Association of American Universities
|Mary Sue Coleman|
|Education in the United States|
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The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an international organization of leading research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education. It consists of 60 universities in the United States (both public and private) and two universities in Canada.
The AAU was founded in 1900 by a group of fourteen Ph.D.-granting universities in the United States to strengthen and standardize American doctoral programs. Today, the primary purpose of the organization is to provide a forum for the development and implementation of institutional and national policies, in order to promote strong programs in academic research and scholarship and undergraduate, graduate, and professional education.
The largest attraction of the AAU for many schools, especially nonmembers, is prestige. For example, in 2010 the chancellor of nonmember North Carolina State University described it as "the pre-eminent research-intensive membership group. To be a part of that organization is something N.C. State aspires to." A spokesman for nonmember University of Connecticut called it "perhaps the most elite organization in higher education. You'd probably be hard-pressed to find a major research university that didn't want to be a member of the AAU." In 2012, the new elected chancellor of University of Massachusetts Amherst, a nonmember of AAU, reaffirmed the framework goal of elevating the campus to AAU standards which inspire them to become a member in the near future, and called it a distinctive status. Because of the lengthy and difficult entrance process, boards of trustees, state legislators, and donors often see membership as evidence of the quality of a university.
The AAU acts as a lobbyist at its headquarters in the city of Washington, D.C. for research and higher education funding and for policy and regulatory issues affecting research universities. The association holds two meetings annually, both in Washington. Separate meetings are held for university presidents, provosts, and other officials. Because the meetings are private they offer the opportunity for discussion without media coverage. Prominent government officials, businessmen, and others often speak to the groups.
|Thomas A. Bartlett||1977–1982|
|Robert M. Rosenzweig||1983–1993|
|Cornelius J. Pings||1993–1998|
|Nils Hasselmo||July 1, 1998 – April 2006|
|Robert M. Berdahl||May 2006 – June 2011|
|Hunter R. Rawlings III||July 1, 2011 – May, 2016|
|Mary Sue Coleman||June 1, 2016 to present|
As of 2004, AAU members accounted for 58% of U.S. universities' research grants and contract income and 52% of all doctorates awarded in the United States. Since 1999, 43% of all Nobel Prize winners and 74% of winners at U.S. institutions have been affiliated with an AAU university. Approximately two thirds of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 2006 Class of Fellows are affiliated with an AAU university. The faculties at AAU universities include 2,993 members of the United States National Academies (82% of all members): the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine (2004).
- Undergraduate students: 1,044,759; 7% nationally
- Undergraduate degrees awarded: 235,328; 17% nationally
- Graduate students: 418,066; 20% nationally
- Master’s degrees awarded: 106,971; 19% nationally
- Professional degrees awarded: 20,859; 25% nationally
- Doctorates awarded: 22,747; 52% nationally
- Postdoctoral fellows: 30,430; 67% nationally
- Students studying abroad: 57,205
- National Merit/Achievement Scholars (2004): 5,434; 63% nationally
- Faculty: approximately 72,000
AAU membership is by invitation only, which requires an affirmative vote of three fourths of current members. Invitations are considered periodically, based in part on an assessment of the breadth and quality of university programs of research and graduate education, as well as undergraduate education. The association ranks its members using four criteria: research spending, the percentage of faculty who are members of the National Academies, faculty awards, and citations. Two thirds of members can vote to revoke membership for poor rankings. As of 2010[update] annual dues are $80,500. All 60 US members of the AAU are also classified as Highest Research Activity (R1) Universities by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
|Institution||State or Province||Control||Established||Year joined||Total students|
|Brown University||Rhode Island||Private||1764||1933||8,619|
|California Institute of Technology||California||Private||1891||1934||2,231|
|Carnegie Mellon University||Pennsylvania||Private||1900||1982||12,908|
|Case Western Reserve University||Ohio||Private||1826||1969||10,325|
|Columbia University||New York||Private||1754||1900||29,250|
|Cornell University||New York||Private||1865||1900||20,939|
|Duke University||North Carolina||Private||1838||1938||14,600|
|Georgia Institute of Technology||Georgia||Public||1885||2010||21,471|
|Indiana University Bloomington||Indiana||Public||1820||1909||42,731|
|Iowa State University||Iowa||Public||1858||1958||36,001|
|The Johns Hopkins University||Maryland||Private||1876||1900||20,871|
|Massachusetts Institute of Technology||Massachusetts||Private||1865||1934||11,301|
|Michigan State University||Michigan||Public||1855||1964||49,300|
|New York University||New York||Private||1831||1950||53,711|
|The Ohio State University||Ohio||Public||1870||1916||57,466|
|The Pennsylvania State University||Pennsylvania||Public||1855||1958||45,518|
|Princeton University||New Jersey||Private||1746||1900||8,010|
|Rutgers University–New Brunswick||New Jersey||Public||1766||1989||41,565|
|Stony Brook University||New York||Public||1957||2001||24,594|
|Texas A&M University||Texas||Public||1876||2001||62,185|
|The University of Arizona||Arizona||Public||1885||1985||40,223|
|The State University of New York at Buffalo||New York||Public||1846||1989||29,850|
