List of semiconductor scale examples

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The following is a list of semiconductor scale examples for various MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor) semiconductor manufacturing process nodes.

Timeline of MOSFET demonstrations[edit]


PMOS and NMOS[edit]

MOSFET (PMOS and NMOS) demonstrations
Date Channel length Oxide thickness[1] MOSFET logic Researcher(s) Organization Ref
June 1960 20,000 nm 100 nm PMOS Mohamed M. Atalla, Dawon Kahng Bell Telephone Laboratories [2][3]
NMOS
10,000 nm 100 nm PMOS Mohamed M. Atalla, Dawon Kahng Bell Telephone Laboratories [4]
NMOS
May 1965 8,000 nm 150 nm NMOS Chih-Tang Sah, Otto Leistiko, A.S. Grove Fairchild Semiconductor [5]
5,000 nm 170 nm PMOS
December 1972 1,000 nm ? PMOS Robert H. Dennard, Fritz H. Gaensslen, Hwa-Nien Yu IBM T.J. Watson Research Center [6][7][8]
1973 7,500 nm ? NMOS Sohichi Suzuki NEC [9][10]
6,000 nm ? PMOS ? Toshiba [11][12]
October 1974 1,000 nm 35 nm NMOS Robert H. Dennard, Fritz H. Gaensslen, Hwa-Nien Yu IBM T.J. Watson Research Center [13]
500 nm
September 1975 1,500 nm 20 nm NMOS Ryoichi Hori, Hiroo Masuda, Osamu Minato Hitachi [7][14]
March 1976 3,000 nm ? NMOS ? Intel [15]
April 1979 1,000 nm 25 nm NMOS William R. Hunter, L. M. Ephrath, Alice Cramer IBM T.J. Watson Research Center [16]
December 1984 100 nm 5 nm NMOS Toshio Kobayashi, Seiji Horiguchi, K. Kiuchi Nippon Telegraph and Telephone [17]
December 1985 150 nm 2.5 nm NMOS Toshio Kobayashi, Seiji Horiguchi, M. Miyake, M. Oda Nippon Telegraph and Telephone [18]
75 nm ? NMOS Stephen Y. Chou, Henry I. Smith, Dimitri A. Antoniadis MIT [19]
January 1986 60 nm ? NMOS Stephen Y. Chou, Henry I. Smith, Dimitri A. Antoniadis MIT [20]
June 1987 200 nm 3.5 nm PMOS Toshio Kobayashi, M. Miyake, K. Deguchi Nippon Telegraph and Telephone [21]
December 1993 40 nm ? NMOS Mizuki Ono, Masanobu Saito, Takashi Yoshitomi Toshiba [22]
September 1996 16 nm ? PMOS Hisao Kawaura, Toshitsugu Sakamoto, Toshio Baba NEC [23]
June 1998 50 nm 1.3 nm NMOS Khaled Z. Ahmed, Effiong E. Ibok, Miryeong Song Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) [24][25]
December 2002 6 nm ? PMOS Bruce Doris, Omer Dokumaci, Meikei Ieong IBM [26][27][28]
December 2003 3 nm ? PMOS Hitoshi Wakabayashi, Shigeharu Yamagami NEC [29][27]
NMOS

CMOS (single-gate)[edit]

