This is a good article. Click here for more information.

Auricularia auricula-judae

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia auricula-judae 64485.JPG
A young specimen growing on fallen wood
Scientific classification
A. auricula-judae
Binomial name
Auricularia auricula-judae
Species synonymy
  • 1753 Tremella auricula L.
  • 1777 Peziza auricula (L.) Lightf.
  • 1788 Merulius auricula (L.) Roth
  • 1789 Tremella auricula-judae Bull.
  • 1791 Peziza auricula-judae (Bull.) Bull.
  • 1801 Tremella auricula-judae var. caraganae Pers.
  • 1812 Tremella caraganae (Pers.) H. Mart.
  • 1821 Gyraria auricularis Gray
  • 1822 Exidia auricula-judae (Bull.) Fr.
  • 1822 Auricularia sambuci Pers.
  • 1860 Hirneola auricula-judae (Bull.) Berk.
  • 1880 Hirneola auricula (L.) P. Karst.
  • 1886 Auricularia auricula-judae var. lactea Quél.
  • 1902 Auricularia auricula (L.) Underw.
  • 1913 Auricularia lactea (Quél.) Bigeard & H. Guill.
  • 1943 Auricularia auricularis (Gray) G.W. Martin
  • 1949 Hirneola auricularis (Gray) Donk
  • 1970 Hirneola auricula-judae var. lactea (Quél.) D.A. Reid
Auricularia auricula-judae
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
smooth hymenium
no distinct cap
hymenium attachment is not applicable
lacks a stipe
spore print is white
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: choice

Auricularia auricula-judae, known most commonly as wood ear or black wood ear (alternatively, black fungus,[citation needed] jelly ear, tree ear, or by a number of other common names), is a species of edible Auriculariales fungus found worldwide. The fruiting body is distinguished by its noticeably ear-like shape and brown colouration; it grows upon wood, especially elder. Its specific epithet is derived from the belief that Judas Iscariot hanged himself from an elder tree; the common name "Judas's ear" was largely eclipsed by the corruption "Jew's ear". Today, "wood ear", "jelly ear", "tree ear", and other names are sometimes used. The fungus can be found throughout the year in temperate regions worldwide, where it grows upon both dead and living wood.

In the West, A. auricula-judae was used in folk medicine as recently as the 19th century for complaints including sore throats, sore eyes and jaundice, and as an astringent. Although it is not widely consumed in the West, it has long been popular in China, to the extent that Australia exported large volumes to China in the early twentieth century. Today, the fungus is a popular ingredient in many Chinese dishes, such as hot and sour soup, and also used in Chinese medicine. It is also used in Ghana, as a blood tonic. Modern research into possible medical applications has variously concluded that A. auricula-judae has antitumour, hypoglycemic, anticoagulant and cholesterol-lowering properties.

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

Judas se pend (Judas Hangs Himself), by James Tissot. It is from the belief Judas Iscariot hanged himself on an elder tree that both the specific name auricula-judae and the common name Jew's ear originate.

The medieval Latin name auricula Judae (Judas's Ear) matches the vernacular name in most European languages (c.f. French oreille de Judas, German Judasohr). The mistranslation "Jew's Ear" appeared in English by 1544.[2]

The species was first mentioned in the scientific literature as Tremella auricula by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 Species Plantarum,[3] and later (1789) described by Jean Baptiste François Pierre Bulliard as Tremella auricula-judae.[1] However, the genus Tremella is now reserved for fungal species that live as parasites on other fungi.[4] Tremella auricula-judae is now considered a basionym.[1] In 1791, Bulliard transferred the species to the genus Peziza. In 1822, Elias Magnus Fries transferred the species to Exidia, and, in so doing, sanctioned the name. In 1860, Miles Joseph Berkeley described the species as a member of Hirneola,[1] a genus described by Fries in 1848, now considered synonymous with Auricularia.[5][6]

