Amurru kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
c. 2000 BC–c. 1200 BC
The geopolitic map of the Middle East during the Amarna Period, before Amurru became part of the Hittite zone of influence
The geopolitic map of the Middle East during the Amarna Period, before Amurru became part of the Hittite zone of influence
Ancient Levantine religion
• c. 14th century BC
• c. 14th century BC
Historical eraBronze Age
• Established
c. 2000 BC
• Disestablished
c. 1200 BC
Today part of

Amurru was an Amorite kingdom established c. 2000 BC,[1] in a region spanning present-day western and north-western Syria and northern Lebanon.[2][3][4]


The inhabitants spoke the Amorite language, an extinct early Northwest Semitic language language classified as a westernmost or Amorite-specific dialect of Ugaritic.[5][6][7] The kingdom and its people were synonymous with their god Amurru, also known as Martu, a storm and weather deity and tutelary deity of the unknown Mesopotamian city of Ninab, titled as bêl šadê and sometimes compared to the Canaanite and Mesopotamian god Hadad/Iškur.[8][9]

The first documented leader of Amurru was Abdi-Ashirta (14th century BC), under whose leadership Amurru was part of the New Egyptian Empire. His son Aziru made contact with the Hittite king Šuppiluliuma I, and eventually defected to the Hittites.

The capital of the Amurru kingdom was the city of Sumur (located in the modern-day southern coast of Syria), a Phoenician city conquered by Abdi-Ashirta.

The Amurru kingdom was destroyed around 1200 B.C.



  1. ^ Al-Maqdissi 2010, p. 140.
  2. ^ Izre'el, Sh. (1991). Amurru Akkadian: A Linguistic Study. With an Appendix on the History of Amurru by Itamar Singer. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press.
  3. ^ Singer, I. (1991). "The "Land of Amurru" and the "Lands of Amurru" in the Šaušgamuwa Treaty". Iraq. 53: 69–74. doi:10.2307/4200336. JSTOR 4200336. S2CID 131582702.
  4. ^ Benz, B. (2016). The Land Before the Kingdom of Israel: A History of the Southern Levant and the People who Populated It. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns. pp. 141–179.
  5. ^ Woodard, Roger D. (2008-04-10). The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9781139469340.
  6. ^ Goetze, Albrecht (1941). "Is Ugaritic a Canaanite Dialect?". Language. 17 (2): 127–138. doi:10.2307/409619. ISSN 0097-8507. JSTOR 409619.
  7. ^ Kaye, Alan S. (2007). Morphologies of Asia and Africa. Eisenbrauns. p. 49. ISBN 9781575061092.
  8. ^ Paul-Alain Beaulieu, The God Amurru as Emblem of Ethnic and Cultural Identity in "Ethnicity in Ancient Mesopotamia" (W. van Soldt, R. Kalvelagen, and D. Katz, eds.) Papers Read at the 48th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Leiden, July 1–4, 2002 (PIHANS 102; Nederlands Instituut voor her Nabije Oosten, 2005) 31-46
  9. ^ Bailey, L. R. (1968). "Israelite ’Ēl šadday and Amorite Bêl šadê", Journal of Biblical Literature 87, 434–38.


  • Al-Maqdissi, Michel (2010). "Matériel pour l'Étude de la Ville en Syrie (Deuxième Partie): Urban Planning in Syria during the SUR (Second Urban Revolution) (Mid-third Millennium BC)". Al-Rāfidān (Journal of Western Asiatic Studies). Institulte for Cultural studies of Ancient Iraq, Kokushikan University. Special Issue. ISSN 0285-4406.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 34°34′11″N 36°13′55″E / 34.56972°N 36.23194°E / 34.56972; 36.23194