Belgian nobility

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Portrait by Frans Pourbus the Younger, depicting the union of Charles of Arenberg and Anne of Croÿ, members of two of the most ancient and powerful houses among the Belgian nobility

The Belgian nobility comprises individuals and (some members of) families recognized by the Kingdom of Belgium as members of a certain class of persons. Historically, these individuals were a socially privileged class enjoying a certain degree of prestige in society. In contemporary society, much of the historic social privileges associated with being a member of the nobility has become somewhat reduced reflecting the present-day notion of egalitarianism.

The Belgian constitution states that no privileges are attached to bearing a title of nobility.

History[edit]

Trophées tant sacrées que profanes du Duché de Brabant, includes major noble houses of Brabant

Because most old families have resided in the current territory of Belgium for hundreds of years, their members have belonged to various nations. Spanish nobles resided in Flanders in the 15th and 16th centuries and married in to local houses. Amongst these houses we find de Peňaranda, Coloma, De Evora y vega, Perez, de Castro y Lopez, de San Estevan, de Horosco, Franco y Feo, Santa Cruz, Gallo de Salamanca, Gerardi, Sant Vittores de la Poitilla.

In the period under Dutch sovereignty, the nobility formed an important factor in the independence. After the independence of Belgium, the Kingdom of the Netherlands lost an important part of nobles: all[citation needed] the high families lived in the south and became part of the Belgian nobility. At court in the 19th century the nobility played a major role.

Male heirs[edit]

In some old families the heads of the house have the right of multiple titles. Today, most important families still pass these old titles only in the male line. In the Ancien Régime and Spanish and Austrian period, titles and rights could be inherited by marriage or just by will.

This was legally accepted by the Spanish crown and titles could be accumulated with other legal titles. This system ended after the French Revolution. After the creation of Belgium, families could receive the recognition of their status, which happened for the majority of the current families. Mostly, the noble status was recognized but sometimes too the old title, that could only be passed by the male line of the same noble house. Since this change, old titles have disappeared, and only few old titles survive. Known examples are the counts of Bornhem and the Marquess of Assche titles inherited by the families of Marnix de Sainte-Aldegonde and Vander Noot.

North of France[edit]

Until 1662 the North part of France belonged to Flanders, under Spanish rule. Titles created before this date are considered to be part of the Flemish nobility.[citation needed] The Picardian and Artesian nobility lost their land to the French Crown, and was incorporated into the French Kingdom. The Marquess of Morbecque had lost his land after the Battle of Cassel. After this periode much former Flemish houses, were bestowed other French titles.

examples

Current role of the nobility[edit]

During the Austrian period, the high nobility participated in the government, both political and at the imperial court of Brussels. Since the French Revolution the nobility has not played a social function. However some members of most old families worked in major functions in Belgium.

Characteristics[edit]

The House of Lannoy
Crest of the House of Croy
House of Limburg-Stirum
The house of Lalaing
the House of Udekem d´Acoz
the Castle of the Prince de Merode.
Vêves castle is the residence of Count de Liedekerke Beaufort
Kasteel van Ooidonk, residence of the House of t'Kint de Roodenbeke
Walzin Castle, residence of the House of Limburg-Stirum

The modern Belgian nobility is known to be mostly traditionalist, and royalist. In the Kingdom of Belgium there were as of 2013 approximately 1,300 noble families, with some 20,000 members. The noble lineage of only approximately 400 families dates back to the 17th century or earlier. As Belgium is a democratic constitutional monarchy there are no legal privileges attached to bearing a noble title or to being a member of the aristocracy. According to article 113 of the constitution, "The King may confer titles of nobility, without ever having the power to attach privileges to them".[1]

Wealth[edit]

Many nobles in Belgium still belong to the elite of society. They sometimes own and manage companies, or have leading positions in cultural society, business, banking, diplomacy, NGOs etc. Many of the older families still own (and reside in) important castles or country houses (see: Castles in Belgium).

The fortune of the nobility is impressive: only 11 % of the 500 wealthiest families in Belgium are members of the nobility, however: they have more than 56% of this wealth, 79,85 billion Euros.[2] This is partly caused by the fact that many of the new noble titles are bestowed on wealthy entrepreneurs, like the families of Boël, Frere, Colruyt, Janssens and Solvay. Old houses however are in minority and have sold lots of their lands and estates. The house of Merode has sold during the ages thousands of hectares of their own private lands.[3] Other houses have still immense lands and grounds, but most houses have lost much of their historic wealth.

Surname of the House, and division of the families[edit]

Like most European nobility, the family name says much of the origin of the house.Normally the name of the family or House cannot change, however it used to be possible. A famous example was Conrad III Schetz: he had himself adopted by his aunt and changed his surname, for him and all his descendants from Schetz to van Ursel.

