Bloodchild and Other Stories

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"Bloodchild" redirects here. For the Tim Bowler novel, see Bloodchild (novel).
Bloodchild and Other Stories
BloodchildButler.jpg
First edition
Author Octavia E. Butler
Country  United States
Genre science fiction, horror
Publisher Four Walls Eight Windows, Seven Stories Press
Publication date
Aug/Sep 1995
Media type Print (hardcover, trade paperback)
Pages 144 pp
ISBN 1-56858-055-X (1st ed.)

Bloodchild and Other Stories is the only collection of science fiction stories and essays by Octavia E. Butler. Each story and essay features an afterword by Butler. "Bloodchild," the title story, won the Hugo Award and Nebula Award.

Originally published in 1995, the 2005 expanded edition contains two additional stories: "Amnesty" and "The Book of Martha."

Stories[edit]

"Bloodchild"[edit]

Winner of the 1984 Nebula Award for Best Novelette and the 1985 Hugo Award for Best Novelette.

Gan, the young male Terran chosen by lead female T’Gatoi, accepts his impending fate of being a host for her Tlic eggs and offers his body out of love, rage and desperation:

"I knew what to do, what to expect. I had been told all my life. I felt the familiar sting, narcotic, mildly pleasant. Then the blind probing of her ovipositor. The puncture was painless, easy."

Butler, "Bloodchild," 27.

"Bloodchild" describes the unusual bond between a race of insect-like alien lifeforms called the Tlic and a colony of humans who have escaped Earth and settled on the Tlic planet. When the Tlic realize that humans make excellent hosts for Tlic eggs, they establish the Preserve for their protection and in return require that every human family choose a child for implantation. A human thus implanted is called a N'Tlic.

The story is narrated by Gan, a young boy whose turn has come to carry the eggs of T’Gatoi, a lead female Tlic who chose him for her partner when he was born. All his life Gan and his siblings, except his brother Qui, who has seen a birth go wrong, have perceived being a host as a privilege and felt that having T’Gatoi around was wonderful. However, when a "pregnant" man named Lomas is separated from his Tlic when her eggs begin to hatch inside him, Gan is forced to help T’Gatoi perform surgery on the man to retrieve the Tlic grubs and stop the man from being eating alive. After witnessing the horrendous process that the a human male must go through to give "birth," Gan begins to question whether or not he actually wants to pursue being a host himself. Gan's fear pushes him to question T’Gatoi as to what kind of relationship humans and aliens truly have with each other. Gan then gets a gun that had been hidden away and threatens to kill himself rather than be impregnated. T'Gatoi, who must begin laying her eggs that night, asks Gan if she should impregnate Gan's willing sister instead. Out of love for his sister and for T'Gatoi, Gan chooses to become impregnated, but requires that T'Gatoi allow his family to keep their illegal gun. As T'Gatoi impregnates Gan, she lovingly promises him that she will take care of him and will never leave him behind like Lomas had been left by his Tlic.

Backgrounds[edit]

From the Afterword for "Bloodchild":

"I tried to write a story about paying the rent--a story about an isolated colony of human beings on an inhabited, extrasolar world."

Butler, "Bloodchild," 31.

In several interviews as well as in her afterword to "Bloodchild," Butler explains the different situations that led her to write the story. To begin with, she wanted to "write out" her fear of her body being invaded by a parasitic insect, specifically the bot-fly. She also wanted to write about a human male becoming pregnant; about the risks to his body as well as what it would take for him to have maternal feelings towards his alien brood, and so she ended crafting a story about a symbiotic, loving relationship between two very different species. This is why, she insists again and again, critics read "Bloodchild" wrongly when they argue it is about slavery. Lastly, she wanted to write a story about "paying the rent"—of how a realistic depiction of human immigration into space would not just repeat the colonialist tropes of traditional science fiction but rather require some quid pro quo or "accommodation" from the part of humanity.[1][2][3][4]

"The Evening and the Morning and the Night"[edit]

The infected with (DGD) are known for self-mutilation and self harm. But some are willing for a change, instead of destroying they create to show the world, we can fight this disease: "They can create something beautiful, useful, even something worthless. But they create. They don't destroy."

