Retrieved 2016-10-08. 
  34. ^ "Intel Outlines Process Technology Roadmap". Xbit. 2009-08-22. 
  35. ^ "インテル、32nmプロセスの順調な立ち上がりをアピール" [Intel touts steady rise of 32nm processors] (in Japanese). PC Watch. 2009-08-21. 


Preceded by
7 nm
CMOS manufacturing processes Succeeded by
Nanotechnology