Gaelic nobility of Ireland
This article concerns the Gaelic nobility of Ireland from ancient to modern times. It only partly overlaps with Chiefs of the Name because it excludes Scotland and other discussion. It is one of three groups of Irish nobility, the others being those nobles descended from the Hiberno-Normans and those granted titles of nobility in the Peerage of Ireland.
By the time of the Treaty of Limerick, almost all Gaelic nobles had lost any semblance of real power in their (former) domains. Today, such historical titles have no special legal status in the Republic of Ireland, unlike in Northern Ireland, which has remained a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Republic of Ireland does not confer titles of nobility under its constitution.
From 1943 until 2003 some of the modern representatives of the Gaelic nobility obtained a courtesy recognition as Chiefs of the Name from the Irish government. The practice ended in 2003 following certain scandals (Terence Francis MacCarthy) and under concerns that it was unconstitutional. Disputed titles, as well as those for whom recognition is still pending, are not listed.
Clann territories were under the rule and control of a Chief, who was elected by a system called tanistry; voted by descendants (within three generations) of the preceding Chief. The designation as Chief was also referred to as a King (Ri), Lord (Tiarna), or Captain of his countries, all of which were roughly equivalent prior to the collapse of the Gaelic order. The concept of a hereditary "title" originated with the adoption of English law, the policy of surrender and regrant and the collapse of the Gaelic order during the period from approximately 1585–1610. Because the election of a new chief would almost always be from the same family (or families) within a tribal area, each family developed a long history of ruling within an area, which gave rise to the concept of Gaelic nobility. However, ruling titles did not pass by hereditary descent; rather it was by election and bloodshed, given the absence of criminal penalties for the death of an opponent.
All below are flatha (princes) and also descendants in the male line, however distant in some cases, from at least one historical grade of Rí, a Rí túaithe (usually a local petty king), a Ruiri (overking or regional king), or a greater Rí ruirech (king of overkings, also called a provincial king or Rí cóicid). A number of rí ruirech also became Ard Rí and their surviving princely descendants remain claimants to the long vacant, so-called High Kingship. A modern Gaelic noble may be styled a self-proclaimed flaith (prince) or tiarna (lord, count/earl). See also White Rod.
The ancient Gaelic families are divided by race and sept, and by geography.
- Uí Briúin
- Uí Néill
- Cenél nEógain
- The O'Neill Mor, Prince of Tír Eoghain and King of Ulster
- The Seven Principal Septs Supporting The O'Neill Mor of Tír Eoghain
- The O'Hagan of Tulach Óg, Hereditary Seneschal and Brehon of Tír Eoghain
- The O'Quinn of An Chraobh, Hereditary Quartermaster of Tír Eoghain
- The O'Donnelly of Ballydonnelly, Hereditary Marshal of Tír Eoghain.
- The O'Gormley of Cenél Moen, Hereditary Steward of Horses and Chandler
- The O'Devlin of Muinterevlin, Hereditary Kern ('Ceithrenn') Sept
- The MacMurrough of Muinterbirn and Siol Aodha of Clann Birnn, Hereditary Kern ('Ceithrenn') Sept
- The MacCawell of Cenél Fearadhaigh, Hereditary Kern ('Ceithrenn') Sept
- Other Septs of the Cenél nEógain:
- The Ó Faircheallaigh of County Cavan
- The Ó Fearghuis of Connacht
- Cenél Conaill
- Cenél nEógain
- Southern Uí Néill
- Clann Cholmáin Kings of Mide
- Síl nÁedo Sláine Kings of Brega
- Uí Maolmhuaidh
- Uí Maolmhuaidh Firceall
- The O'Molloy, Prince of Firceall
- Uí Maoil Aodha
- Ó Maoil Aodha Oirthir Connachta
- Uí Maolmhaodhóg
- Ó Maolmhaodhóg Tir Connall
- Uí Maolmhuaidh Firceall
- Uí Maine
- The O'Kelly of Gallagh and Tycooly, Prince of Hy Many
- The Fox of Tethbae (O'Kearney)
- The Lords/Kings of Síol Anmchadha, a sub-kingdom/lordship of Uí Maine
- Dál gCais
- Dál Fiatach
- MacDonlevy (dynasty) (MacNulty)
- The Ó Fearghail of County Longford
- O'Keeffe family
- Eóganacht Chaisil
- The O'Callaghan of Duhallow, Lord of Clonmeen
- The McGillycuddy of the Reeks, Lord of Doonebo
- The O'Donoghue of the Glens, Prince of Glenflesk
- O'Connell, hereditary castellans of Ballycarbery Castle. From this sept came Daniel O'Connell of Derrynane, "The Liberator."