Butler, "The Evening and the Morning and the Night"

Published in Omni Publications International in 1987; in Bloodchild and Other Stories by Four Walls Eight Windows in 1995; by Seven Stories Press in 1996 and 2005.

Winner of Science Fiction Chronicle Reader Award; Nominated for Nebula Award for Best Novelette in 1987.

"The Evening and the Morning and the Night" depicts the impact of Duryea-Gode disease (DGD), a genetic alteration characterized by signs of dementia, suicide, and self-mutilation, as the affected individual attempts to escape what they perceive as a prison: their flesh. The disease has no cure but only worsens; the life span of a DGD sufferer is up to 40 years old.

The narrator of the story, Lynn Mortimer, is a "double DGD," as both her parents are disease carriers. Before Lynn leaves for college, her father mutilates her mother, killing her, and then does the same to himself. Once in college, Lynn rooms with other DGDs, and eventually becomes engaged to one of them, Alan Chi, who, like Lynn, is double DGD. When Alan and Lynn go to visit Alan's mother at Dilg, a DGD retreat run by DGDs rather than normals, they find out that at this retreat previously uncontrolled and mutilated DGDs flourish and even become artists, researchers, designers, and engineers. Beatrice, the director of Dilg, explains that female double DGDs like herself and Lynn generate a pheromone that allows them to manage even the most uncontrolled of DGDs. Beatrice suggests that Lynn could become the head of another such Dilg retreat (double DGD females are territorial), with Alan working as a doctor under her. Lynn realizes she will take the job, but Alan dislikes the idea of living under the spell of a pheromone. As they leave, Beatrice tells Lynn that her scent will not stop Alan from leaving her if she believes that all that keeps them together is genetics.

Backgrounds[edit]

In her afterword, Butler's discusses her fascination with genetics and its relationship to personal responsibility. The possibility that a single gene can decide who a person is then became the foundation of her story. She then constructed DGD from the symptoms of three genetic disorders: Huntington's disease, phenylketonuria, and Lesch-Nyhan disease, to which she added reactivity to pheromones and the delusion of being trapped in one own's flesh.

Themes[edit]

Illness and Segregation

"The Evening and the Morning and the Night" presents an atmosphere governed by social exclusion due to the affliction of DGD. A DGD patient's requirement to wear an emblem marks them as a liability to standard social constructs. Since DGD is an illness that facilitates self-mutilation and maniacal episodes of violence, people tend to stay away from those affected by the disease. This distance created by others not affected by this disease naturally causes prejudice and marginalization. Ultimately, the emblem DGD carriers wear signifies a population oppressed not only by their own genetic mutation, but also by the rest of society.[5] Society thinks people with DGD can be problematic. Normal and sick humans are put in different groups, each with their own people. Each of the groups feel better interacting with their members. By law people with DGD are removed from their city and placed in a facility where disease sufferers are entrapped into their own world and labeled as if they were delinquents.[6]

"Near of Kin"[edit]

Published in Chrysalis 4 in 1979; in Bloodchild and Other Stories, Four Walls Eight Windows in 1995; by Seven Stories Press in 1996 and 2005.

"Near of Kin" reports a discussion between a girl and her uncle. The girl's mother has recently died and she is talking to her uncle about the lack of relationship that she had with her mother. She felt abandoned by her mother because she was left to be raised by her grandmother. There was a family secret that that the girl felt was the justification of her abandonment. She felt as if she was the product of her mom and uncle rather than her mom and previous husband, so yes her uncle was also her father. Comparing her looks and personality with that of her uncle, she was just waiting for the confirmation that she was his child. Though this does not fully justify her mother neglecting her, it makes the situation as a whole and her relationship between her father/uncle more understanding.

Backgrounds[edit]

In her afterword, Butler explains that because of her Baptist background, the influences for "Near of Kin" come from incestuous Bible stories such as those of Lot's daughters, Abraham's sister-wife, and the sons of Adam having sex with the daughters of Eve.

"Speech Sounds"[edit]

Published in Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine in 1983; in Bloodchild and Other Stories by Four Walls Eight Windows in 1995; by Seven Stories Press in 1996 and 2005.

Winner of Hugo Award for Best Short Story, 1984.

