Americans for Tax Reform

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Americans for Tax Reform
Atr-logo-thumb-150.jpg
Abbreviation ATR
Formation 1985
Type Advocacy group
Headquarters 722 12th Street NW
Location
  • Washington, D.C.
Region served
United States
President
Grover Norquist
Website www.atr.org

Americans for Tax Reform (ATR) is a taxpayer advocacy group whose stated goal is "a system in which taxes are simpler, flatter, more visible, and lower than they are today." According to ATR, "The government's power to control one's life derives from its power to tax. We believe that power should be minimized." The organization is known for its "Taxpayer Protection Pledge", which asks candidates for federal and state office to commit themselves in writing to oppose all tax increases. The founder and president of ATR is Grover Norquist, a conservative tax activist.

Structure[edit]

Americans for Tax Reform is a 501(c)(4) organization with 14 employees, finances of $3,912,958, and a membership of 60,000 (as of 2004).[1] It was founded by Grover Norquist in 1985.[2]

The associated educational wing is the Americans for Tax Reform Foundation, which is classified as a 501(c)(3) research and educational organization. The purpose of both entities is to educate and/or lobby against all tax increases.

Americans for Tax Reform is an associate member of the State Policy Network, a U.S. national network of free-market oriented think tanks.[3][4] Americans for Tax Reform is a grantee of the Donors Trust, a nonprofit donor-advised fund.[5][6][2]

Projects[edit]

Taxpayer Protection Pledge[edit]

Since 1986, ATR has sponsored the Taxpayer Protection Pledge, a written promise by legislators and candidates for office that commits them to oppose tax increases. All candidates for state and federal office, and all incumbents are offered the Pledge. Nearly 1,400 elected officials, from state representatives, to governors, to US Senators, have signed the Pledge. [7] There are separate versions at the national and state level.[8][9]

In the version for the U.S. House of Representatives, the signer pledges to:[10]

ONE, oppose any and all efforts to increase the marginal income tax rates for individuals and/or businesses; and

TWO, oppose any net reduction or elimination of deductions and credits, unless matched dollar for dollar by further reducing tax rates.

In the version for state legislators, the signer pledges that:[11]

I will oppose and vote against any and all efforts to increase taxes.

In the 112th Congress serving in years 2011 and 2012, all but six of the 242 Republican members plus two Democratic members of the U.S. House of Representatives, for a total of 238 – a majority of that body – as well as all but seven of the 47 Republican members plus one Democratic member of the U.S. Senate, for a total of 41, have signed the Taxpayer Protection Pledge.[12] All except 13 sitting Republicans have signed the pledge, while three Democrats have signed it (outgoing-Sen. Ben Nelson (NE) and House members Robert Andrews (NJ) and Ben Chandler (KY)).[12]

ATR's president Grover Norquist has written about the importance of the "Taxpayer Protection Pledge" for many publications including Human Events in June 2010. In this article, Norquist writes,

"Raising taxes is what politicians do when they don’t have the strength to actually govern. The taxpayer protection pledge was created in 1986 by Americans for Tax Reform as part of the effort to protect the lower marginal tax rates of Reagan’s Tax Reform Act of 1986. It has grown in importance as one of the few black-and-white, yes or no, answers that politicians are forced to give to voters before they ask for their vote."[13]

The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) and individual Democratic candidates began attacking "The Taxpayer Protection Pledge" and its signers during the 2010 cycle with charges that the pledge protected tax breaks for companies shipping jobs overseas. The first appearance of the argument arose in the HI-01 special election.[14] Americans for Tax Reform responded by calling the attack ad "blatantly false." They pointed out that the Pledge does not prohibit any deduction or credit from being eliminated. It only prevents individuals and/or businesses from experiencing an overall increase in income taxes and allows for revenue-neutral tax reform.[15]

The non-partisan, nonprofit Factcheck.org reviewed the DCCC's ad and agreed with ATR that the ad was "blatantly false." The director of Factcheck.org, Brooks Jackson, wrote:"It was called 'blatantly false' by Americans for Tax Reform, the Republican-leaning group that got Djou’s signature on its anti-tax pledge. We agree. ATR’s tax pledge does protect corporations in general – but only from an overall increase in taxes. It says nothing about jobs at all. More important, it does not rule out an overhaul of the tax code. Signers agree to oppose any "net" reduction of deductions or credits "unless matched dollar for dollar by further reducing tax rates."[16]