- Uí Fidgenti
- Corcu Duibne
- O'Shea of Iveragh (now represented by the descendants of Martin Archer Shee, the noted 19th-century portrait artist)
- Norse Gaelic origins
- The King of Dublin
Other O'Neills did not apply for recognition. The most notable of these is the Prince of the Fews, Don Carlos O'Neill, 12th Marquis of Granja. There is currently a dispute between him and the Prince of Clanaboy (above) over who is the "senior," with the matter appearing unresolvable. However most recently O'Neill of Clanaboy may have gotten the upper hand in the dispute.
The O'Neills of the Fews are a 15th-century branch of the Tyrone or Ó Néill Mór line whereas the O'Neills of Clanaboy are a High Medieval line. Hence the matter is academic, both being somewhat distant from the last sovereigns of Tyrone in Ulster (to 1607), whose plentiful descendants eventually fell into comparative obscurity. Today they are known as the McShane-O'Neills, or the anglicized version- Johnson.
The chosen and recognised heir apparent of the Chief of the Name, Fr. Hugh O'Donel, O.F.M., is Don Hugo O'Donnell, 7th Duke of Tetuan. Other members of the family have disputed this, most notably Fr. Hugh's sister, Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill, who has even on television and radio disputed the exclusion from the succession process of potential female and female line claimants, but the head of the genealogically-senior line has been firm in his choice of his distant cousin the Duke of Tetuan.
Other Gaelic nobles
The most recent claimants to the royal title of MacCarthy Mór (Prince of Desmond) are two close relatives, Barry Trant MacCarthy (Mór), now elderly (born 1931), and the younger Liam Trant MacCarthy (Mór) (born 1957). They allege to be descendants of Cormac of Dunguil, younger son of Tadhg na Mainistreach Mac Carthaigh Mór, King of Desmond (died 1426), they claim to belong to the Srugrena sept, but "this is a debunked falsehood"; Sean J Murphy MA who has no proof to the contrary but insists anyway, that any claimant to a Gaelic Chiefship must first be vetted and accepted by him, and that not cooperating with Mr. Murphy means a claimant must be 'bogus'?. Mr. Murphy has also made several attacks on the Chief Herald of Ireland since that Office denied Mr. Murphy's wish to have unfettered access to their archives.
There remain other Gaelic nobles who are not of the "senior" lines, but whose descent is recognised in Europe and a number of whom also hold Continental titles.
- The Count O'Donnell of Austria (O'Donell von Tyrconnell)
- The Count O'Rourke of Russia
- O'Nelly, The Count O'Nelly of Austria, Commander of the 72nd Bohemian Regiment
- O'Donovan family
- Dál gCais
- Baron Lisle (Lysaght)
- O'Neill dynasty
- O'Connell family
- Irish kingdoms / kings
- Irish genealogy
- Petty kingdom
- Incorporeal hereditament
- Hereditary title
- Substantive title
- ^ The Irish Constitution Archived 16 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Curley, pp. 179–80; Charles Lysaght (in Curley), p. 14
- ^ Curley, pp. 26–7, and following profiles; see also Jaski, pp. 37–40, 89, 99–102; Byrne, pp. 41–2, for academic discussion on the types of rí
- ^ The current O'Conor Don has dropped the style The O'Conor Don, Prince of Connacht used by his father, considering O'Conor Don to be "historically grand enough by itself". Curley, p. 155
- ^ "Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society. Vol. xvii, parts iii, iv. [Edited by Mrs. M. D. O'Sullivan.] Pp. 88. Galway. 1937". Irish Historical Studies. 1 (1): 108–109. March 1938. doi:10.1017/s0021121400029801. ISSN 0021-1214.
- ^ Madden, Gerard (2004). History of the O'Maddens of Hy-Many. Tuamgraney, Co. Clare: East Clare Heritage. ISBN 0-9529511-7-7. OCLC 57225706.
- ^ Byrne, F. J. (2001). Irish kings and high-kings (2nd ed.). Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-196-1. OCLC 47920418.
- ^ The MacMorrough Kavanagh Archived 19 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ John O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees; or, The Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation, 5th edition, in two volumes, originally published in Dublin in 1892, reprinted, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1976, Vol. 1, pp. 417-418 and 426-428, One of the most ancient of Gaelic Ireland’s royal lines, the MacDonlevy are often neglected from the recounting of its nobility. They have been obscured to history for two reasons. First, the dynasty’s final patronage of Ulaid fell to the forces of Henry Plantagenet in 1177 centuries before the English implemented the policy of Surrender and regrant, and, so, the MacDonlevy are not represented in the more modern English or Irish peerage, except by a few obscure instances of intermarriage. Second, staunch Roman Catholics and Jacobites, the MacDonlevy line of Captain of his Nation died out in Continental exile with the Stuarts in Paris in the late 19th century decades before the formation of the Republic of Ireland and a half century before the Republic’s brief period of courtesy recognition of these princely titles. As Irish nobles, the MacDonlevy were solely nobles of Gaelic Ireland.
