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In a Hurrian text discovered in Hittite archive of Boghazkoy, his name is stated as "King of Kings of Elam". He is also known as king of Tukrish.[1] His ruling time probably was before the reign of Manishtusu king of Akkad (2306-2292 BC).[2] Therefore, he should be contemporary with the kings of Awan dynasty.


  1. ^ D'yakonov, 1956, Persian tr. p.455
  2. ^ Cameron, 1936, Persian tr. p.180


  • Cameron, George, "History of Early Iran", Chicago, 1936 (repr., Chicago, 1969; tr. E.-J. Levin, L’histoire de l’Iran antique, Paris, 1937; tr. H. Anusheh, ایران در سپیده دم تاریخ, Tehran, 1993)
  • D’yakonov, I. M., "Istoriya Midii ot drevenĭshikh vremen do kontsa IV beka de e.E" (The history of Media from ancient times to the end of the 4th century BCE), Moscow and Leningrad, 1956; tr. Karim Kešāvarz as Tāriḵ-e Mād, Tehran, 1966.

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