Towards the end of the story, the omniscient narrator reveals Rye's decision to take over Obsidian's role as protector:

"She had been a teacher. A good one. She had been a protector, to, though only of herself. She had kept herself alive when she had no reason to live. If the illness let these children alone, she could keep them alive."

Butler, "Speech Sounds," 12.

"Speech Sounds" explores a universe where a virus has eradicated speech. A girl named Rye is traveling across the city to visit a friend in Pasadena on a bus packed with people. Rye then notices two individuals arguing via grunting and exaggerated gestures. She senses that sooner or later some type of physical altercation will arise. Halfway to her destination a fight breaks out between the two individuals. One man hits another man and he starts to bleed, while this occurs, a third man gets involved with the fight and the bus breaks out into a brawl. The bus driver brings the bus to a sudden halt which causes everyone to fall on top of each other resulting in more quarrels. Once the doors open, Rye quickly leaves the scene to observe the situation. A car then approaches her and a man gets out. She is unsure who the man is, but she assumes that he may be a cop because he is armed and in uniform. This man takes action into his own hands to dissolve the altercation by throwing a gas bomb. This causes everybody to evacuate the bus. The man, Obsidian, an ex-cop, agrees to take Rye to Pasadena. Rye finds herself attracted to Obsidian and wants him to join her in Pasadena. While traveling they run into another altercation. A man is chasing a woman with a knife. Obsidian stops the car and both get out to confront the man. However, he had already stabbed the woman to death. Obsidian shoots the man to prevent any further harm. When he goes to observe the woman who had been stabbed, the man grabs his gun and shoots Obsidian in the head. Rye, who is armed herself, then shoots Obsidians’ murderer, killing him. Rye comes across the two children of the deceased woman. The children are not infected with the virus and are able to speak. Rye believes that the man who killed Obsidian, was the father of the children, and the woman was killed trying to protect her them from their father. Hearing them speak gave Rye hope for the future of humanity.

Backgrounds[edit]

In the short story Speech Sounds many believed they lost the ability to speak and some believed that it a disease that was incurable. Butler describe this situation very clearly when she says "The illness, if it was an illness, had cut even the living off from one another." (Butler page 95).In other words the disease, which is unfavorable and lead the society to live under a very inhumane conditions. "The illness, if it was an illness, had cut even the living off from one another."

Butler, Speech Sounds, 95.

In the afterword for "Speech Sounds," Butler depicts her personal experience on a bus with verbal and physical violence which led to her writing a story where similar actions take place without speaking. Butler hopes that society finds a better way of communicating with one another without the use of any violence. Both Butler and Rye encounter a physical fight on a bus which lead to different fights breaking out, turning it into a bloody scene. Butler's personal experience involves the death of personal friend due to a disease, whereas in "Speech Sounds" the entire society was effected by a disease that prohibited them to speak, only allowing them to use gestures. The similarity between Butler and Rye is they began to lose hope for society while encountering such an ugly situation. At the end of Butler's Afterwords, she mentions how depressed and disappointed she was in mankind, however, Speech Sounds ends with hope and possibility for humanity, concluding with verbally communicating.

Themes[edit]

Lack of communication can lead to detrimental consequences, which is one of the prominent themes in "Speech Sounds." As Jim Miller points out in "Technology Fix," the illness takes away the forms of communication that results in random acts of violence and conflicts.[7] Without the means of language and literacy, miscommunication can result in the destruction of civilization, causing an anarchistic wasteland.[8] Furthermore, Maria Holmgren Troy points out that a lack of verbal communication is related to violence, social disorder, and social breakdown. Troy proves how language is a major contribution to society. Additionally, she illustrates how in this dystopia of "Speech Sounds" not being able to communicate reveals many disadvantages in human society.[9]

"Crossover"[edit]

Published in Clarion 1971.

"Crossover" is about a woman who has a lousy job working at a factory in which she hates and struggles with alcohol as well as staying with her criminal boyfriend. With her constant fear of loneliness and death, she suffers from low self-esteem issues. During the 3 months that her boyfriend had been in jail she contemplated suicide many times but because of fear never went through with this plan. As the story continues, her actions and behavior become more self-destructive, constantly visiting the liquor store and turning to alcohol to solve her life problems. She had been around drunks most of her life that she got used to this habit and the more she drank the less things would matter. Octavia Butler relates this story, written when she too was working in a factory, to her real life by stating that it was about her own fears of failing as a writer and not wanting to end up like this character.

