Apali language

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Apalɨ
Emerum
Munga
Native toPapua New Guinea
RegionMadang Province
Native speakers
980 (2003)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3ena
Glottologapal1256[2]

Apalɨ (Apal), or Emerum, is a Papuan language of Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Akɨ and Acɨ are two dialects that are quite different from each other.[3]

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Apalɨ vowels[4]
Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid e o
Open a

Evolution[edit]

Below are some reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea proposed by Pawley (2012).[3]

Sources abbreviations
  • (W) = Wade (n.d.), Akɨ dialect[5]
  • (Z) = Z’graggen (1980), Acɨ dialect[6]
proto-Trans-New Guinea Apalɨ
*maŋgV ‘compact round object’ maŋgɨ ‘egg’
*mapVn ‘liver’ mapɨn
*maŋgat[a] ‘teeth, mouth’ mɨka
*mVkVm ‘jaw’ mukum
*(m,mb)elak ‘light, lightning’ (Osum and Paynamar mira, Moresada merak)
*kumV- ‘die’ kɨm-
*k(o,u)ma(n,ŋ)[V] ‘neck, nape’ (sa)kum ‘nape’
*iman ‘louse’ iman
*na- ‘eat’ n
pMadang *na ‘2SG free pronoun’ nama (cf. also na- ‘2SG POSS’)
pMadang *nu ‘3SG free pronoun’ numbu (cf. also nu- ‘3SG POSS’)
*nVŋg- ‘know, hear, see’ iŋg- (some other S Adelbert languages have niŋg-)
*kambena ‘arm’ human
*kin(i,u)- ‘sleep’ (?) hɨni- ‘be, stay, exist’
*[w]ani ‘who?’ ani
*(s,nd)umu(n,t)[V] ‘hair’ (?) mɨnɨ
*mapVn ‘liver’ maßɨn
*iman ‘louse’ iman
*takVn[V] ‘moon’ (Acɨ dial.) takun (Z), (Akɨ dial.) lakun (W)
*sa(ŋg,k)asiŋ ‘sand’ kasɨŋ (Z)
*mb(i,u)t(i,u)C ‘fingernail’ tɨpi (metath.) (Z)
*imbi ‘name’ imbi (W)
*[ka]tumba(C) ‘short’ tɨmbɨ (W)
*si(mb,p)at[V] ‘saliva’ sɨmbu ‘spit’
*simbil[VC] ‘navel’ (Akɨ) simbilɨm, (Acɨ) cimbilɨm ‘placenta, navel, umbilical cord’ (W)
*si(m,mb)(i,u) + modifier ‘buttocks’ susum ‘lower buttocks’
*kambena ‘arm, forearm’ human (W)
*mapVn ‘liver’ maβɨn (W)
*apa ‘father’ iaβaŋ (W)
*apus[i]‘grandparent’ aβe ‘grandmother’
*apa(pa)ta ‘butterfly’ (?) afafaŋ (Z)
*ka(nd,t)(e,i)kV ‘ear’ hinji (W)
*kindil ‘root’ hɨnjɨlɨ (W)
*[ka]tumba(C) ‘short’ tɨmbɨ (W, Z)
*takVn[V] ‘moon’ (Acɨ dial.) takun (Z)
*takVn[V] ‘moon’ lakun (W)
*kumut, *tumuk ‘thunder’ lɨmbɨ(lami) ‘to thunder’
*mb(i,u)t(i,u)C ‘fingernail’ tɨpi (metath.) (Z)
*kit(i,u) ‘leg’ gɨtɨ (Z)
*kutV(mb,p)(a,u)[C] ‘long’ (Akɨ) hutaŋ (W), (Acɨ) kutes (Z)
*si(mb,p)at[V] ‘saliva’ sɨmbu ‘spit’
*maŋgat[a] ‘teeth, mouth’ mɨka (W)
*si(mb,p)at[V] ‘saliva’ sɨmbu ‘spit’
*simb(i,u) ‘guts’ su ‘faeces’
*simbil[VC] ‘navel’ (Akɨ) simbilɨm, (Acɨ) cimbilɨm (both W)
*si(m,mb)(i,u) + modifier ‘buttocks’ susum (W)
*sa(ŋg,k)asiŋ ‘sand’ kasɨŋ (Z)
*maŋgV ‘compact round object’ maŋgɨ ‘egg’
*nVŋg- ‘know, hear, see’ i ŋg- ‘see’
*maŋgat[a] ‘teeth, mouth’ mɨka (W)
*kumV- ‘die’ kɨm- ‘die’
*k(o,u)ma(n,ŋ)[V] ‘neck, nape’ (sa)kum ‘nape’
*kambena ‘arm’ human (W)
*kindil ‘root’ hɨnjɨlɨ (W) (cf. gɨndrɨ ‘root’
*ka(nd,t)(e,i)kV ‘ear’ hɨnji (W)
*kin(i,u)- ‘sleep, lie down’ hɨni- ‘be, stay, exist’
*kutV(mb,p)(a,u)[C] ‘long’ hutaŋ (W)
*kumV- ‘die’ hɨmi- (W)
*kit(i,u) ‘leg’ gɨtɨ (Z)
*mVkVm ‘cheek’ (Acɨ) mukum (W), Akɨ mɨhum (W)
*takVn[V] ‘moon’ lakun (W)
*ka(nd,t)(e,i)kV ‘ear’ hɨnji (W)
*tumuk ‘to thunder’ (?) lɨmbɨ(lami) (W)
*kindil ‘root’ hɨndɨlɨ (W) (Z. gives gundru)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Apalɨ at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Apali". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b Pawley, Andrew (2012). Hammarström, Harald; van den Heuvel, Wilco (eds.). "How reconstructable is proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, progress, prospects". History, contact and classification of Papuan languages. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea: Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea (Language & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue 2012: Part I): 88–164. ISSN 0023-1959.
  4. ^ Daniels, Don Roger (June 2015). "A Reconstruction of Proto-Sogeram". Alexandria Digital Research Library: 84–85.
  5. ^ Wade, Martha. n.d. Dictionary of the Apalɨ language. Printout. Madang: Pioneer Bible Translators.
  6. ^ Z’graggen, John A. 1980. A comparative word list of the Southern Adelbert Range languages, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.