Adesha

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Ādesha or Ādeśa (Sanskrit: आदेश) means 'an order', 'command' or 'advice', 'instruction', 'precept', 'rule'[1]

Meaning[edit]

The word, Ādesha appears to be a semantically polyvalent compound representing two homonymous compounds of different origin and formation; it was surmised that ādeśa- in the sense of "substitute" owes its origin to a combination of ā- and deśa-, whereas ādeśa- in the sense of "advice" belongs to the verb ā- diś- "to point out, to teach";[2] it is the combination of ā- meaning 'toward', and diś meaning 'to show or direct'.[3]

Grammatical usage[edit]

Nirvachanashastra is a heremeneutic device that is used for word-analysis and derivation. The proper understanding of the relation in nirvachana analysis between a noun and some activity, expressed by a finite verb or by mention of a verbal root came to the fore through the study of Yāska's Nirukta done in the light of a model of substitution according to which model adesha ('substitution') takes the sthana ('place') of the original sthanin ('place-holder') under the given circumstances. Sthana refers to artha ('meaning'), thus nirvachanas are merely place-holders in semantic space; one gets a different thought if one gets a different sentence to represent the same truth.[4]

By using Ādeśa rather than vikāra, and holding on to varna-samāmnāya sound system, Pāṇini was able to achieve economy and brevity in the statements of algebraic system.[5] With regard to the rule, requiring the substitution of soft unaspirate consonants in the place of hard consonants, the ādeśa that takes place in place of a vowel is not sthānvit.[6] Panini uses ādeśa in the sense of 'substitution' and 'substitute'.[7] Vadha is not an independent root in the Paninian system it is an adesa for the root han-[8]

Upanishadic usage[edit]

The Upanishads have given four Mahāvākyas or grand proclamations corresponding to four prescribed practices viz. Upadesha, Adesha, Abhyasa and Anubhava; accordingly the vakyaTat Tvam Asi, appearing in the Chandogya Upanishad, is an Adesha Vakya, a command statement; the shishya or 'disciple' listens to the Upadesha vakya and the Adhesha vakya with full faith and devotion which act is called Sravana ('concentration').[9]

In the Sanskrit phrase - अथात आदेशः नेति नेति athāta ādeśah: neti neti, meaning – 'now hence the teaching: not this, not this' of Brihadaranyaka UpanishadII.ii.6, Adesha means 'specific instruction' and not 'substitute'.[10]

In the Taittiriya Upanishad(II.iii.1), in the very brief part reading - आदेश आत्मा, the word, Adesha, refers to the brahmana portion as the self ('trunk')when the sage says that the self constituted by mind is also of a human shape the shape the human shape the mental body takes after the human shape of the vital body. Sankara explains that the word, Ādeśah here means the brahmana portion of the Vedas, since (in consonance with the etymological meaning of ādeśa, command) the brahmana portion inculcates all that has to be enjoyed.[11]

Mercantile usage[edit]

Chanakya in his Arthashastra, refers to the then prevalent bill of exchange called Ādesha which was an order to a third person to pay up a sum of money on behalf of the sender of that order; in those days merchant guilds performed the functions of banks.[12] There was considerable use of these instruments, including promissory notes, and merchants in large towns gave letters of credit to one another.[13]

Other usages[edit]

Aurobindo explains that the intellectual Asura determines his actions by his reason or ideal, the emotional Asura by his feelings; but the Shuddha determines them by the higher inspiration proceeding from the divine experience in the Vijanana, that is what people often call the Adesha.[14]

Keshab Chandra Sen of Brahmo Samaj (and founder of Brahmo Samaj of India) influenced by Christian theology propounded the doctrine of Adesha, according to which God inspires knowledge in some individuals whose word must therefore be considered infallible and true which doctrine not accepted by some members witnessed division in ranks and the formation of Sadharan Brahmo Samaj.[15]

In the Bhagavad Gita Sloka XVII.22, it is seen that the word अदेशकाले (ādeśkāle) with the dropping of a mātra i.e. ā to a (and thus providing negative connotation), refers to wrong time.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vaman Shivram Apte. The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary. The Digital Libraries of South Asia.
  2. ^ Jan Gonda (1971). Old Indian. BRILL. p. 72. ISBN 9004026428.
  3. ^ Judith M. Tyberg (1970). The Language of the Gods. East West Culture. p. 117.
  4. ^ Oliver Leaman (2001). Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy. Taylor and francis. p. 388. ISBN 978-0-415-17281-3.
  5. ^ D.D.Mahulkar (1990). Pre-Panian Linguistic Studies. Northern Book Centre. p. 154. ISBN 9788185119885.
  6. ^ The Astadhyayi of Panini. Motilal Banarsidass. 1980. p. 51. ISBN 9788120804098.
  7. ^ Eivind Kahrs (1998). Indian Semantic Analysis. Cambridge University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-521-63188-4.
  8. ^ Prasad P. Joshi (2008). Vedic Aorist and Panini. Eastern Book Linkers. p. 107. ISBN 9788178541501.
  9. ^ V.R.Prabhu (2004-01-01). Guru Chritra. Jaico Publishing House. ISBN 9788179924198.
  10. ^ Eivind Kahrs (1998). Indian Semantic Analysis. Cambridge University Press. pp. 181–182. ISBN 978-0-521-63188-4.
  11. ^ Eight Upanishads Vol.1 1986 Ed. Advaita Ashrama. pp. 311–313. ISBN 978-8175050174.
  12. ^ Santosh kumar Das (2006). The Economic History of Ancient India. Genesis Publishing. p. 174. ISBN 9788130704234.
  13. ^ Ram Naresh Chaudhary (2009). Law Relating to Cheques. Deep and Deep Publications. p. 2. ISBN 9788184502084.
  14. ^ Sri Aurobindo (2001). Records of Yoga Vol.2. Sri Aurobindo Ashram. p. 1387. ISBN 9788170586524.
  15. ^ A.R.Desai (2005). Social Background of Indian Nationalism. Popular Prakashan. p. 271. ISBN 9788171546671.
  16. ^ Nithyananda (2009). Bhagavad Gita Demystified Vol.3. eNPublishers. p. 630. ISBN 978-1-60607-073-4.