In short story "Crossover" a women named Jane, she drank and don't give herself time to think or taste or gag and also lived most of her life around the drunks."She had lived around drunks most of her life. She knew that if she could get enough down, nothing would matter"(Butler page 119).

Butler, Crossover, 119.

Backgrounds[edit]

In the afterword, Butler explains how the characters in "Crossover" were influenced by her old, dull jobs and the strange people she met while doing them. The strange people in the afterword represented the negative side of her conscious that was the main character in the story. "She stared at the bottle for a moment, then almost snatched it from him. She drank without giving herself time to taste or think or gag." This represented the temptation that she would've had if she let the stress of her dull job get the best of her.

"Amnesty"[edit]

Published in SciFi.com in 2003; in Bloodchild and Other Stories, Seven Stories Press in 2005.

In "Amnesty" Noah was released from being held captive as an experiment by the aliens for years; she was then captured by the government who tortured her to get information out of her from the aliens: "...They knew what they were doing to me, and yet it never occurred to them not to do it."

Butler, Amnesty, 181.

Noah explains to James Adio, one of the recruits, why she is working for the aliens and apparently against her own species:

"No payback. Just what I said earlier. Jobs. We get to live and so do they. I don't need payback."

Butler, "Amnesty," 181.

In "Amnesty," Noah, the main character, is in the middle of a meeting with possible employees for the Communities, an alien species that has taken over Earth's desert areas. Noah who was abducted by the Communities when she was a child attempts to convince the group to overcome their fear of the aliens so they can prosper alongside the Communities. Noah discusses and compares the experiences she had with both the Communities and the humans. Despite being treated as an experiment and a lab rat by the aliens, Noah stated that she never once faced as much cruelty with the Communities as she did with her own government. This contributed to Noah's positive involvement with Communities which gave her the power to take on the role of translator and collaborator between the two species. Noah has become one of thirty people to participate in the enfolding process with the communities which enforces her bond with them. It is because of her ability to communicate with both species that opens up the possibility of creating a more unified environment between humans and the Communities.

Backgrounds[edit]

In her afterword to "Amnesty," Butler explains the circumstances of how Amnesty came to life. She uses Dr. Wen Ho Lee's negative experience with the US government when he was wrongfully imprisoned for espionage. In Amnesty, Noah is seen as a threat by the US government she is imprisoned and tortured in order to obtain information from her about the alien's technology.

Themes[edit]

Fear

One of the main themes of "Amnesty" is fear, mostly the fear the humans have of the alien Communities. Claire Curtis discusses this fear as a natural and rather overwhelming feeling. She states that humans do things simply out of fear, whether it's fear for others, fear for ourselves, fear of the unknown or, more importantly, fear of the known. "Amnesty" explores the idea that people are so afraid of the Communities simply because humans know nothing of who the aliens are, how they function, or what their intentions are. It is because of fear that humans turn to destruction rather than collaboration.[10] Elisa Edward also discusses how the humans race is fearful of their existence and how fear is turned into anger and frustration towards the Communities.[11]

Justification of violence

One of the most discussed themes in "Amnesty" is the use of violence by both the alien Communities and the U.S. government against Noah. However, the alien communities stopped using violence against humans once they learned more about them. Elisa Edwards points out the U.S. government's violent behavior towards the alien Communities’ "collaborators." As she explains, violence is acceptable when it is used for "the greater good for mankind." She discusses this violent behavior as means for the U.S. government to protect humanity and to ensure its survival. Noah, who was considered a traitor and a collaborator, had to endure physical and psychological torture in the hands of the U.S. government because it was willing to act unethically towards humans in order to destroy their enemies.[11]

In the story of "Amnesty" on the main theme is Trust. Noah couldn’t trust her own human government because they wanted to harm her. Noah's had many flashbacks, she was given an educational journey in which she learned, in quote that "it's not the aliens, who once abducted her, who want to harm her but that is is her own human government that inflict grief". (Edwards, 46). Noah was kidnapped and experimented upon as a child by superior aliens. When she was released, the US government held her captive for several years, torturing her for information. Now she works for the aliens, recruiting humans to serve in their now-harmless experiments.Her personal goals was to calm the humans, is to convince her afraid and hostile. Butler often root for characters who didn't stand up for their rights because it would have gotten them killed but rather compromised out of necessity.