According to The Hill, the Democrats' net pickup of eight seats in the House of Representatives in the November 2012 election, combined with several Republicans' disavowal of the pledge, means that the pledge will no longer have the support of a majority of that chamber when the new Congress convenes in January 2013. Norquist claims that 219 Republicans support the pledge; this figure, however, includes several Republicans who have signed the pledge only to disavow it later.[17]

Ronald Reagan Legacy Project[edit]

Created in 1997, ATR's Ronald Reagan Legacy Project, has worked toward seeing each county in the United States commemorate the former president in a "significant" and "public" way, such as the naming of a public building. The project has also supported efforts to place Reagan on the ten-dollar bill.[18] The project has also encouraged state governors declare February 6 to be "Ronald Reagan Day"; as of 2006, 40 governors have done so.[19]

Center for Fiscal Accountability[edit]

Since 2008, ATR has sought to encourage transparency and accountability in government through the Center for Fiscal Accountability. The organization's mission includes supporting the creation of searchable online databases of government spending, among other initiatives.[19]

Cost of Government Day[edit]

ATR sponsors the calculation of "Cost of Government Day", the day on which, by its calculations, "Americans stop working to pay the costs of taxation, deficit spending, and regulations by federal and state governments."[20] Since 2008 the event has been sponsored by the Center for Fiscal Accountability.

Property Rights Alliance[edit]

The Property Rights Alliance[21] is a project of Americans for Tax Reform. It produces the International Property Rights Index annually, ranking individual rights to own private property in countries worldwide. The index focuses on three main factors. These include: Legal and Political environment (LP), Physical Property Rights (PPR), and Intellectual Property rights (IPR). [22]

Failure of IRS to protect confidential tax information[edit]

In October 2014 the ATR said that a report by the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA) found that the IRS has not been safeguarding federal tax information properly. The tax information is gathered by the IRS from the tax returns filed in the United States.

The IRS provides confidential information to over 280 federal, state and local agencies. According to this TIGTA report the IRS’s Internal Revenue Manual does not require on-site validation of an agency’s ability to protect federal tax information and does not set any guidelines for an agency’s background investigation for accessing this information.

The TIGTA report surveyed 15 agencies that receive federal tax information and found that none of them conducted sufficient background checks on employees handling the data: one agency conducted national background investigations, four agencies fingerprint employees and only one checks the sex offender registry. Almost half of the agencies hire convicted criminals.

Federal tax information provided to other agencies must remain confidential by federal law.[23]

Other projects[edit]

ATR has several special project lines dedicated to specific issues including The American Shareholders Association (ASA), Alliance for Worker Freedom (AWF), and The Media Freedom Project (MFP).

In October 2010 ATR began mailing fliers to voters in Florida directing them to call Florida governor and Independent candidate for Senate, Charlie Crist. ATR's mailers included pictures of Crist with Obama and quotes from right wing authors.

Wednesday meetings[edit]

Shortly after Bill Clinton's 1992 election, ATR headquarters became the site of a weekly, off-the-record get-together of conservatives to coordinate activities and strategy. The "Wednesday Meeting" of the Leave Us Alone Coalition soon became an important hub of conservative political organizing. Participants each week include Republican congressional leaders, right-leaning think tanks, conservative advocacy groups and K Street lobbyists. George W. Bush began sending a representative to the Wednesday Meeting even before he formally announced his candidacy for president in 1999, and continued to send representatives after his election in 2000.[24]

ATR has helped to establish regular meetings for conservatives nationwide, modeled after the Wednesday meetings in Washington, with the goal of creating a nationwide network of conservative activists to help support initiatives such as tax cuts and deregulation. There are now meetings in 48 states[25] and more internationally, with meetings in Canada, Austria, Belgium, Croatia, France, Italy, Japan, Spain, and the United Kingdom.[26]

The significance of the Wednesday meeting has influenced liberals and Democrats to organize similar meetings to coordinate activities about their shared agenda. In 2001, USA Today reported that Rep. Rosa DeLauro initiated such a meeting at the urging of then-House Democratic leader Richard Gephardt, even holding it on a Wednesday.[24]