Complementary MOSFET (CMOS) demonstrations (single-gate)
Date Channel length Oxide thickness[1] Researcher(s) Organization Ref
February 1963 ? ? Chih-Tang Sah, Frank Wanlass Fairchild Semiconductor [30][31]
1968 20,000 nm 100 nm ? RCA Laboratories [32]
1970 10,000 nm 100 nm ? RCA Laboratories [32]
December 1976 2,000 nm ? A. Aitken, R.G. Poulsen, A.T.P. MacArthur, J.J. White Mitel Semiconductor [33]
February 1978 3,000 nm ? Toshiaki Masuhara, Osamu Minato, Toshio Sasaki, Yoshio Sakai Hitachi Central Research Laboratory [34][35][36]
February 1983 1,200 nm 25 nm R.J.C. Chwang, M. Choi, D. Creek, S. Stern, P.H. Pelley Intel [37][38]
900 nm 15 nm Tsuneo Mano, J. Yamada, Junichi Inoue, S. Nakajima Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) [37][39]
December 1983 1,000 nm 22.5 nm G.J. Hu, Yuan Taur, Robert H. Dennard, Chung-Yu Ting IBM T.J. Watson Research Center [40]
February 1987 800 nm 17 nm T. Sumi, Tsuneo Taniguchi, Mikio Kishimoto, Hiroshige Hirano Matsushita [37][41]
700 nm 12 nm Tsuneo Mano, J. Yamada, Junichi Inoue, S. Nakajima Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) [37][42]
September 1987 500 nm 12.5 nm Hussein I. Hanafi, Robert H. Dennard, Yuan Taur, Nadim F. Haddad IBM T.J. Watson Research Center [43]
December 1987 250 nm ? Naoki Kasai, Nobuhiro Endo, Hiroshi Kitajima NEC [44]
February 1988 400 nm 10 nm M. Inoue, H. Kotani, T. Yamada, Hiroyuki Yamauchi Matsushita [37][45]
December 1990 100 nm ? Ghavam G. Shahidi, Bijan Davari, Yuan Taur, James D. Warnock IBM T.J. Watson Research Center [46]
1993 350 nm ? ? Sony [47]
1996 150 nm ? ? Mitsubishi Electric
1998 180 nm ? ? TSMC [48]
December 2003 5 nm ? Hitoshi Wakabayashi, Shigeharu Yamagami, Nobuyuki Ikezawa NEC [29][49]

Multi-gate MOSFET (MuGFET)[edit]

Multi-gate MOSFET (MuGFET) demonstrations
Date Channel length MuGFET type Researcher(s) Organization Ref
August 1984 ? DGMOS Toshihiro Sekigawa, Yutaka Hayashi Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) [50]
1987 2,000 nm DGMOS Toshihiro Sekigawa Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) [51]
December 1988 250 nm DGMOS Bijan Davari, Wen-Hsing Chang, Matthew R. Wordeman, C.S. Oh IBM T.J. Watson Research Center [52][53]
180 nm
? GAAFET Fujio Masuoka, Hiroshi Takato, Kazumasa Sunouchi, N. Okabe Toshiba [54][55][56]
December 1989 200 nm FinFET Digh Hisamoto, Toru Kaga, Yoshifumi Kawamoto, Eiji Takeda Hitachi Central Research Laboratory [57][58][59]
December 1998 17 nm FinFET Digh Hisamoto, Chenming Hu, Tsu-Jae King Liu, Jeffrey Bokor University of California (Berkeley) [60][61]
2001 15 nm FinFET Chenming Hu, Yang‐Kyu Choi, Nick Lindert, Tsu-Jae King Liu University of California (Berkeley) [60][62]
December 2002 10 nm FinFET Shibly Ahmed, Scott Bell, Cyrus Tabery, Jeffrey Bokor University of California (Berkeley) [60][63]
June 2006 3 nm GAAFET Hyunjin Lee, Yang-kyu Choi, Lee-Eun Yu, Seong-Wan Ryu KAIST [64][65]

Other types of MOSFET[edit]

MOSFET demonstrations (other types)
Date Channel length Oxide thickness[1] MOSFET type Researcher(s) Organization Ref
October 1962 ? ? TFT Paul K. Weimer RCA Laboratories [66][67]
October 1966 100,000 nm 100 nm TFT T.P. Brody, H.E. Kunig Westinghouse Electric [68][69]
August 1967 ? ? FGMOS Dawon Kahng, Simon Min Sze Bell Telephone Laboratories [70]
October 1967 ? ? MNOS H.A. Richard Wegener, A.J. Lincoln, H.C. Pao Sperry Corporation [71]
July 1968 ? ? BiMOS Hung-Chang Lin, Ramachandra R. Iyer Westinghouse Electric [72][73]
October 1968 ? ? BiCMOS Hung-Chang Lin, Ramachandra R. Iyer, C.T. Ho Westinghouse Electric [74][73]
1969 ? ? VMOS ? Hitachi [75][76]
September 1969 ? ? DMOS Y. Tarui, Y. Hayashi, Toshihiro Sekigawa Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) [77][78]
October 1970 ? ? ISFET Piet Bergveld University of Twente [79][80]
October 1970 1,000 nm ? DMOS Y. Tarui, Y. Hayashi, Toshihiro Sekigawa Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) [81]
1977 ? ? VDMOS John Louis Moll HP Labs [75]
? ? LDMOS ? Hitachi [82]
July 1979 ? ? IGBT Bantval Jayant Baliga, Margaret Lazeri General Electric [83]
December 1984 2,000 nm ? BiCMOS H. Higuchi, Goro Kitsukawa, Takahide Ikeda, Y. Nishio Hitachi [84]
May 1985 300 nm ? ? K. Deguchi, Kazuhiko Komatsu, M. Miyake, H. Namatsu Nippon Telegraph and Telephone [85]
February 1985 1,000 nm ? BiCMOS H. Momose, Hideki Shibata, S. Saitoh, Jun-ichi Miyamoto Toshiba [86]
November 1986 90 nm 8.3 nm ? Han-Sheng Lee, L.C. Puzio General Motors [87]
December 1986 60 nm ? ? Ghavam G. Shahidi, Dimitri A. Antoniadis, Henry I. Smith MIT [88][20]
May 1987 ? 10 nm ? Bijan Davari, Chung-Yu Ting, Kie Y. Ahn, S. Basavaiah IBM T.J. Watson Research Center [89]
December 1987 800 nm ? BiCMOS Robert H. Havemann, R. E. Eklund, Hiep V. Tran Texas Instruments [90]
June 1997 30 nm ? EJ-MOSFET Hisao Kawaura, Toshitsugu Sakamoto, Toshio Baba NEC [91]
1998 32 nm ? ? ? NEC [27]
1999 8 nm
April 2000 8 nm ? EJ-MOSFET Hisao Kawaura, Toshitsugu Sakamoto, Toshio Baba NEC [92]