Need for Dominance

An important theme that defines many aspects within the short story "Amnesty" is the human need for dominance.Which Sarah Outterson describes as the main issue faced among the human race. There is never a concern for learning, or collaboration between the two species. Instead there is just the overwhelming fear for the "imminent destruction of the human race as they know it." (Outterson 445).[12]

"The Book of Martha"[edit]

Published in SciFi.com in 2005; in Bloodchild and Other Stories, Seven Stories Press in 2005.

Martha speaks to God and questions why she doesn't want to tamper with with real people thinking she will make a horrible mistake. "What, exactly, do you want? A utopia? Because I don't believe in them. I don't believe it's possible to arrange a society so that everyone is content, everyone has what he or she wants."

Butler, "The Book of Martha," 202.

In "The Book of Martha," humankind is slowly killing itself and its environment. Their way of living is destructible. God gives Martha the task of finding a way to improve mankind reminding her she has all the time in the world to come up with an idea. Unfortunately, after fulfilling this task Martha is to return to her normal life as the lowest level of society. Frightened and confused she is reminded about the stories of Jonah, Job and Noah. They had to complete their jobs given by God and so did she. Martha is imbued with a small portion of God's power and quickly finds herself creating her own world within this grey canvas around her. Martha used her hands to cover her broad black face in fear and confusion and also whispered to herself if only if she could wake up. Throughout the story, God slowly shrinks down to her size as well as turning darker in skin pigment. This transformation throughout the story also showed a sign of equality. Eventually, she comes up with the idea to make dreams more potent, that way humans can achieve their needs in their sleep, overwhelming them with pleasure and instant gratification so that when they are awake, they are much more peaceful people.

Backgrounds[edit]

In the afterword to "The Book of Martha," Butler realizes that everyone has a different idea of perfection, making the task from God seemingly impossible. Each person's utopia would be another person's hell due to the different wants and desires. Butler wrote "The Book of Martha" to express her belief that utopia's can only exist in our individual dreams.

Themes[edit]

In "The Book of Martha," Butler questions society's authority over individuals’ interpretations of God. Her story strongly focuses on religion and how it "polices the borders of social value and disvalue" by raising certain members of society above others. Butler's de-gendering of God throughout the "The Book of Martha" is evidence of the inequality in the perception of God by society. Butler writes to encourage minorities to question society's approach to labeling groups by color, class, and gender.[13]

Essays[edit]

"Positive Obsession"[edit]

When Butler was thirteen years old, her aunt Hazel had her question herself about becoming a writer by stating, "Honey ... Negroes can't be writers."

Butler, "Positive Obsession," 127.

Octavia Butler is talking about her love in team sports in High School, but the sport she enjoyed the most was archery. She loved archery because in this sport you did well or badly on your own based on your own efforts. You don't have anyone to blame allowing you to aim high. "I saw positive obsession as a way of aiming yourself, your life, at your chosen target. Decide what you want. Aim high. Go for it."

Butler, Positive Obsession, 129

Positive Obsession though not the original title is one of the pieces Octavia Butler did not enjoy writing because it was about herself and her life. Her life was filled with reading and writing which to her is quite dull to write about. Her stories are the most interesting part of her life. When she started reading on her own at age 6 because of her mother making her, was when she started on her journey. At age 10, she found what she could do better than anyone else that of course is writing. She wrote down the stories she would read and when she would not have stories to read, she would write them down. She created a world however she wanted in her notebook because of her extreme shyness. Despite her aunt telling her being a writer is a nice hobby and not a job; her mother supported her passion by buying her a typewriter and bringing her books. Through tons of rejections, she pursued her writing. While trying to sell her stories she had many jobs that she would quit but she would find new ones. "Positive Obsession" is how she kept pursuing her goal of making writing a career and being the only black woman writing science fiction at that time. "Positive Obsession" is about obsessing over something that regardless of what may alter it whether it be doubts or other people's insights, you keep doing what you enjoy to achieve your ultimate goal.