|University of California, Berkeley||California||Public||1868||1900||36,204|
|University of California, Davis||California||Public||1905||1996||34,175|
|University of California, Irvine||California||Public||1965||1996||29,588|
|University of California, Los Angeles||California||Public||1919||1974||42,163|
|University of California, San Diego||California||Public||1960||1982||30,310|
|University of California, Santa Barbara||California||Public||1944||1995||22,225|
|The University of Chicago||Illinois||Private||1890||1900||14,954|
|University of Colorado Boulder||Colorado||Public||1876||1966||32,775|
|University of Florida||Florida||Public||1853||1985||49,042|
|University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign||Illinois||Public||1867||1908||44,520|
|The University of Iowa||Iowa||Public||1847||1909||31,065|
|The University of Kansas||Kansas||Public||1865||1909||27,983|
|University of Maryland, College Park||Maryland||Public||1856||1969||37,631|
|University of Michigan||Michigan||Public||1817||1900||43,426|
|University of Minnesota||Minnesota||Public||1851||1908||51,853|
|University of Missouri||Missouri||Public||1839||1908||35,441|
|University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill||North Carolina||Public||1789||1922||29,390|
|University of Oregon||Oregon||Public||1876||1969||24,181|
|University of Pennsylvania||Pennsylvania||Private||1740||1900||24,630|
|University of Pittsburgh||Pennsylvania||Public||1787||1974||28,649|
|University of Rochester||New York||Private||1850||1941||10,290|
|University of Southern California||California||Private||1880||1969||39,958|
|The University of Texas at Austin||Texas||Public||1883||1929||51,000|
|University of Toronto||Ontario||Public||1827||1926||84,000|
|University of Virginia||Virginia||Public||1819||1904||21,000|
|University of Washington||Washington||Public||1861||1950||43,762|
|University of Wisconsin–Madison||Wisconsin||Public||1848||1900||43,275|
|Washington University in St. Louis||Missouri||Private||1853||1923||14,117|
- The Catholic University of America (1900–2002)
- Departed as a result of "institutional emphases and energies" that differed from the other AAU members.
- Clark University (1900–1999)
- Departed because of a shift in the AAU's emphasis to large research universities.
- University of Nebraska–Lincoln (1909–2011)
- Removed from the AAU. Chancellor Harvey Perlman claimed that the lack of an on-campus medical school (the Medical Center is a separate campus of the University of Nebraska system) and the AAU's disregarding of USDA-funded agricultural research in its metrics hurt the university's performance in the association's internal ranking system.
- Syracuse University (1966–2011)
- Because of a dispute over how to count non-federal grants, Syracuse voluntarily withdrew from the AAU in 2011. The Chronicle of Higher Education reported that after "it became clear that Syracuse wouldn't meet the association's revised membership criteria, university officials decided that they would leave the organization voluntarily, rather than face a vote like Nebraska's, and notified the leadership of their intentions."
Map of schools
The AAU supported the Research and Development Efficiency Act (H.R. 5056; 113th Congress) arguing that the legislation "can lead to a long-needed reduction in the regulatory burden currently imposed on universities and their faculty members who conduct research on behalf of the federal government." According to the AAU, "too often federal requirements" for accounting for federal grant money "are ill-conceived, ineffective, and/or duplicative." This wastes the researchers' times and "reduces the time they can devote to discovery and innovation and increases institutional compliance costs." AAU institutions are frequently involved in U.S. science policy debates. In 2008, AAU Vice President for Policy, Tobin Smith, co-authored a textbook on U.S. science policy.
Notes and references
- Fain, Paul (April 21, 2010). "As AAU Admits Georgia Tech to Its Exclusive Club, Other Universities Await the Call". Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- Hine, Chris (June 13, 2010). "Nebraska has it all to attract Big Ten, most importantly AAU membership". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- UMass Amherst: Kumble R. Subbaswamy – Feature Story. Umass.edu (May 13, 2012). Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
- Over $15.9 billion: NIH: $9.1 billion, 60% of total academic research funding. Research Funding: National Science Foundation: $2.0 billion, 63 percent of total academic research funding Department of Defense: $1.2 billion, 56% of total academic research funding Department of Energy: $505.2 million, 63% of total academic research funding NASA: $673.2 million, 57 percent of total academic research funding Department of Agriculture: $271.9 million, 41 percent of total academic research funding
- AAU Facts and Figures. Accessed August 24, 2008.
- Abourezk, Kevin (April 29, 2011). "Research universities group ends UNL's membership". Lincoln Journal Star. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- Selingo, Jeffrey J. (April 29, 2011). "U. of Nebraska-Lincoln Is Voted Out of Assn. of American Universities". Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Member Institutions and Years of Admission". Association of American Universities. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- O'Connell, The Most Rev. David M. (2002). "From the President's Desk". The Catholic University of America. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Peter Schmidt, "Clark U. Leaves Association of American Universities; Others May Follow" (September 10, 1999). Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Selingo, Jeffrey J. (May 2, 2011). "Facing an Ouster From an Elite Group of Universities, Syracuse U. Says It Will Withdraw". Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
- "AAU Statement on the Research and Development Efficiency Act". Association of American Universities. July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014.