The species was given the name Auricularia auricula-judae in 1888 by Joseph Schröter.[1] The specific name of A. auricula-judae comprises auricula, the Latin word meaning ear, and Judae, meaning of Judas.[4] Under binomial nomenclature, a species name can comprise only two words; but the taxonomists responsible for this naming hyphenated the specific name to "bend the rules" and keep the name "within the letter of the law".[4] The name was criticised by mycologist Curtis Gates Lloyd, who said "Auricularia auricula-Judae is cumbersome and in addition is a slander on the Jews".[7] Though critical of Lucien Marcus Underwood, saying he "would probably not have known the Jew's ear from the calves' liver", he followed him in using Auricularia auricula, which was in turn used by Bernard Lowy in an article on the entire genus.[7] Despite this, Auricularia auricula-judae is the currently recognised name for the species by many sources,[1][8] though Auricularia auricula is still occasionally used.[9]

As well as the obligate synonyms from Bulliard, Fries and Berkeley, there are numerous other synonymous names.[1] Mycologist George Willard Martin, writing in 1943, noted that the species was known by at least 12 binomials, of which none appeared to be valid, and noted that "the citations given for the various names are extremely erratic".[10] Mycologist Mary F. Barrett attributes "such multiplication of names" to "the wide distribution of the Judas's ear, its ability to grow upon many different kinds of decaying wood, and to its great variation in size, colour and shape".[11]

The fungus is associated with Judas Iscariot because of the belief that he hanged himself on an elder tree after his betrayal of Jesus Christ.[4] Folklore suggests that the ears are Judas's returned spirit,[12] and are all that are left to remind us of his suicide.[4] The common name of the fungus was originally "Judas's ear", but this was later shortened to "Judas ear" and then "Jew's ear".[13] Common names for the fungus which refer to Judas can be traced back to at least the end of the 16th century;[11] for instance, in the 17th century, Thomas Browne wrote of the species:

In Jews' ears something is conceived extraordinary from the name, which is in propriety but fungus sambucinus, or an excrescence about the roots of elder, and concerneth not the nation of the Jews, but Judas Iscariot, upon a conceit he hanged on this tree; and is become a famous medicine in quinsies, sore throats, and strangulations, ever since.[14]

While the term "Jew's meat" was a deprecatory term used for all fungi in the Middle Ages,[15] the term is unrelated to the name "Jew's ear".[13] A further change of name to "jelly ear" was recommended in the List of Recommended Names for Fungi.[16] The idea was criticised by the mycologist Patrick Harding, who considered it "to be the result of political correctness where it is not necessary", and who "will continue to call [the species] Jew's ear", explaining that, while anti-Semitism was commonplace in Britain, the name "Jew's ear" is in reference to Judas, who was a Jew.[13]

Unrelated common names include the "ear fungus",[17] "common ear fungus",[18] "the Chinese Fungus",[19] "the pig's ear",[19] "the wood ear",[20] "the black wood ear",[21] "the tree ear", and "Kikurage".[22][23] The species was known as "fungus sambuca" among herbalists, in reference to Sambuca, the generic name for elder.[13]


The surface of the fruit bodies is often covered in tiny, downy hairs, as well as folds and wrinkles
As the fruit bodies age, they become darker in colour.

The fruit body of A. auricula-judae is normally 3 to 8 centimetres (1 to 3 inches) across,[24] but can be as much as 12 centimetres (4+12 inches).[25] It is distinctively shaped, typically being reminiscent of a floppy ear, though the fruit bodies can also be cup-shaped. It is normally attached to the substrate laterally and sometimes by a very short stalk.[26] The species has a tough, gelatinous, elastic texture when fresh, but it dries hard and brittle.[27] The outer surface is a bright reddish-tan-brown with a purplish hint, often covered in tiny, downy hairs of a grey colour.[27][24] It can be smooth, as is typical of younger specimens,[11] or undulating with folds and wrinkles. The colour becomes darker with age.[27] The inner surface is a lighter grey-brown in colour and smooth. It is sometimes wrinkled, again with folds and wrinkles, and may have "veins", making it appear even more ear-like.[27][24]

Microscopic features[edit]