"Furor Scribendi"[edit]

On her essay Furor Scribendi Butler's writes about the ups and downs of becoming a writer and gives essential advice on how to improve as writer. She focuses on the need to write even though you do not feel like writing; persistence is the most important part to become a great writer. "Write. Write every day. Write whether you feel like writing or not."

Butler, "Furor Scribendi",140 .

Octavia Butler's "Furor Scribendi" is a writer's guide from Butler's perspective to all those who wish to have their writing published and become established authors. She thoroughly explains the process of what it take to becoming a writer and the difficulty behind the art of writing. What you should do to improve and how important it is not to give up. Butler emphasizes how complicated the process of writing truly is; no matter how good or experienced you are. People will face many failures, and rejections throughout this process, which has led her to the belief that it is crucial to develop an obsession for writing. It allows for them to continue through all the hardships, and rejection they may face. Overall, Butler relies on the idea of persistence. If someone wishes to write, then they will do so. As long as a person remain persistent, then anyone is capable of accomplishing much more than they could ever possibly imagine, just as she did.

Octavia Butler explains that one does not need inspiration or talent necessarily to be a writer. She explains that habit is far more dependable than both, and that you must combat pride or laziness with persistence. With habit and persistence, anyone can be a writer. "Persistence is essential to any writer - the persistence to finish your work, to keep writing in spite of rejection, to keep reading, studying, submitting work for sale."

Butler, Furor Scribendi, .

Backgrounds[edit]

The Afterword of Butler's "Furor Scribendi" discusses the encouragement behind the essay; it for people who want to write. She talks about how arduous writing is, and why persistence should always be a word to keep in mind. She gives an example of why you should never give up, and tip never to forget. Such as not be discourage if you don't have wild ideas, just have fun with it. And why you should not take yourself too seriously in writing.

Publication[edit]

"Furor Scribendi." L. Ron Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future, Vol. IX. Los Angeles: Bridge Publications, 1993.

References[edit]

  1. ^ McCaffery, Larry and Jim McMenamin. "An Interview with Octavia Butler." Across the Wounded Galaxies: Interviews with Contemporary American Science Fiction Writers. Ed. Larry McCaffery. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1990.
  2. ^ Kenan, Randall. "An Interview with Octavia E. Butler." Callaloo 14.2 (1991): 495-504.
  3. ^ Potts, Stephen. "’We Keep Playing the Same Record’: A Conversation with Octavia Butler." Science Fiction Studies 23.3 (1996).
  4. ^ McGonigal, Mike. "Octavia Butler." Index Magazine. (March 1998).
  5. ^ Bast, Florian. "I Hugged Myself": First-Person Narration as an Agential Act in Octavia Butler's "The Evening and the Morning and the Night.]" Black Intersectionalities: A Critique for the 21st Century. Published in print: 2014 Published Online: May 2014 ISBN 9781846319389
  6. ^ Lavender, Isiah, III. "Digging Deep: Ailments of Difference in Octavia Butler's "The Evening and the Morning and the Night"." Black and Brown Planets: The Politics of Race in Science Fiction. Ed. Isiah Lavender, III. Jackson, MS: UP of Mississippi, 2014. 65-82. ISBN 978-1628461237
  7. ^ Miller, Jim. "The Technology Fix." American Book Review 17.3 (1996): 28. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter and Polly Vedder. Vol. 121.
  8. ^ Green, Michelle Erica. "'There Goes the Neighborhood': Octavia Butler's Demand for Diversity in Utopias." Utopian and Science Fiction by Women: Worlds of Difference. Ed. Jane L. Donawerth and Carol A. Kolmerten. Syracuse University Press, 1994. p166-189. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter and Polly Vedder. Vol. 121. Gale, 2000.
  9. ^ Troy, Maria Holmgren. "Loss of Words: Octavia Butler's 'Speech Sounds'." The Power of Words. Ed. Solveig Granath, June Miliander, and Elizabeth Wennö. Karlstad, Sweden: Karlstads Universitet, 2005. 73-80.
  10. ^ Curtis, Claire P. "Theorizing Fear: Octavia Butler and the Realist Utopia". Utopian Studies 19.3 (2008): 411–431.
  11. ^ a b Edwards, Elisa. Edwards, Elisa. Octavia Butler's "Amnesty." (2003) in Race, Aliens, and the U.S. Government in African American Science Fiction. Münster [u.a.: Lit, 2011. Print.
  12. ^ Outterson, Sarah. "Diversity, Change, Violence: Octavia Butler's Pedagogical Philosophy". Utopian Studies 19.3 (2008): 433–456. Web…
  13. ^ Hampton, Gregory Jerome. "Religious Science Fiction: Butler's Changing God." Changing Bodies in the Fiction of Octavia Butler. Blue Ridge Summit, US: Lexington Books, 2010. ISBN 9780739137871