Commercial products using micro-scale MOSFETs[edit]

Products featuring 20 μm manufacturing process[edit]

Products featuring 10 μm manufacturing process[edit]

Products featuring 8 μm manufacturing process[edit]

Products featuring 6 μm manufacturing process[edit]

Products featuring 3 μm manufacturing process[edit]

Products featuring 1.5 μm manufacturing process[edit]

Products featuring 1 μm manufacturing process[edit]

Products featuring 800 nm manufacturing process[edit]

Products featuring 600 nm manufacturing process[edit]

Products featuring 350 nm manufacturing process[edit]

Products featuring 250 nm manufacturing process[edit]

Processors using 180 nm manufacturing technology[edit]

Processors using 130 nm manufacturing technology[edit]

Commercial products using nano-scale MOSFETs[edit]

Chips using 90 nm manufacturing technology[edit]

Processors using 65 nm manufacturing technology[edit]

Processors using 45 nm technology[edit]

Chips using 32 nm technology[edit]

  • Toshiba produced commercial 32 Gb NAND flash memory chips with the 32 nm process in 2009.[106]
  • Intel Core i3 and i5 processors, released in January 2010[107]
  • Intel 6-core processor, codenamed Gulftown[108]
  • Intel i7-970, was released in late July 2010, priced at approximately US$900
  • AMD FX Series processors, codenamed Zambezi and based on AMD's Bulldozer architecture, were released in October 2011. The technology utilised a 32 nm SOI process, two CPU cores per module, and up to four modules, ranging from a quad-core design costing approximately US$130 to a $280 eight-core design.
  • Ambarella Inc. announced the availability of the A7L system-on-a-chip circuit for digital still cameras, providing 1080p60 high-definition video capabilities in September 2011[109]

Chips using 26–24 nm technology[edit]

  • Hynix Semiconductor announced that it could produce a 26 nm flash chip with 64 Gb capacity; Intel Corp. and Micron Technology had by then already developed the technology themselves. Announced in 2010.[110]
  • Toshiba announced that it was shipping 24 nm flash memory NAND devices on August 31, 2010.[111]

Chips using 22 nm technology[edit]

  • Intel Core i7 and Intel Core i5 processors based on Intel's Ivy Bridge 22 nm technology for series 7 chip-sets went on sale worldwide on April 23, 2012.[112]

Chips using 20 nm technology[edit]

Chips using 16 nm technology[edit]

Chips using 14 nm technology[edit]

Chips using 10 nm technology[edit]

Chips using 7 nm technology[edit]

  • TSMC began risk production of 256 Mbit SRAM memory chips using a 7 nm process in April 2017.[122]
  • Samsung and TSMC began mass production of 7 nm devices in 2018.[123]
  • Apple A12 and Huawei Kirin 980 mobile processors, both released in 2018, use 7 nm chips manufactured by TSMC.[124]

Chips using 5 nm technology[edit]

  • Samsung began production of 5 nm chips (5LPE) in late 2018.[125]
  • TSMC began production of 5 nm chips (CLN5FF) in April 2019.[126]

3 nm technology[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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