The spores of A. auricula-judae are long and sausage shaped, ranging in size from 16 to 18 micrometres (μm) long by 6 to 8 μm thick.[24] The spores themselves are white, cream or yellowish,[28] and are hyaline.[29] The spores can sometimes be seen in a whitish mass on the underside of the fruit body.[29] The species has elongated cylindrical basidia with three transverse septa (internal cross-walls dividing the hyphae).[24] Basidia 60–72 μm × 4–7.5 μm; sterigmata lateral, well developed, 3–4.5 μm long. Spores smooth, hyaline, reniform to allantoid, 14–18 μm × 6-8 μm, guttulate.[26] Hairs on the fruit body are from 85 to 100 μm in length, and 5 to 6 μm in diameter. They are hyaline, lack a central strand and have rounded tips. They do not grow in dense tufts.[25]

Similar species[edit]

Auricularia auricula-judae is similar to A. fuscosuccinea in colour and texture, and "may be confused with it if only external features are considered".[7] The spore and basidia sizes of the two species are slightly different, but this is not a reliable way to tell them apart.[30] A. cornea is another similar species in the same genus, but has distinct internal differences, is normally more pilose (more covered in soft hair) and tends to fruit in larger numbers.[31]

Also similar are Exidia recisa, Guepinia helvelloides, and Tremella foliacea.[32]

Habitat, ecology and distribution[edit]

Auricularia auricula-judae fruit bodies can be found in large numbers on old wood.

Auricularia auricula-judae grows upon the wood of deciduous trees and shrubs, favouring elder.[27] In up to 90% of cases, the mushroom is found on elder,[4] but it is often incorrectly assumed to grow exclusively on elder.[33] It has also been recorded on Acer pseudoplatanus (known in the United Kingdom as sycamore), beech, ash, spindle, and in one particular case, the sycamore draining board of an old sink in Hatton Garden.[33] Recently, A. auricula-judae has been recorded from semi-evergreen to evergreen and wet evergreen shola forests in the Western Ghats, India.[26] This species occurs scattered and in clusters on dead or dying branches of trees, on main trunk, decaying logs, etc. This species occurs during the monsoon period in large imbricate clusters and under high humid conditions produces exceptionally large sized basidiomes. A. auricula-judae growing in wet evergreen and shola forests shows remarkable variation in size, shape and colour.[26] In Australia, it is found in Eucalyptus woodland and rainforests; in the rainforests, it can grow in very large colonies on fallen logs.[29] It favours older branches, where it feeds as a saprophyte (on dead wood) or a weak parasite (on living wood),[13] and it causes white rot.[34]

Commonly growing solitarily, it can also be gregarious (in a group) or caespitose (in a tuft).[25] Spores are ejected from the underside of the fruit bodies with as many as several hundred thousand an hour, and the high rate continues when the bodies have been significantly dried. Even when they have lost some 90% of their weight through dehydration, the bodies continue to release a small number of spores.[35] It is found all year, but is most common in autumn.[24] It is widespread throughout temperate and sub-tropical zones worldwide, and can be found across Europe, Asia, Australia,[36] and Africa.[37] There has been some debate about the appearance of the species in the tropics; while it has been frequently reported there, Bernard Lowy, in an article on Auricularia, said that "of the specimens I have examined, none could be assigned here".[7]

Also found on the Galapagos Island, Isla Santa Cruz.


Culinary use[edit]

Auricularia auricula-judae nutritional composition, dried.[38][39]
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy284 kcal (1,190 kJ)
0.73 g
9.25 g
159 mg
5.88 mg
184 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Auricularia auricula-judae
Literal meaning"tree ear"

Auricularia auricula-judae has a soft, jelly-like texture. Though edible, it was not held in high culinary regard in the west for many years. It has been likened to "eating an Indian rubber with bones in it",[33] while in 19th-century Britain, it was said that "it has never been regarded here as an edible fungus".[13] It has a mild flavour, and is useful for mixed mushroom recipes, but is still considered bland in the west.[36] It can be dried and rehydrated,[41] sometimes swelling to 3 - 4 times in size.[42] Young specimens are best,[42] but the species is not edible when raw, needing to be cooked thoroughly.[41] The whole fruit body can be eaten, but should be thoroughly washed before cooking. Cooking can sometimes take a comparatively long time.[41] A 100-gram (3+12-ounce) reference serving of dried fungus provides 1,500 kilojoules (370 kilocalories) of food energy, 10.6 g of protein, 0.2 g of fat, 65 g of carbohydrate, 5.8 g ash, and 0.03% mg of carotene. Fresh mushrooms contain about 90% moisture.[38][39] Dried specimens may be ground up into a powder and used to absorb excess liquid in soups and stews, as it rehydrates into tiny fragments.[43]

