Arnay-sous-Vitteaux is located some 50 km north-west of Dijon and 35 km south-east of Montbard. Access to the commune is by the D905 road from Vitteaux in the south passing through the east of the commune and continuing north to Venarey-les-Laumes. Access to the village is by the D1178 from Marigny-le-Cahouët in the north-west passing through the village then north-east to join the D905. There are forests in the west, centre, and east of the commune with the rest being farmland.
The Brenne river passes through the commune from south to north parallel to and west of the D905. The Ruisseau de Chassaigne rises in the south of the commune and flows north through the village to join the Brenne east of the village.
In 2009 the commune had 112 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
^At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.
^Élisabeth Sirot, Noble and fortified house - The lordly manors in the medieval countryside from the middle of the 12th century to the beginning of the 16th century, Editions Picard, Paris, 2007, ISBN978-2-7084-0770-1, LCCN 2007475228, p. 10 (in French)