Political positions[edit]

The primary policy goal of Americans for Tax Reform is to reduce the percentage of the GDP consumed by the government.[25][27] ATR states that it "opposes all tax increases as a matter of principle."[28] Americans for Tax Reform seeks to curtail government spending by supporting Taxpayer Bill of Rights (TABOR) legislation[29] and transparency initiatives,[30] and opposing cap-and-trade legislation[31] and Democratic efforts to overhaul health care.[32]

ATR is a member of the Cooler Heads Coalition, which takes the position in the global warming controversy that "the science of global warming is uncertain, but the negative impacts of global warming policies on consumers are all too real."[citation needed] ATR supported the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 and continues to favor a comprehensive immigration reform bill.[33]

ATR has called for cuts in the defense budget in order to reduce deficit spending.[34]

Legislation[edit]

ATR supported the American Research and Competitiveness Act of 2014 (H.R. 4438; 113th Congress), a bill that would amend the Internal Revenue Code to modify the calculation method and the rate for the tax credit for qualified research expenses that expired at the end of 2013 and would make that modified credit permanent.[35] ATR argued that the bill would be "permanent tax relief for American employers" and pointed to the fact that the credit has been in existence since 1981, but businesses had always faced uncertainty about it due to Congress being forced to renew it 14 times.[36] ATR also argued that businesses already face high corporate income tax rates and that "investment in new technologies and sources of capital is under pressure from other areas of the tax code."[36]

ATR supports H.R. 6246, the Retirement Inflation Protection Act of 2016.[37] This act is designed to reduce the capital gains tax by reducing the tax on capital gains by the standardized inflation rate over the time period in which the capital was invested. ATR argues that by taxing the capital gains without taking into account the gains that occurred simply due to inflation, that investors are being punished for investing over a long period of time. The organization published an open letter to congressman urging them to vote in favor of the bill, which focuses on the harm that occurs to seniors due to the lack of protections that this bill would provide. This bill was introduced on September 28th, 2016 into the U.S. Congress and as of November 2nd, 2016 has not been voted upon.[38]

Involvement with Jack Abramoff[edit]

According to an investigative report from the Senate Indian Affairs Committee on the Jack Abramoff scandal, released in June 2006, ATR served as a "conduit" for funds that flowed from Abramoff's clients to finance surreptitiously grass-roots lobbying campaigns.[39] Records show that donations from the Choctaw and Kickapoo tribes to ATR were coordinated in part by Abramoff, and in some cases preceded meetings between the tribes and the White House.[39][40]

International Property Rights Index[edit]

It produces an annual International Property Rights Index. The Index scores and ranks countries worldwide based on three factors: the state of their legal and political environment, physical property rights, and intellectual property rights.

