|Motto||Educating Taxpayers Since 1937|
|Type||Public Policy Think Tank|
|Headquarters||1325 G St NW, Suite 950|
|Scott A. Hodge|
The Tax Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank founded in 1937 that collects data and publishes research studies on tax policies at the federal and state levels. The organization is broken into three primary areas of research which are the Center for Federal Fiscal Policy, The Center for State Fiscal Policy and the Center for Legal Reform. The group is known for its annual reports such as "Facts & Figures: How Does Your State Compare" which was first produced in 1941 and Tax Freedom Day for the United States, which it has produced since the early 1970s.
The Foundation's stated mission is to "educate taxpayers about sound tax policy and the size of the tax burden borne by Americans at all levels of government". The Tax Foundation is organized as 501(c)3 non-profit educational and research organization. Though it describes itself as a nonpartisan tax research group, it has been described as pro-business and conservative-leaning and has ties to various conservative groups.
Goals and principles
Tax Foundation states that their research is guided by what they call the principles of sound tax policy: simplicity, transparency, neutrality, stability, no retroactivity, broad bases and low rates.
Tax Foundation research is generally critical of tax increases, high business taxes, excise taxes, tax preferences for the housing industry, and use of the tax code for "picking winners and losers". They have spoken favorably of efforts to balance the federal budget with tax reform and significant spending cuts, such as the Bowles-Simpson plan, the Ryan Plan, and the Wyden-Coats plan.
|This section requires expansion. (April 2015)|
The Tax Foundation was organized on December 5, 1937 in New York City by Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., Chairman of the General Motors Corporation; Donaldson Brown, GM Financial Vice President; William S. Farish, President of Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (Exxon); and Lewis H. Brown, President of Johns-Manville Corporation, who later became the first Chairman of the Board of The Tax Foundation. The stated goal of the organization was "to monitor the tax and spending policies of government agencies". Its offices were located at 50 Rockefeller Plaza and later 30 Rockefeller Plaza.
The Tax Foundation’s first project was a successful effort to stop a tax increase in Westchester County, New York, where they provided research and analysis (including an "Expenditure Survey” of state spending) to local activists. By 1943, the Tax Foundation had helped set up taxpayers associations and expenditure councils in 35 states.
During World War II, Tax Foundation research emphasized restraining government spending domestically to finance wartime expenditures. In 1948, the Tax Foundation opened an office in Washington, D.C., and in 1978 relocated there completely. Its research and analysis has historically emphasized publicizing federal and state financial information, arguing against the use of tax systems for "social engineering," and urging "broad bases and low rates" tax reform.
Beginning in 1990, the Tax Foundation "operate[d] as a separate unit" of Citizens for a Sound Economy. By July 1991, the Tax Foundation was again operating as "an independent 501(c)(3) organization".
Board of directors
|David P. Lewis, Chairman||2009–current||Eli Lilly & Co, Vice President Global Taxes; Tax Council Policy Institute, Treasurer|
|James Lintott||pre-1999–current||Sterling Foundation Management|
|Bill Archer||2003–current||former member of the United States House of Representatives from Texas|
|Philip English||current||former member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania|
|Douglas Holtz-Eakin||2009–current||President of the American Action Forum, former Director of the Congressional Budget Office, chief economic adviser to Presidential candidate John McCain in 2008|
|Stephen Kranz||current||partner at McDermott Will & Emery|
|Sarah McGill||2009–current||Pepsico, VP Tax Planning|
|Pamela F. Olson||2009–current||Deputy Tax Leader at PwC; formerly at Skadden, Arps; senior economic adviser to the Bush-Cheney campaign and formerly Assistant Secretary of Treasury for Tax Policy under Pres. Bush|
|Tom Roesser||current||Microsoft, Senior Director of Tax Affairs|
|Former Directors (post-1990):|
|Wayne E. Gable||pre-1999–2008||Koch Industries Dir. of Federal Affairs, Citizens for a Sound Economy, Americans for Prosperity|
|James C. Miller III||1989–2005||Citizens for a Sound Economy; Director of OMB under President Reagan|
|Joseph O. Luby, Jr.||2000–2006||Exxon Mobil, VP Tax|
|James Q. Riordan||pre-1989–1999||Mobil, VP Tax|
|R. Glenn Hubbard||2003–2008||Chairman of President Bush's Council of Economic Advisers|
|Michael P. Boyle||2002–2006||Microsoft, VP Finance|
The Tax Foundation accepts grants from foundations, corporations, and individuals. They do not solicit or accept funds from government sources. The Tax Foundation has earned a 3 out of 4 star financial rating and 4 out of 4 star accountability and transparency rating from Charity Navigator.
The Tax Foundation has received funding from ExxonMobil and from conservative political groups such as the Koch Family Foundations, the Earhart Foundation, and Citizens for a Sound Economy.
The Tax Foundation's annual study that calculate Tax Freedom Days in the United States has been criticized by other think tanks, such as the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP) and Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ), citing repeated "methodological errors" and "reliance on early projections without hard data." CBPP has also criticized other reports by the Tax Foundation, and in turn the Tax Foundation has responded or criticized CBPP reports. The two groups have some areas of agreement, such as opposition to most tax expenditures and sales tax holidays.
US economist Paul Krugman has characterised the Tax Foundation as "not a reliable source" while criticizing a report by the Tax Foundation comparing corporate tax rates in the United States to those in other countries. Krugman has also accused the Tax Foundation of "deliberate fraud" in connection with a report it issued concerning the American Jobs Act.
