Ili-ishmani

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Ili-ishmani
𒉌𒉌𒅖𒈠𒉌
Military Governor of Elam
Rectangular axe-Sb 14243-IMG 7203.JPG
Axe blade with inscription "Ili-ishmani, scribe and shakkanakku of Elam". Louvre Museum Sb 14243.[1][2]
Reignc. 2200 BCE
PredecessorEpirmupi
SuccessorAwan Dynasty
DynastyAkkadian Governor of Elam
Ili-ishmani ruled from Susa in Elam

Ili-ishmani (𒉌𒉌𒅖𒈠𒉌 i3-li2-isz-ma-ni) was a ruler of Elam around 2200 BCE. His name is purely Akkadian, and he was in charge of Elam at the time of Naram-Sin and/or Shar-Kali-Sharri, and probably their vassal.[3][4] His title of "Military Governor" (Shakkanakku in Akkadian, GIR.NITA in Sumerian) suggests that he was a dependent of the Akkadian kings, rather than an independent ruler.[5] Ili-ishmani rose from the position of scribe, already one of the top three positions in the land, to the position of Governor.[6]

His predecessor was probably Epirmupi.[7] After him, and the weakening of the Akkadian Empire, rule in Elam probably reverted to local rulers of the Awan Dynasty.[8]

Axe fragment[edit]

The fragment of an axe is known, which was dedicated by Ili-ishmani.[9][10] It reads:

Axe blade with inscription Ilishmani, scribe and shakkanakku of Elam (with transcription)

𒉌𒉌𒅖𒈠𒉌 / 𒁾𒊬 / 𒄊𒀴 / 𒈠𒋾 / 𒉏𒆠

"i3-li2-isz-ma-ni / dub-sar / szagina / ma-ti / elam{ki}
"Ili-išmani, / scribe, / military governor (shakkanakku) / of the land / of Elam."

— Inscription of Ili-ishmani. Louvre Museum Sb 14243.[11][12][13]

Seal inscription[edit]

A seal found in Lagash also has the inscription "Ili-ishmani Governor (Ensi) of Susa" (𒉌𒉌𒅖𒈠𒉌 𒑐𒋼𒋛 𒈹𒂞𒆠 Ili-ishmani ensi Shushanki).[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  2. ^ Transcription and drawing in Lambert, Maurice (1979). "Journal asiatique" (in French). Société asiatique.: 13. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Álvarez-Mon, Javier (2020). The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC. Routledge. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-000-03485-1.
  4. ^ Potts, D. T. (2016). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-107-09469-7.
  5. ^ Potts, D. T. (2016). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-107-09469-7.
  6. ^ "Journal asiatique" (in French). Société asiatique. 1979. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ Potts, D. T. (2016). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-107-09469-7.
  8. ^ Foster, Benjamin R. (2015). The Age of Agade: Inventing Empire in Ancient Mesopotamia. Routledge. p. 274. ISBN 978-1-317-41552-7.
  9. ^ Álvarez-Mon, Javier (2020). The Art of Elam CA. 4200–525 BC. Routledge. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-000-03485-1.
  10. ^ "Site officiel du musée du Louvre". cartelfr.louvre.fr.
  11. ^ "CDLI-Archival View". cdli.ucla.edu.
  12. ^ "CDLI-Found Texts". cdli.ucla.edu.
  13. ^ Transcription and drawing in Lambert, Maurice (1979). "Journal asiatique" (in French). Société asiatique.: 13. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  14. ^ "Journal asiatique" (in French). Société asiatique. 1979: 12–13. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
Preceded by
Epirmupi
Akkadian Governor of Elam
2200 BCE
Succeeded by
-----
(Awan Dynasty)