2015 Property rights index[edit]

Country Score Globally Regionally
 Finland 8.3 1 of 129 1 of 19
 Norway 8.2 2 of 129 2 of 19
 New Zealand 8.2 3 of 129 1 of 20
 Luxembourg 8.1 4 of 129 3 of 19
 Singapore 8.1 5 of 129 2 of 20
  Switzerland 8.1 6 of 129 4 of 19
 Sweden 8.0 7 of 129 5 of 19
 Japan 8.0 8 of 129 3 of 20
 Canada 7.9 9 of 129 1 of 2
 Netherlands 7.9 10 of 129 6 of 19
 Denmark 7.9 11 of 129 7 of 19
 Australia 7.7 12 of 129 4 of 20
 United Kingdom 7.7 13 of 129 8 of 19
 Germany 7.6 14 of 129 9 of 19
 United States 7.6 15 of 129 2 of 2
 Hong Kong 7.6 16 of 129 5 of 20
 Austria 7.6 17 of 129 10 of 19
 Qatar 7.5 18 of 129 1 of 20
 Republic of Ireland 7.4 19 of 129 11 of 19
 Belgium 7.4 20 of 129 12 of 19
 United Arab Emirates 7.3 21 of 129 2 of 20
 France 7.2 22 of 129 13 of 19
 Iceland 7.0 23 of 129 14 of 19
 Taiwan 6.9 24 of 129 6 of 20
 Malta 6.7 25 of 129 15 of 19
 Chile 6.6 26 of 129 1 of 22
 Estonia 6.6 27 of 129 1 of 19
 Malaysia 6.6 28 of 129 7 of 20
 South Africa 6.6 29 of 129 1 of 27
 Portugal 6.6 30 of 129 16 of 19
 Czech Republic 6.3 31 of 129 2 of 19
 Israel 6.2 32 of 129 3 of 20
 Oman 6.2 33 of 129 4 of 20
 Mauritius 6.1 34 of 129 2 of 27
 Cyprus 6.0 35 of 129 5 of 20
 Saudi Arabia 6.0 36 of 129 6 of 20
 Puerto Rico 6.0 37 of 129 2 of 22
 South Korea 5.9 38 of 129 8 of 20
 Botswana 5.9 39 of 129 3 of 27
 Uruguay 5.9 40 of 129 3 of 22
 Poland 5.9 41 of 129 3 of 19
 Rwanda 5.9 42 of 129 4 of 27
 Slovakia 5.9 43 of 129 4 of 19
 Lithuania 5.9 44 of 129 5 of 19
 Jordan 5.8 45 of 129 7 of 20
 Hungary 5.8 46 of 129 6 of 19
 Bahrain 5.8 47 of 129 8 of 20
 Costa Rica 5.7 48 of 129 4 of 22
 Spain 5.7 49 of 129 17 of 19
 Ghana 5.6 50 of 129 5 of 27
 Italy 5.6 51 of 129 18 of 19
 Latvia 5.5 52 of 129 7 of 19
 China 5.4 53 of 129 9 of 20
 Jamaica 5.4 54 of 129 5 of 22
 Romania 5.3 55 of 129 8 of 19
 Greece 5.3 56 of 129 19 of 19
 Panama 5.3 57 of 129 6 of 22
 Turkey 5.3 58 of 129 9 of 19
 Trinidad and Tobago 5.2 59 of 129 7 of 22
 Kuwait 5.2 60 of 129 9 of 20
 Slovenia 5.2 61 of 129 10 of 19
 India 5.2 62 of 129 10 of 20
 Morocco 5.2 63 of 129 10 of 20
 Brazil 5.1 64 of 129 8 of 22
