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Protein ATP5D PDB 1e79.png
Aliases ATP5D
External IDs MGI: 1913293 HomoloGene: 37514 GeneCards: 513
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ATP5D 203926 x at tn.png

PBB GE ATP5D 213041 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 19: 1.24 – 1.24 Mb Chr 10: 80.14 – 80.15 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP5D gene.[3][4]


This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the delta subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same isoform have been identified.[4]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Jordan EM, Breen GA (Feb 1992). "Molecular cloning of an import precursor of the delta-subunit of the human mitochondrial ATP synthase complex". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1130 (1): 123–6. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(92)90477-h. PMID 1531933. 
  4. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: ATP5D ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, delta subunit". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Yoshida M, Muneyuki E, Hisabori T (Sep 2001). "ATP synthase--a marvellous rotary engine of the cell". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 2 (9): 669–77. doi:10.1038/35089509. PMID 11533724. 
  • Hochstrasser DF, Frutiger S, Paquet N, Bairoch A, Ravier F, Pasquali C, Sanchez JC, Tissot JD, Bjellqvist B, Vargas R (Dec 1992). "Human liver protein map: a reference database established by microsequencing and gel comparison". Electrophoresis. 13 (12): 992–1001. doi:10.1002/elps.11501301201. PMID 1286669. 
  • Yasuda R, Noji H, Kinosita K, Yoshida M (Jun 1998). "F1-ATPase is a highly efficient molecular motor that rotates with discrete 120 degree steps". Cell. 93 (7): 1117–24. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81456-7. PMID 9657145. 
  • Wang H, Oster G (Nov 1998). "Energy transduction in the F1 motor of ATP synthase". Nature. 396 (6708): 279–82. doi:10.1038/24409. PMID 9834036. 
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, Derge JG, Klausner RD, Collins FS, Wagner L, Shenmen CM, Schuler GD, Altschul SF, Zeeberg B, Buetow KH, Schaefer CF, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Jordan H, Moore T, Max SI, Wang J, Hsieh F, Diatchenko L, Marusina K, Farmer AA, Rubin GM, Hong L, Stapleton M, Soares MB, Bonaldo MF, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brownstein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Prange C, Raha SS, Loquellano NA, Peters GJ, Abramson RD, Mullahy SJ, Bosak SA, McEwan PJ, McKernan KJ, Malek JA, Gunaratne PH, Richards S, Worley KC, Hale S, Garcia AM, Gay LJ, Hulyk SW, Villalon DK, Muzny DM, Sodergren EJ, Lu X, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madan A, Young AC, Shevchenko Y, Bouffard GG, Blakesley RW, Touchman JW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Krzywinski MI, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Marra MA (Dec 2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241free to read. PMID 12477932. 
  • Cross RL (Jan 2004). "Molecular motors: turning the ATP motor". Nature. 427 (6973): 407–8. doi:10.1038/427407b. PMID 14749816. 
  • Itoh H, Takahashi A, Adachi K, Noji H, Yasuda R, Yoshida M, Kinosita K (Jan 2004). "Mechanically driven ATP synthesis by F1-ATPase". Nature. 427 (6973): 465–8. doi:10.1038/nature02212. PMID 14749837.