Every noble family has its own crest and titles: both are legally protected from copyright. People who do not belong to the house, are forbidden to use the titles or the crest.

Legal identity[edit]

In Belgium the title forms part of the identity of the noble person and is mentioned on the ID-card. The title is not a part of the name though.[4]

Assumption of noble titles by those not entitled to any is prohibited and is punishable with a fine of 200 to 1000 euros under article 230 of the Belgian penal code.

Ennoblement[edit]

Belgium is one of the few monarchies in the world in which hereditary ennoblement still occurs regularly. Hereditary titles are conferred by letters patent, which are in general annually issued by the King of the Belgians. Noble titles can also be granted for life.

Belgian citizens distinguished in business, politics, science, arts, sports, etc. or for extraordinary service to the kingdom may receive noble status or noble titles.

By royal decree the monarch can extend, change or upgrade the rank of members of a noble house or change the rank of the whole family.

Structure of the Belgian nobility[edit]

Élisabeth, Countess Greffulhe, "queen" of Parisian society during the fin de siecle, was a member of the princely family of Chimay.
The Viscountess Vilain XIIII, who had great wealth had her portrait painted by Jacques-Louis David.
Wolfgang Willem of Ursel [nl], the third duke of Ursel 1750-1804
Henri t' Kint de Roodenbeke, Senate of Belgium
Joseph de Riquet de Caraman-Chimay
Prince Emmanuel de Mérode, Director of Virunga
The high Reverend Canon van Outryve d'ydewalle (left)
Herman, Count van Rompuy, President of the European Council
Stephanie, Countess of Lannoy
The ambassador Bertrand de Crombrugghe de Picquendaele

Characteristically the Belgian nobility is structured and ranked very formally. These ranks are still important in social life and ceremonial life at court.

The royal house does not belong to the Belgian nobility, it is not of Belgian origin and is considered to be above the social class that is the nobility.

Princes in the Belgian nobility[edit]

The title of Prince (French: Prince, Dutch: Prins) is the highest noble title in use in Belgium. They are ranked under the princes of royal blood and members of the royal family. New princes are not created, though they can be recognised or incorporated by the king if their members do prove to have bounds in Belgium and live there. This procedure is very rare and has occurred only with princes that de facto are Belgian.

Families[edit]

Most members of the families listed below have the right to be referred to in Belgian government documents as "Prince" or "Princess" in combination with their family name. Some titles are not recognised by the Crown, and cannot be used legally, this is the case for the Dukes of Ursel who are the legal heirs to the Prince of Arches and Charleville.

Former Princes
Current Princes
  • Prince Swiatopelk-Czetwertyński, Prince Michel Czetwertynski, Prince Alexandre Czetwertynski, Prince Tinko Czetwertynski recognised in 2007
  • Prince de Habsbourg-Lorraine, Archdukes Rudolf (1950) and Carl Christian of Austria (1954), and their legitimate male-line descendants, were incorporated into Belgium's nobility as Prince/sse de Habsbourg-Lorraine in 1978 and 1983, respectively
  • Prince of Ligne, Imperial Count 1549, Imperial prince 1601, mediatized 1803, 1923 Belgian recognition of title Prince d'Amblise et d'Epinoy by male primogeniture
  • Prince de Lobkowicz, mediatized family of Bohemia whose 1624 Imperial princely title was recognized in Belgium for a member of the family who became a Belgian subject
  • Prince de Mérode, Imperial Count since 1622; Heads of the house bore the titles Marquis of Westerlo since 1626 and Prince of Rubempré and Everberg since the 18th century, title of Prince of Grimbergen inherited by primogeniture from Marie-Josephe de Mastaing-Oignies in 1842; each member is prince/sse de Merode since 1929. Famous is prince Emmanuel de Merode, director of the Virunga National Park.
  • Riquet, Prince de Chimay in 1824 and Prince de Caraman 1856 by primogeniture; uniquely, since 1889 each male bears the title Prince de Caraman Chimay, while each female born in the family is a countess

Dukes in the Belgian nobility[edit]

Members of the following houses bear the title of Duke (French: Duc, Dutch: Hertog). The ducal title has never been granted outside the Royal Family in the Kingdom of Belgium. The origin of such titles for Belgian families thus pre-dates the current monarchy, having been conferred or recognised by sovereigns of other jurisdictions.