 Philippines 5.1 65 of 129 11 of 20
 Macedonia 5.0 66 of 129 11 of 19
 Swaziland 4.9 67 of 129 6 of 27
 Bulgaria 4.9 68 of 129 12 of 19
 Thailand 4.9 69 of 129 12 of 20
 Indonesia 4.9 70 of 129 13 of 20
 Croatia 4.9 71 of 129 13 of 19
 El Salvador 4.8 72 of 129 9 of 22
 Sri Lanka 4.8 73 of 129 14 of 20
 Colombia 4.8 74 of 129 10 of 22
 Mexico 4.7 75 of 129 11 of 22
 Zambia 4.7 76 of 129 7 of 27
 Tunisia 4.6 77 of 129 11 of 20
 Tanzania 4.6 78 of 129 8 of 27
 Peru 4.6 79 of 129 12 of 22
 Senegal 4.6 80 of 129 9 of 27
 Russia 4.5 81 of 129 14 of 19
 Montenegro 4.5 82 of 129 15 of 19
 Kenya 4.5 83 of 129 10 of 27
 Malawi 4.5 84 of 129 11 of 27
 Viet Nam 4.5 85 of 129 15 of 20
 Kazakhstan 4.5 86 of 129 16 of 20
 Guatemala 4.5 87 of 129 13 of 22
 Gabon 4.4 88 of 129 12 of 27
 Honduras 4.4 89 of 129 14 of 22
 Dominican Republic 4.4 90 of 129 15 of 22
 Uganda 4.3 91 of 129 13 of 27
 Sierra Leone 4.3 92 of 129 14 of 27
 Guyana 4.3 93 of 129 16 of 22
 Armenia 4.3 94 of 129 12 of 20
 Georgia 4.2 95 of 129 13 of 20
 Bolivia 4.2 96 of 129 17 of 22
 Mali 4.2 97 of 129 15 of 27
 Cote d'Ivoire 4.2 98 of 129 16 of 27
 Mozambique 4.2 99 of 129 17 of 27
   Nepal 4.2 100 of 129 17 of 20
 Burkina Faso 4.1 101 of 129 18 of 27
 Egypt 4.1 102 of 129 14 of 20
 Azerbaijan 4.1 103 of 129 15 of 20
 Algeria 4.1 104 of 129 16 of 20
 Nicaragua 4.1 105 of 129 18 of 22
 Ethiopia 4.0 106 of 129 19 of 27
 Argentina 4.0 107 of 129 19 of 22
 Iran 4.0 108 of 129 17 of 20
 Ukraine 3.9 109 of 129 16 of 19
 Serbia 3.9 110 of 129 17 of 19
 Cameroon 3.9 111 of 129 20 of 27
 Madagascar 3.8 112 of 129 21 of 27
 Mauritania 3.8 113 of 129 22 of 27
 Paraguay 3.7 114 of 129 20 of 22
 Albania 3.7 115 of 129 18 of 19
 Moldova 3.6 116 of 129 19 of 19
 Chad 3.6 117 of 129 23 of 27
 Pakistan 3.6 118 of 129 18 of 20
 Lebanon 3.5 119 of 129 18 of 20
 Nigeria 3.4 120 of 129 24 of 27
 Burundi 3.3 121 of 129 25 of 27
 Zimbabwe 3.2 122 of 129 26 of 27
 Yemen 2.8 123 of 129 19 of 20
 Libya 2.7 124 of 129 20 of 20
 Venezuela 2.7 125 of 129 21 of 22
 Haiti 2.7 126 of 129 22 of 22
 Angola 2.6 127 of 129 27 of 27
 Bangladesh 2.6 128 of 129 19 of 20
 Myanmar 2.5 129 of 129 20 of 20