Both A. auricula-judae and the similar A. polytricha are popular in China, and are known by the general name of "wood ears" (木耳). The medicinal use of food is common in China: a soup containing the species is used medicinally for dealing with colds and fevers by reducing the heat of the body.[41][42][44] There is evidence that the species were being cultivated in China as early as the Tang dynasty (618–907). Li Shizhen, in his Pen Tsao Kang Mu, quotes Tang Ying-chuan from that period as saying "... put the steamed bran on logs, cover with straw, Wood Ear will grow".[20] In the early 20th century, large volumes of A. auricula-judae were exported from Australia to China, and it is today still sold in Asian food shops for culinary use.[29] It is also popular in Vietnam, although the climate is there more suited to A. polytricha. A report on small-scale fungi cultivation concluded that A. auricula-judae would be suitable for cultivation only in cooler climates.[21] According to a 2010 publication, the annual production of Auricularia species worldwide is the fourth highest among all industrially cultivated culinary and medicinal mushrooms, and in China, the estimated output was roughly 1.655 million tonnes (based on 2003 data), most of which are A. polytricha however (which has by and large replaced A. auricula-judae in international trade).[45]

Auricularia auricula-judae is also in cultivation elsewhere in the world, for instance, in Ghana. In the Brong-Ahafo and Ashanti regions, it is grown with what is referred to as the "plastic bag method". Sawdust is packed into polypropylene bags and then sterilised by steam for several hours. Once the sawdust has cooled, Sorghum grain spawn is added, and the bags are kept in moderately dark conditions. Once the sawdust is exposed to a humid environment, A. auricula-judae fruit bodies begin to grow.[46] Elsewhere in the world, a study on the use of mushrooms by the Bini people inhabiting a remote village in southern Nigeria found that the local inhabitants collected and ate A. auricula-judae, but that it was not one of the mushrooms they used medicinally.[37]

Collection of the mushroom for culinary use has also been documented in Nepal. However, the Nepalese do not consider it a choice mushroom for eating; of the three grades given to edible mushrooms, it was given the worst. Again, unlike other mushrooms, no medicinal use was reported.[47] The mushroom has also been the only non-morel species exported from Nepal for culinary use.[48]

Other places where A. auricula-judae has been recorded as commonly consumed include Poland,[49] Mozambique[50] and Indonesia,[51] while, in Bolivia, Goeldi's monkeys have been recorded as commonly eating the sporocarps.[52] In Japan, it is commonly shredded and used as a topping in ramen.[53] Koreans commonly use it in japchae.[54]

Medicinal use[edit]

16th-century herbalist John Gerard recommended Auricularia auricula-judae for curing a sore throat.

Auricularia auricula-judae has been used as a medicinal mushroom by many herbalists. It was used as a poultice to treat inflammations of the eye,[15] as well as a palliative for throat problems.[13] The 16th-century herbalist John Gerard, writing in 1597, recommended A. auricula-judae for a very specific use; other fungi were used more generally. He recommends the preparation of a liquid extract by boiling the fruit bodies in milk, or else leaving them steeped in beer, which would then be sipped slowly in order to cure a sore throat.[44] The resultant broth was probably not dissimilar to the Chinese soups that use A. polytricha.[44] Carolus Clusius, writing in 1601, also said that the species could be gargled to cure a sore throat,[55] and John Parkinson, writing in 1640, reported that boiling in milk or steeping in vinegar was "the onely use the are put unto that I know".[55]

Writing in 1694, herbalist John Pechey described A. auricula-judae by saying "It grows to the Trunk of the Elder-Tree. Being dried it will keep a good year. Boyl'd in Milk, or infus'd in Vinegarm 'tis good to gargle the Mouth or Throat in Quinsies, and other inflammations of the Mouth and Throat. And being infus'd in some proper Water, it is good in Diseases of the Eyes."[13] The species also saw use as an astringent due to its ability to absorb water.[44] There are recorded medicinal usages from Scotland, where it was again used as a gargle for sore throats, and from Ireland, where, in an attempt to cure jaundice, it was boiled in milk.[17] The medicinal use of A. auricula-judae continued until at least 1860, when it was still sold at Covent Garden; at the time, it was not considered edible in the United Kingdom.[44]