Examples[edit]

  • the Duke of Arenberg,[7][8] princely Imperial count 1576, Imperial duke 1644, sovereign 1803-1811, mediatised; although all family members, male and female, are both duke and prince, Belgian recognition of "prince" for all members 1953, Belgian duke by primogeniture, 1994
  • the Duke of Beaufort-Spontin,[9] 1746 Austrian Netherlands title of marquis with rank of prince by primogeniture, duke in 1782 and 1876, Imperial Count 1789; family members are Count/ess de Beaufort-Spontin, Head of the House is Duke
  • the Duke of Croÿ, Imperial prince 1486, 1594 and 1664, French duke 1598 and 1768; each member is prince/sse de Croÿ, while the Head is also the Duke
  • the Duke of Looz-Corswarem et de Corswarem-Looz, 1734 Austrian Netherlands dukedom; mediatised, other members of this ducal branche are prince/sse; members of a second branch are count/ess of Looz-Corswarem; members of a third branche are écuyer de Corswarem
  • the Duke of Ursel, Imperial Count 1638. Only the Head of this family is Duke; any other member is count/ess.

Marquises in the Belgian nobility[edit]

Only eleven families bear today the title of Marquess. The titles always had origins before the French Revolution, and used to be connected to a physical marquisate. In most of these families, the title descends by masculine primogeniture.

Current Marquesses[edit]

Counts in the Belgian nobility[edit]

The titles Count of Hainault and Count of Flanders, historically associated with major provinces of what is now Belgium, are used as dynastic titles for members of the Belgian Royal Family.

Count is the highest-ranked title still granted by the Belgian monarch. There are approximately 90 families in Belgium where at least one of the members bears the title of count or countess. An incomplete list of families bearing the title of Count can be found on the list of noble families in Belgium.

Viscounts in the Belgian nobility[edit]

There are approximately 45 families in Belgium where at least one of the members bears the title of Viscount (French: vicomte, Dutch: Burggraaf). An incomplete list of families bearing the title of Viscount can be found on the list of noble families in Belgium.

Barons in the Belgian nobility[edit]

More than 300 individuals bear the title of Baron or Baroness. The title may descend either by masculine primogeniture or to all legitimate descendants in the male-line of the original title-holder.

Knights in the Belgian nobility[edit]

In Belgium there are roughly 200 knights (French: chevalier, Dutch: Ridder). The title has no female equivalent.

Écuyer, Jonkheer/Jonkvrouw[edit]

Écuyer, Jonkheer (Dutch, originally meaning "young lord") is the lowest Belgian title recognised by law. Many cadet members of important houses are styled with this title, this happens when the head of the family is styled higher. Écuyer has no French feminine equivalent for daughters or wives; in Dutch the equivalent is jonkvrouw.

Foreign noble families residing in Belgium[edit]

The house of Alcantara is from Spanish origin, and belongs to the high nobility
The House of Robiano, originates from Milan, and belongs to the old nobility of Belgium.

Another legal concern is that people who have the Belgian identity are forbidden by law to have noble title from another country.[10]

However, to have foreign titles recognised is not impossible. It is only possible after formal recognition by the King of the Belgians.

In addition to the families mentioned above, a number of noble families originated from outside Belgium, but have since obtained Belgian nationality after residing (sometimes for many generations) in Belgium. Most of these families have come from neighbouring European monarchies (France, the Netherlands, Germany) at various stages of history. These have usually (but not always) asked for equivalent nobility titles within the Kingdom of Belgium, which were typically granted.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ article 113, constitution
  2. ^ http://www.tijd.be/politiek-economie/belgie-federaal/Rijkste-Belgische-adel-bezit-80-miljard-euro/9870835?ckc=1&ts=1490009474
  3. ^ http://www.lecho.be/dossier/noblesse/Les-chateaux-de-la-noblesse/9873497?ckc=1&ts=1490394093
  4. ^ http://diplomatie.belgium.be/nl/Diensten/Protocol/adel/faq
  5. ^ Etat présent de la noblesse belge,
  6. ^ Almanach de Gotha: annuaire diplomatique et statistique, Volume 106
  7. ^ "Arenberg Stiftung - Arenberg Foundation - Fondation d'Arenberg - Arenberg Stichting". arenbergcenter.com. Archived from the original on 2007-03-29.
  8. ^ Almanach de Gotha. Gotha, Germany: Justus Perthes. 1944. pp. 170, 190, 248, 354, 372, 390, 466–467, 484, 543.
  9. ^ Ducal and princely families of Belgium: Beaufort-Spontin, Eupedia.com, retrieved 20 December 2009
  10. ^ "FAQ". Service public fédéral Affaires étrangères (in French). 2016-03-23. Retrieved 2017-08-15.
  11. ^ This list is incomplete. The État présent de la noblesse is a more complete listing of noble families.