Charts and graphs[edit]


2014 Property rights index[edit]

Rank [41] Country Score Globally Regionally
1  Finland 8.5 1 of 97 1 of 19
2  New Zealand 8.3 2 of 97 1 of 16
2  Norway 8.3 2 of 97 2 of 19
2  Sweden 8.3 2 of 97 2 of 19
5  Singapore 8.2 5 of 97 2 of 16
5   Switzerland 8.2 5 of 97 4 of 19
7  Luxembourg 8.1 7 of 97 5 of 19
7  Netherlands 8.1 7 of 97 5 of 19
9  Canada 8.0 9 of 97 1 of 2
10  Denmark 7.9 10 of 97 7 of 19
11  Australia 7.8 11 of 97 3 of 16
11  Austria 7.8 11 of 97 8 of 19
11  Germany 7.8 11 of 97 8 of 19
11  Hong Kong 7.8 11 of 97 3 of 16
11  Japan 7.8 11 of 97 3 of 16
11  United Kingdom 7.8 11 of 97 8 of 19
17  United States 7.7 17 of 97 2 of 2
18  Belgium 7.5 18 of 97 11 of 19
18  Ireland 7.5 18 of 97 11 of 19
20  France 7.3 20 of 97 13 of 19
21  Iceland 7.2 21 of 97 14 of 19
22  Malta 7.0 22 of 97 15 of 19
23  Taiwan 6.9 23 of 97 6 of 16
24  Chile 6.8 24 of 97 1 of 20
24  Portugal 6.8 24 of 97 16 of 19
26  South Africa 6.7 26 of 97 1 of 23
27  Czech Republic 6.5 27 of 97 1 of 10
27  Israel 6.5 27 of 97 1 of 7
27  Malaysia 6.5 27 of 97 7 of 16
30  Cyprus 6.4 30 of 97 2 of 7
31  Botswana 6.3 31 of 97 2 of 23
31  Mauritius 6.3 31 of 97 2 of 23
31  Spain 6.3 31 of 97 17 of 19
34  Saudi Arabia 6.2 34 of 97 3 of 7
34  Slovakia 6.2 34 of 97 2 of 10
36  Hungary 6.1 36 of 97 3 of 10
36  Lithuania 6.1 36 of 97 3 of 10
36  Poland 6.1 36 of 97 3 of 10
36  Uruguay 6.1 36 of 97 2 of 20
40  Costa Rica 6.0 40 of 97 3 of 20
40  Italy 6.0 40 of 97 18 of 19
40  Jordan 6.0 40 of 97 4 of 7
43  Ghana 5.8 43 of 97 4 of 23
44  Panama 5.6 44 of 97 4 of 20
44  Turkey 5.6 44 of 97 6 of 10
46  Brazil 5.5 46 of 97 5 of 20
46  China 5.5 46 of 97 8 of 16
46  India 5.5 46 of 97 8 of 16
46  Jamaica 5.5 46 of 97 5 of 20
50  Bulgaria 5.3 50 of 97 7 of 10
50  Greece 5.3 50 of 97 19 of 19
50  Romania 5.3 50 of 97 7 of 10
50  Thailand 5.3 50 of 97 10 of 16
54  Mexico 5.2 54 of 97 7 of 20
54  Morocco 5.2 54 of 97 5 of 7
56  Malawi 5.1 56 of 97 5 of 23
56  Tanzania 5.1 56 of 97 5 of 23
56  Zambia 5.1 56 of 97 5 of 23
59  Colombia 5.0 59 of 97 8 of 20
59  Ecuador 5.0 59 of 97 8 of 20
59  Indonesia 5.0 59 of 97 11 of 16
59  Peru 5.0 59 of 97 8 of 20
59  Sri Lanka 5.0 59 of 97 11 of 16
64  Dominican Republic 4.9 64 of 97 11 of 20
64  El Salvador 4.9 64 of 97 11 of 20
66  Benin 4.8 66 of 97 8 of 23
66  Guatemala 4.8 66 of 97 13 of 20
66  Mozambique 4.8 66 of 97 8 of 23
66  Russia 4.8 66 of 97 9 of 10
66  Vietnam 4.8 66 of 97 13 of 16
71  Burkina Faso 4.7 71 of 97 10 of 23
71  Guyana 4.7 71 of 97 14 of 20
71  Senegal 4.7 71 of 97 10 of 23
71  Uganda 4.7 71 of 97 10 of 23
75  Egypt 4.6 75 of 97 6 of 7
75  Kenya 4.6 75 of 97 13 of 23
75  Nicaragua 4.6 75 of 97 15 of 20
78  Bolivia 4.5 78 of 97 16 of 20
78  Honduras 4.5 78 of 97 16 of 20
78  Mali 4.5 78 of 97 14 of 23
78  Mauritania 4.5 78 of 97 14 of 23
78    Nepal 4.5 78 of 97 14 of 16
83  Argentina 4.4 83 of 97 18 of 20
83  Ethiopia 4.4 83 of 97 16 of 23
83  Madagascar 4.4 83 of 97 16 of 23
86  Cameroon 4.3 86 of 97 18 of 23
86  Pakistan 4.3 86 of 97 15 of 16
86  Ukraine 4.3 86 of 97 10 of 10
89  Algeria 4.1 89 of 97 7 of 7
89  Ivory Coast 4.1 89 of 97 19 of 23
89  Paraguay 4.1 89 of 97 19 of 20
92  Chad 3.9 92 of 97 20 of 23
93  Zimbabwe 3.8 93 of 97 21 of 23
94  Nigeria 3.7 94 of 97 22 of 23
95  Burundi 3.6 95 of 97 23 of 23
96  Bangladesh 3.4 96 of 97 16 of 16
97  Venezuela 3.2 97 of 97 20 of 20

2013 Property rights index[edit]

Rank Country/Territory Score
1  Finland 8.6
2  New Zealand 8.4
2  Sweden 8.4
4  Norway 8.3
5  Netherlands 8.2
5   Switzerland 8.2
7  Luxembourg 8.1
7  Singapore 8.1
9  Canada 8.0
9  Denmark 8.0
11  Australia 7.9
12  Austria 7.8
12  United Kingdom 7.8
14  Hong Kong 7.7
14  Japan 7.7
14  Germany 7.7
17  United States 7.6
18  Belgium 7.5
18  Ireland 7.5
20  France 7.3
20  Qatar 7.3
22  Iceland 7.2
22  United Arab Emirates 7.2
22  Taiwan 7.2
25  Malta 7.0
26  South Africa 6.8
26  Portugal 6.8
26  Chile 6.8
29  Estonia 6.7
29  Israel 6.7
31  Oman 6.6
31  Cyprus 6.6
33  Czech Republic 6.5
33  Malaysia 6.5
33  Spain 6.5
33  Bahrain 6.5
37  Saudi Arabia 6.4
37  Puerto Rico 6.4
37  South Korea 6.4
40  Hungary 6.3
40  Botswana 6.3
40  Mauritius 6.3
40  Slovakia 6.3
44  Uruguay 6.2
44  Poland 6.2
44  Rwanda 6.2
47  Italy 6.1
48  Jordan 6.0
48  Lithuania 6.0
48  Slovenia 6.0