Further reading[edit]

Reviews[edit]

Scholarship[edit]

  • Gant-Britton, Lisbeth. "Butler, Octavia (1947– )." African American Writers. Ed. Valerie Smith. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2001. 95-110.
  • McIntyre, Vonda N. et al. "Reflections on Octavia E. Butler." Science Fiction Studies 37. 3 (November 2010): 433-442.
  • Pfeiffer, John R. "Octavia Butler Writes the Bible." Shaw and Other Matters. Ed. Susan Rusinko. Selinsgrove, Pa.: Susquehanna University Press, 1998. 140-154. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism Select. Detroit: Gale, 2008.

"Bloodchild"[edit]

"The Evening and the Morning and the Night"[edit]

  • Bast, Florian. "I Hugged Myself": First-Person Narration as an Agential Act in Octavia Butler's "The Evening and the Morning and the Night.]" Black Intersectionalities: A Critique for the 21st Century. Published in print: 2014 Published Online: May 2014 ISBN 9781846319389
  • Hammer, Everett. "Determined Agency: A Postsecular Proposal for Religion and Literature-and Science." Religion and Literature 41.3 (2009): 91-98.
  • Lavender, Isiah, III. "Digging Deep: Ailments of Difference in Octavia Butler's "The Evening and the Morning and the Night"." Black and Brown Planets: The Politics of Race in Science Fiction. Ed. Isiah Lavender, III. Jackson, MS: UP of Mississippi, 2014. 65-82. ISBN 978-1628461237

"Amnesty"[edit]

  • Curtis, Claire P. "Theorizing Fear: Octavia Butler and the Realist Utopia". Utopian Studies 19.3 (2008): 411–431.Foster, Thomas. "'We Get to Live, and So D
  • Edwards, Elisa. Edwards, Elisa. Octavia Butler's "Amnesty." (2003) in Race, Aliens, and the U.S. Government in African American Science Fiction. Münster [u.a.: Lit, 2011. Print.
  • Foster, Thomas. "'We Get to Live, and So Do They': Octavia Butler's Contact Zones." Strange Matings: Science Fiction, Feminism, African American Voices, and Octavia E. Butler. Ed. Rebecca J. Holden and Nisi Shawl. Seattle, WA: Aqueduct, 2013. 140-167.
  • Hampton, Gregory Jerome. "On the Phone with Octavia Butler." Changing Bodies in the Fiction of Octavia Butler. Blue Ridge Summit, US: Lexington Books, 2010.

"Speech Sounds"[edit]

  • Govan, Sandra Y. "Disparate Spirits Yet Kindred Souls: Octavia E. Butler, 'Speech Sounds,' and Me." Strange Matings: Science Fiction, Feminism, African American Voices, and Octavia E. Butler. Ed. Rebecca J. Holden and Nisi Shawl. Seattle, WA: Aqueduct, 2013. 109-127.
  • Sorlin, Sandrine. "Stylistic Techniques and Ethical Staging in Octavia Butler's 'Speech Sounds'." The Ethics and Poetics of Alterity: New Perspectives on Genre Literature. Ed. Maylis Rospide and Sandrine Sorlin. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2015. 82-94. ISBN 978-1443872027
  • Troy, Maria Holmgren. "Loss of Words: Octavia Butler's 'Speech Sounds'." The Power of Words. Ed. Solveig Granath, June Miliander, and Elizabeth Wennö. Karlstad, Sweden: Karlstads Universitet, 2005. 73-80.

"The Book of Martha"[edit]

External links[edit]