Medicinal use in Indonesia was also recorded in the 1930s,[51] and was more recently reported in modern-day Ghana. A report for the 2005 Commonwealth Forestry Conference examining the possible effects of deforestation in southern Ghana on medicinal and edible fungi found that A. auricula-judae was in use as a blood tonic.[56]


Dried Auricularia auricula-judae

Auricularia auricula-judae has been the subject of research into possible medicinal applications. Experiments in the 1980s concluded that two glucans isolated from the species showed potent antitumour properties when used on mice artificially implanted with Sarcoma 180 tumours.[57] This was despite the conclusion of earlier research indicating that, while aqueous extracts from several other fungal species had antitumour effects, extracts from A. auricula-judae did not.[58] Further, research on genetically diabetic mice showed that a polysaccharide extracted from A. auricula-judae had a hypoglycemic effect; mice fed with food including the polysaccharide showed reduced plasma glucose, insulin, urinary glucose and food intake.[59] A 2011 study performed on baby hamster fibroblasts also showed antioxidant properties and a strong decrease in hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. A HPLC analysis revealed p-hydroxybenzoic acid catechin, gallic acid and caffeic acid as the major antioxidant chemicals present in A. auricula-judae.[60]

Another chemical extracted from the species was an acidic polysaccharide (made up of mostly mannose, glucose, glucuronic acid and xylose) which showed anticoagulant properties. The article concluded that "the polysaccharides from these mushrooms may constitute a new source of compounds with action on coagulation, platelet aggregation and, perhaps, on thrombosis".[61] Another study reported that the species may be effective in stopping platelet binding in vitro,[62] with possible uses regarding hypercholesterolemia. Research has shown that A. auricula-judae can be used to lower cholesterol levels generally, and, in particular, is one of two fungi shown to reduce the level of bad cholesterol.[62]

Cultural depictions[edit]

The species is referred to in Christopher Marlowe's play The Jew of Malta. Iathamore proclaims: "The hat he wears, Judas left under the elder when he hanged himself".[14][63] Later, the species was probably partially the inspiration for Emily Dickinson's poem beginning "The Mushroom is the Elf of Plants", which depicts a mushroom as the "ultimate betrayer". Dickinson had both a religious and naturalistic background, and so it is more than likely that she knew of the common name of A. auricula-judae, and of the folklore surrounding Judas's suicide.[64]

The Mushroom is the Elf of Plants —
At Evening, it is not —
At Morning, in a Truffled Hut
It stop upon a Spot

As if it tarried always
And yet its whole Career
Is shorter than a Snake's Delay
And fleeter than a Tare —

'Tis Vegetation's Juggler —
The Germ of Alibi —
Doth like a Bubble antedate
And like a Bubble, hie —

I feel as if the Grass was pleased
To have it intermit —
This surreptitious scion
Of Summer's circumspect.

Had Nature any supple Face
Or could she one contemn —
Had Nature an Apostate —
That Mushroom — it is Him!

From Emily Dickinson's "The Mushroom is the Elf of Plants"