2012 Property rights index[edit]

Rank Country/Territory Score
1  Finland 8.6
2  Sweden 8.5
3  Oman 8.3
3  Slovakia 8.3
3   Switzerland 8.3
6  Macedonia 8.2
6  Denmark 8.2
6  Nicaragua 8.2
9  New Zealand 8.1
10  Canada 8.0
11  United Kingdom 7.9
12  Hong Kong 7.8
12  Austria 7.8
12  Australia 7.8
15  Germany 7.7
15  Japan 7.7
17  Ireland 7.6
18  Belgium 7.5
18  United States 7.5
20  France 7.4
21  Iceland 7.2
21  Taiwan 7.2
23  Romania 7.1
23  United Arab Emirates 7.1
25  Cyprus 6.9
26  Puerto Rico 6.8
26  Mauritania 6.8
28  Chile 6.7
28  Bahrain 6.7
28  Estonia 6.7
31  Senegal 6.6
31  South Korea 6.6
31  Israel 6.6
31  Pakistan 6.6
35  Spain 6.5
36  Hungary 6.4
36  Mali 6.4
36  Czech Republic 6.4
39  Botswana 6.3
40  Mexico 6.2
40  Qatar 6.2
40  Slovenia 6.2
40  Uruguay 6.2
40  Portugal 6.2
40  Kuwait 6.2
46  Italy 6.1
47  Luxembourg 6.0
47  Saudi Arabia 6.0
49  South Africa 5.9
49  Jordan 5.9
49  Latvia 5.9

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Americans for Tax Reform". Right Wing Watch. September 2006. Retrieved April 19, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "About Americans for Tax Reform". Americans for Tax Reform. 2011. Retrieved July 18, 2015. 
  3. ^ Kopan, Tal (November 13, 2013). "Report: Think tanks tied to Kochs". Politico. Retrieved February 24, 2015. 
  4. ^ "Directory SPN Members". State Policy Network. Retrieved March 23, 2015. 
  5. ^ Kroll, Andy (February 5, 2013). "Exposed: The Dark-Money ATM of the Conservative Movement". Mother Jones. Retrieved July 18, 2015. recipients of Donors Trust money include...Americans for Tax Reform 
  6. ^ Ball, Whitney L. (2010). "Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax" (PDF). Nonprofit Explorer. ProPublica. p. 29. 
  7. ^ "About Americans for Tax reforms". Americans for Tax Reforms. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  8. ^ "Federal Taxpayer Protection Pledge Q & A" (PDF). Americans for Tax Reform. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  9. ^ "State Taxpayer Protection Pledge Q & A" (PDF). Americans for Tax Reform. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  10. ^ "U.S. House: Taxpayer Protection Pledge" (PDF). Americans for Tax Reform. 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2011. 
  11. ^ "State Legislator: Taxpayer Protection Pledge" (PDF). Americans for Tax Reform. 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b "The Taxpayer Protection Pledge Signers" (PDF). Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  13. ^ Norquist, Grover (June 22, 2009). "Anti-Tax Pledge Takes on Urgency". Human Events. Washington, DC. 
  14. ^ Kraushaar, Josh (April 6, 2010). "DCCC hits Djou in new ads". Politico. Washington, DC. 
  15. ^ Radman, Adam (April 7, 2010). "DCCC Attacks Charles Djou with False Claims about the Taxpayer Protection Pledge". Americans for Tax Reform. Archived from the original on September 17, 2010. Retrieved October 9, 2010. 
  16. ^ Jackson, Brooks (April 9, 2010). "A False Tax Attack". Factcheck.org. Archived from the original on October 6, 2010. Retrieved October 9, 2010. 
  17. ^ Berman, Russell. Norquist tax pledge takes election hit. The Hill, 2012-11-13.
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