- ^ Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 35 MacCarwell - Maltby (Sidney Lee Ed.). (1893) New York: MacMillan & Co., p. 52, "As the family originally came from Ulidia, the lesser Uladh, or Ulster, the members of the family are often called in Irish writings, instead of MacDonlevy, Ultach, that is, Ulsterman, and from this the name of MacNulty, Mac an Ultaigh, son of the Ulsterman, is derived."
- ^ Cadet branch of O'Sullivan Mor. See Ellis, p. 157; Curley, p. 116
- ^ Considered by many to now be the O'Donoghue Mor and thus Prince of Locha Léin, but has not yet claimed the title. See Ellis, pp. 137–8, noting "the family has no such intention". But compare Curley, pp. 109–12, who styles O'Donoghue the Prince of Locha Léin anyway, because the senior dynasty have of course gone extinct.
- ^ For the genealogy of the O'Donovans see Donnubán mac Cathail.
- ^ The Clann Somhairle, although claiming Irish ancestry, are also considered a "cadet branch" (maternal line) of the Crovan dynasty, Kings of Mann and the Isles, likely a branch of the Norse-Irish Uí Ímair. See Alex Woolf, The origins and ancestry of Somerled: Gofraid mac Fergusa and 'The Annals of the Four Masters' Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Medieval Scandinavia 15 (2005)
- ^ a b Ellis, pp. 231 ff
- ^ Curley, p. 43
- ^ Curley, p. 61
- ^ Curley, pp. 59–62
- ^ "Irish Chiefswatch". Archived from the original on 8 September 2019. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
- Burke, Bernard and Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd, Burke's Irish Family Records. London: Burke's Peerage Ltd. 5th edition, 1976.
- and Charles Mosley, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage. 107th edition, 2003.  Archived 9 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Chambers, Anne, At Arm's Length: Aristocrats in the Republic of Ireland. New Island Books. 2nd revised edition, 2005. (selected families, Gaelic, Hiberno-Norman, and later)
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Genealogical and historical
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- Cotter, G. de P. (ed.), "The Cotter Family of Rockforest, Co. Cork", in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society 43 (1938): 21–31
- Cronnelly, Richard F., Irish Family History Archived 12 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Dublin. 1864.
- D'Alton, John, Illustrations, Historical and Genealogical, of King James's Irish Army List, 1689 2 vols. London: J.R. Smith. 2nd edition, 1861.
- Keating, Geoffrey, with David Comyn and Patrick S. Dinneen (trans.), The History of Ireland by Geoffrey Keating Archived 14 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. 4 Vols. London: David Nutt for the Irish Texts Society. 1902–14.
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- O'Connor, Roderic, A Historical and Genealogical Memoir of the O'Connors, Kings of Connaught, and their Descendants. Dublin: McGlashan & Gill. 1861.
- Ó Corráin, Donnchadh (ed.), Genealogies from Rawlinson B 502 Archived 13 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine University College, Cork: Corpus of Electronic Texts. 1997.
- O'Donoghue, John, Historical Memoir of the O'Briens. Dublin: Hodges, Smith, & Co. 1860.
- John O'Donovan, ed. (1856). Annála Rioghachta Éireann. Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters... with a Translation and Copious Notes. 7 vols. Translated by O'Donovan (2nd ed.). Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. CELT editions. Full scans at Internet Archive: Vol. 1; Vol. 2; Vol. 3; Vol. 4; Vol. 5; Vol. 6; Indices.
- O'Donovan, John and the Rt. Hon. Charles Owen O'Conor Don, The O'Conors of Connaught: An Historical Memoir Archived 27 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Dublin: Hodges, Figgis, and Co. 1891.
- O'Hart, John, Irish Pedigrees. Dublin. 5th edition, 1892.
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- Maginn, Christopher, The Gaelic Peers, the Tudor Sovereigns, and English Multiple Monarchy, 2011.
Irish kingship and lordship
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- Byrne, Francis J., Irish Kings and High-Kings. Four Courts Press. 2nd edition, 2001.
- Charles-Edwards, T.M., Early Christian Ireland. Cambridge. 2000.
- Dillon, Myles, "The consecration of Irish kings", in Celtica 10 (1973): 1–8.
- Dillon, Myles, The Cycles of the Kings. Oxford. 1946.
- FitzPatrick, Elizabeth, Royal Inauguration in Gaelic Ireland c. 1100–1600: A Cultural Landscape Study. Boydell Press. 2004.
- Jaski, Bart, Early Irish Kingship and Succession. Four Courts Press. 2000.
- Nicholls, K. W., Gaelic and Gaelicized Ireland in the Middle Ages. Dublin: Lilliput Press. 2nd edition, 2003.
- O'Donovan, John (ed.), and Duald Mac Firbis, The Genealogies, Tribes, and Customs of Hy-Fiachrach Archived 9 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Dublin: Irish Archaeological Society. 1844. pp. 425–452
- Duffy, Seán (ed.), Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. 2005.
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- O'Rahilly, Thomas F., Early Irish History and Mythology. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. 1946.