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Auricularia auricula-judae (Bull.) J. Schröt. 1888". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. "Erroneous rendering of medieval Latin auricula Judae Judas' ear"'s+ear&
  3. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1753). Species Plantarum. 2. Impensis Laurentii Salvii. p. 1153.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Harding 2008, p. 118
  5. ^ "Hirneola Fr. 1848". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  6. ^ "Hirneola Fr., K. svenska Vetensk-Akad. Handl.: 144 (1848)". Index Fungorum. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  7. ^ a b c d Lowy 1952, p. 660
  8. ^ "Auricularia auricula-judae (Bull.) Quél., Enchir. fung. (Paris): 207 (1886)". Species Fungorum. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  9. ^ Kuo, Michael (2002). "Auricularia auricula: The Jelly Ear". Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  10. ^ Martin 1943, p. 77
  11. ^ a b c Barrett 1910, p. 13
  12. ^ Kibby, Geoffrey (2003). Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and Northern Europe. Hamlyn. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-7537-1865-0.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Harding 2008, p. 120
  14. ^ a b Folk-Etymology. Haskell House. 1882. p. 195.
  15. ^ a b Mabey, Richard (1984). Food for Free. HarperCollins. p. 54. ISBN 0-00-633470-9.
  16. ^ Holden, Elizabeth, ed. (2003). List of Recommended English Names for Fungi (PDF). Summerfield Books. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  17. ^ a b Medicinal Plants in Folk Tradition: An Ethnobotany of Britain & Ireland. Timber Press. 2004. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-88192-638-5.
  18. ^ Boa 2004, p. 21
  19. ^ a b Young and Smith 2005, p. 56
  20. ^ a b Chang, Shu-Ting (1977). "The origin and early development of straw mushroom cultivation". Economic Botany. 31 (3): 374–6. doi:10.1007/BF02866890. S2CID 41279892.
  21. ^ a b Oei, Peter (2005). "Small-scale mushroom cultivation" (PDF). Agromisa Foundation: 66. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  22. ^ Misakia, Akira; Kakutab, Mariko (1995). "Kikurage (Tree-ear) and Shirokikurage (white Jelly-leaf): Auricularia auricula and Tremella fuciformis". Food Reviews International. Taylor & Francis. 11 (1): 211–8. doi:10.1080/87559129509541035.
  23. ^ "Kikurage Benefits and Wood Ear Mushroom Recipes". Honest Food Talks. 20 September 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Phillips, Roger (1981). Mushrooms and Other Fungi of Great Britain and Europe. Pan Books. p. 262. ISBN 0-330-26441-9.
  25. ^ a b c Lowy 1952, p. 658
  26. ^ a b c d Mohanan, C. (2011). Macrofungi of Kerala. Kerala Forest Research Institute. pp. 90–3. ISBN 978-81-85041-73-5.
  27. ^ a b c d e Sterry, Paul; Hughes, Barry (2009). Complete Guide to British Mushrooms & Toadstools. HarperCollins. p. 290. ISBN 978-0-00-723224-6.
  28. ^ Phillips, Roger. "Auricularia auricula-judae". Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  29. ^ a b c d Young and Smith 2004, p. 64
  30. ^ Lowy 1952, pp. 660, 662
  31. ^ Lowy 1952, p. 662
  32. ^ Davis, R. Michael; Sommer, Robert; Menge, John A. (2012). Field Guide to Mushrooms of Western North America. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-520-95360-4. OCLC 797915861.
  33. ^ a b c Harding 2008, p. 121
  34. ^ Worrall, James J.; Anagnost, Susan E.; Zabel, Robert A. (1997). "Comparison of wood decay among diverse lignicolous fungi". Mycologia. 89 (2): 199–219. doi:10.2307/3761073. JSTOR 3761073.
  35. ^ Ingold, C. T. (1985). "Water and spore discharge in Ascomycetes and Hymenomycetes". Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 85 (4): 575–583. doi:10.1016/s0007-1536(85)80250-3.
  36. ^ a b Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas (2008). The Edible Mushroom Book. Dorling Kindersley. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-4053-3213-2.
  37. ^ a b Akpaja, Emmanuel Oluwadare; Okhuoya, John Aroye; Ehwerheferere, Benedicta Akpos (2003). "Ethnomycology and indigenous uses of mushrooms among the Bini-speaking people of Nigeria: A case study of Aihuobabekun community near Benin City, Nigeria". International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 7 (3): 373–4. doi:10.1615/intjmedmushr.v7.i3.270.