- Americans For Fair Taxation
- Americans for Tax Reform
- Brookings Institution
- Cato Institute
- Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
- Citizens for Tax Justice
- Heritage Foundation
- Koch Family Foundations
- National Taxpayers Union
- Tax Policy Center
- Urban Institute
- "Tax Research Areas > State Tax and Spending Policy". The Tax Foundation. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Tax Research Areas > Tax Law". The Tax Foundation. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Facts & Figures Handbook: How Does Your State Compare?". The Tax Foundation. 2012-02-15. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "The Tax Foundation". The Tax Foundation. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "About the Tax Foundation". Retrieved 2011-04-28.
- "Factcheck.org: Misleading Ads on Obama's Small-Business Tax Plan – Newsweek". Newsweek. 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2011.(Subscription required.)
- "Power Trips: Congress hits the road". MedillNewsDC.com. 2000-01-01. Archived from the original on 2013-06-20. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
- Kevin Drum (2007-10-10). "The Washington Monthly". The Washington Monthly. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
- "Principles of Sound Tax Policy". Taxfoundation.org. August 20, 2007. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- "Portland Business Journal, Tax Foundation Criticizes State Tax Hikes". Taxfoundation.org. 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Tax Foundation, Maryland Tax Increases Can’t Keep Up With Spending Increases". Taxfoundation.org. 2008-12-29. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Tax Foundation, The Economic Cost of High Tax Rates". Taxfoundation.org. 2009-07-29. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Tax Foundation, Oregon’s Wave of Tax Increases and New Spending". Taxfoundation.org. 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Tax Foundation CompeteUSA Project". Taxfoundation.org. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Excise Taxes". Tax Foundation. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Tax Foundation, Giuliani Wrong on Mortgage Interest Deduction". Taxfoundation.org. 2007-12-03. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Tax Foundation, Louisiana Tax Credits: Politicians Picking Winners and Losers". Taxfoundation.org. 2009-07-11. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Tax Foundation, Remarks to the Shaftesbury Society Luncheon". Taxfoundation.org. 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Draft from President's Deficit Commission Stirs the Fiscal Pot in Washington". Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- "Ryan Plan Smartly Marries Tax Reform with Spending Reform". Retrieved 2011-04-28.
- "Wyden-Coats Tax Reform Plan Adds to Debate But Needs Fixing". Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- Joseph Henchman (2013-09-13). "Wisconsin Offers Constructive Tax Filing Guidance for Same-Sex Couples". Tax Foundation. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- Joseph Henchman (2015-03-20). "10 Remaining States Provide Tax Filing Guidance to Same-Sex Married Taxpayers". Tax Foundation. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Tax Foundation, Celebrating Our 65th Year". Taxfoundation.org. 2002-09-01. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Tax Foundation 1937–1987: The First Fifty Years" (PDF). Tax Foundation. 1987.
- "Tax Features" (PDF) 34 (1). Tax Foundation. January 1990. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Tax Features" (PDF) 35 (6). Tax Foundation. July 1991. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Tax Foundation, Contact Us". Taxfoundation.org. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Tax Foundation, Office Warming Reception". Taxfoundation.org. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Board of Directors – Tax Foundation". 2014. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
- "TCPI – Tax Council Policy Institute". tcpi.org. 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
- "Tax Policy Leadership". Retrieved September 2, 2014.
- "Pamela F. Olson, Skadden bio Retrieved 2011-03-21". Skadden.com. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "TAX FOUNDATION Form 990's". Economic Research Institute. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "Tax Foundation, Funding". Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Charity Navigator Rating – Tax Foundation". Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "2013 Form 990, Tax Foundation" (PDF). Foundation Center. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "2012 Form 990, Tax Foundation" (PDF). Foundation Center. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "2011 Form 990, Tax Foundation" (PDF). Foundation Center. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Koch Industries Climate Denial Front Group Tax Foundation". Greenpeace Online. Retrieved 2-14-08-22. Check date values in:
- "Media Transparency: Grants from Earhart Foundation to Tax Foundation". Old.mediatransparency.org. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- Lav, Iris J.; Shapiro, Isaac; Greenstein, Robert (May 10, 1999). "Tax Foundation Figures Produce Misleading and Inaccurate Impressions of Middle Class Tax Burdens". Retrieved April 15, 2011.
- "Tax Foundation State Rankings Continue to Deceive". ctj.org. 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2011.
- Michael Mazerov (July 20, 2005). "The Tax Foundation’s Analyses Of The CUNO Decision: Inaccurate And Inconsistent". Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Aron, Aviva (April 23, 2008). "Tax Foundation Figures Do Not Represent Typical Households' Tax Burdens: Figures May Mislead Policymakers, Journalists, and the Public – Center on Budget and Policy Priorities". Cbpp.org. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "Don't Let the Tax Foundation Figures Persuade You Otherwise: Taxes on Households in the Middle of the Income Spectrum are Neither Exceptionally High nor Rising". Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. April 15, 1998. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "CBPP Report Confuses Two Issues; Ignores Budget Reform Opportunity". The Tax Foundation. January 8, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "CBPP Critique of State and Local Burden Methodology Is Baseless and Hypocritical". The Tax Foundation. August 8, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "CBPP Puts Out Misleading Information on Poor and Cigarette Taxes". The Tax Foundation. October 18, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "CBPP Report Longs for a Poorer Country". The Tax Foundation. August 27, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "S-Corps and LLCs Pay Lots of State Taxes Already, Via Their Shareholders". The Tax Foundation. April 9, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "CBPP Issues Report on Tax Expenditures". The Tax Foundation. April 13, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "Sales Tax Holidays: Politically Expedient but Poor Tax Policy". The Tax Foundation. August 3, 2006. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- Krugman, Paul (2008-08-24). "The Tax Foundation is not a reliable source". The Conscience of a Liberal blog, nytimes.com. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- "Stocks, Flows, and Fuzzy Math". Krugman.blogs.nytimes.com. October 11, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.