Alan J. Dixon
|Alan J. Dixon|
|United States Senator
January 3, 1981 – January 3, 1993
|Preceded by||Adlai Stevenson III|
|Succeeded by||Carol Moseley Braun|
|Illinois Secretary of State|
January 10, 1977 – January 12, 1981
|Preceded by||Michael Howlett|
|Succeeded by||Jim Edgar|
January 11, 1971 – January 10, 1977
|Preceded by||Charles W. Woodford|
|Succeeded by||Donald R. Smith|
|Member of the Illinois Senate|
|Member of the Illinois House of Representatives|
|Born||Alan John Dixon
July 7, 1927
|Died||July 6, 2014
Fairview Heights, Illinois
|Alma mater||University of Illinois (B.A.)
Washington University (J.D.)
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Alan John Dixon (July 7, 1927 – July 6, 2014) was an American politician and member of the Democratic Party who served in the Illinois General Assembly from 1951 to 1971, as the Illinois Treasurer from 1971 to 1977, as the Illinois Secretary of State from 1977 to 1981 and as a U.S. Senator from 1981 until 1993.
Born in Belleville, Illinois on July 7, 1927, Dixon attended Illinois public schools and later earned his bachelor's degree from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and his J.D. from Washington University in St. Louis. While attending the University of Illinois he joined the Delta Upsilon fraternity. During World War II, Dixon served in the United States Navy.
State political career
Karl Rove and the Dixon campaign incident
In the fall of 1970, Karl Rove, a future White House Deputy Chief of Staff in the George W. Bush Administration, used a false identity to enter the office of Dixon's campaign for Illinois Treasurer and stole 1000 sheets of paper with campaign letterhead. Rove then printed fake campaign rally fliers promising "free beer, free food, girls and a good time for nothing", and distributed them at rock concerts and homeless shelters, with the effect of disrupting Dixon's rally. Dixon eventually won the election. Rove's role would not become publicly known until August 1973. Rove told the Dallas Morning News in 1999, "It was a youthful prank at the age of 19 and I regret it."
In 1976, Dixon was elected Illinois Secretary of State. The 1976 Illinois State election was turbulent for the Democratic Party. Outgoing Governor Dan Walker had lost the support of the Party and was defeated in the primary election. Dixon's election as Secretary of State left two years on his term as State Treasurer. To prevent Walker from appointing himself or anyone else to the position, Dixon proposed to incoming Republican Governor James R. Thompson that he would resign after Thompson was inaugurated if Thompson agreed to Dixon's choice for State Treasurer. Dixon's choice was Donald R. Smith, a Republican who was the ranking Civil Service employee in the State Treasurer's office and who had agreed not to run for re-election.
United States Senate
Dixon was generally considered a moderate and was less visible nationally than either of his Illinois colleagues, Charles Percy and Paul Simon, both of whom sought the presidency. In 1992, Dixon lost in the Democratic primary for U.S. Senate to Carol Moseley Braun. This defeat shocked observers; at the time no Senator had been defeated in a primary in over a decade and Dixon had a long record of electoral success. His vote to confirm Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court contributed to his defeat. Dixon was sharply criticized during the campaign by Braun for supporting Clarence Thomas' nomination despite allegations of Thomas sexually harassing Anita Hill.
Braun, a black woman, had the complete support of black voters, and as a known reformist liberal got a large share of liberal voters, and also attracted many women voters in what was termed "The Year of the Woman".
Another factor was the third candidate in the race, multi-millionaire attorney Al Hofeld. Hofeld drew away some of the moderate and conservative Democrats who normally supported Dixon. He also spent a large amount of money running advertisements attacking Dixon, weakening his support.
Since his departure in early 1993, no one has managed to serve two full terms from this seat.
Later life and death
Dixon chaired the Defense Base Realignment and Closure Commission in 1994 and 1995.
After his term in the Senate, Dixon resumed practicing law with the Bryan Cave law firm in St. Louis and lived in Fairview Heights, Illinois, where he died on July 6, 2014 from natural causes just 1 day shy of his 87th birthday.
His autobiography, The Gentleman from Illinois: Stories from Forty Years of Elective Public Service, was published in 2013 by Southern Illinois University Press.
Alan J. Dixon was inducted as a Laureate of The Lincoln Academy of Illinois and awarded the Order of Lincoln (the State’s highest honor) by the Governor of Illinois in 1994 in the area of Government.
- 1980 General Election - U.S. Senate
- Alan J. Dixon (D), 56.0%
- Dave O'Neal (R), 42.5%
- 1986 General Election - U.S. Senate
- Alan J. Dixon (D) (inc.), 65.4%
- Judy Koehler (R), 34.1%
- 1992 Democratic Primary - U.S. Senate
- Carol Moseley Braun (D), 38.30%
- Alan J. Dixon (D) (inc.), 34.61%
- Albert Hofeld (D), 27.09%
- United States Congress. "DIXON, Alan John (id: D000366)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
- Dan Balz (July 23, 1999). "Karl Rove: The Strategist". The Washington Post. Washington Post Company. p. C1.
- 'Illinois Blue Book 1979-1980,' Alan J. Dixon-Secretary of State, pg. 24-25
- Charles Babington and Dan Balz (2005-08-17). "Democrats Feel Heat From Left On Roberts". The Washington Post. Washington Post Company. p. A01.
Nan Aron, president of the Alliance for Justice, said [...] 'History shows us that voters turned on Alan Dixon for his vote on Clarence Thomas and voters gave Arlen Specter the toughest reelection of his life.'
- Martin, Douglas (7 July 2014). "Alan J. Dixon, 86, Is Dead; U.S. Senator Who Championed Illinois". New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- How Senator Alan Dixon gave us President Barack Obama
- Former U.S. Senator Alan Dixon Dies at Home
- "Laureates by Year - The Lincoln Academy of Illinois". The Lincoln Academy of Illinois. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
Adlai Stevenson III
|Illinois State Treasurer
Donald R. Smith
|Illinois Secretary of State
|United States Senate|
Adlai Stevenson III
|U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Illinois
Served alongside: Charles H. Percy, Paul Simon
Carol Moseley Braun
|Party political offices|
|New office||Senate Democratic Chief Deputy Whip