  38. ^ a b Hobbs, Christopher. (1995). Medicinal Mushrooms: An Exploration of Tradition, Healing & Culture. Culinary Arts Ltd. p. 73. ISBN 1-884360-01-7.
  39. ^ a b Gilbert, Frank A.; Robinson, Radcliff F. (1957). "Food from fungi". Economic Botany. 11 (2): 126–45. doi:10.1007/BF02985303. JSTOR 4287926. S2CID 29535891.
  40. ^ "Full Report (All Nutrients): 11988, Fungi, Cloud ears, dried". National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 26 Software v.1.4 The National Agricultural Library. USDA. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  41. ^ a b c d Acton and Sandler 2001, p. 134
  42. ^ a b c Acton and Sandler 2001, p. 124
  43. ^ Tomblin, Gill (2007). How to Identify Edible Mushrooms. Harper Collins UK. p. 146. ISBN 978-0007259618.
  44. ^ a b c d e Harding 2008, p. 173
  45. ^ Tang, Lihua; Xiao, Yang; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Bian, Yinbing. (2010). "Analysis of genetic diversity among Chinese Auricularia auricula cultivars using combined ISSR and SRAP markers". Current Microbiology. 61 (2): 132–40. doi:10.1007/s00284-010-9587-4. PMID 20127246. S2CID 13176315.
  46. ^ Apetorgbor et al. 2005, pp. 5–6
  47. ^ Adhikari, M. K.; Devkota, S.; Tiwari, R. D. (2005). "Ethnomycological knowledge on uses of wild mushrooms in western and central Nepal". Our Nature. 3 (1): 13–9. doi:10.3126/on.v3i1.329.
  48. ^ Christensen, M.; Larsen, H. O. (2005). "How can collection of wild edible fungi contribute to livelihoods in rural areas of Nepal?". Journal of Forest and Livelihood. 4 (2): 50–55.
  49. ^ Boa 2004, p. 12
  50. ^ Boa 2004, p. 121
  51. ^ a b Boa 2004, p. 115
  52. ^ Hanson, Amy M.; Hodge, Kathie T.; Porter, Leila M. (2003). "Mycophagy among primates". Mycologist. 17: 6–10. doi:10.1017/S0269915X0300106X.
  53. ^ "Ramen Noodles, a Guide to the Popularised Japanese Dish". Honest Food Talks. 27 July 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  54. ^ Benayoun, Mike (27 March 2020). "North Korea: Japchae". 196 flavors. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  55. ^ a b Barrett 1910, p. 14
  56. ^ Apetorgbor et al. 2005, p. 10
  57. ^ Misaki, A.; Kakuta, M.; Sasaki, T.; Tanaka, M.; Miyaji, H. (1981). "Studies on interrelation of structure and antitumor effects of polysaccharides: antitumor action of periodate-modified, branched (1→3)-β-D-glucan of Auricularia auricula-judae, and other polysaccharides containing (1→3)-glycosidic linkages". Carbohydrate Research. 92 (1): 115–29. doi:10.1016/S0008-6215(00)85986-8. PMID 7196285.
  58. ^ Ikekawa, Tetsuro; Uehara, Nobuaki; Maeda, Yuko; Nakanishi, Miyako; Fukuoka, Fumiko (1968). "Antitumor activity of aqueous extracts of ediblemushrooms". Cancer Research. 29 (3): 734–5. PMID 5813100.
  59. ^ Yuan, Zuomin; He, Puming; Cui, Jianhui; Takeuchi, Hisanao (1998). "Hypoglycemic effect of water-soluble polysaccharide from Auricularia auricula-judae Quel. on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 62 (10): 1898–1903. doi:10.1271/bbb.62.1898. PMID 9836425.
  60. ^ Oke, Feyza; Aslim, Belma (1 October 2011). "Protective effect of two edible mushrooms against oxidative cell damage and their phenolic composition". Food Chemistry. 128 (3): 613–619. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.036. ISSN 0308-8146.
  61. ^ Yoona, Seon-Joo; Yub, Myeong-Ae; Pyunb, Yu-Ryang; Hwangb, Jae-Kwan; Chuc, Djong-Chi; Juneja, Lekh Rajc; Mourão, Paulo A. S. (2003). "The nontoxic mushroom Auricularia auricula contains a polysaccharide with anticoagulant activity mediated by antithrombin". Thrombosis Research. 112 (3): 151–8. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2003.10.022. PMID 14967412.
  62. ^ a b Francia, Christelle; Rapior, Sylvie; Courtecuisse, Régis; Siroux, Yves (1999). "Current research findings on the effects of selected mushrooms on cardiovascular diseases" (PDF). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 1 (2): 169–72. doi:10.1615/intjmedmushrooms.v1.i2.60. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011.
  63. ^ Marlowe, Christopher (1633). The Jew of Malta.
  64. ^ Harding 2008, pp. 193–4

Cited texts[edit]