Bukavu

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Bukavu

Costermansville/Costermansstad
Bukavu
Bukavu
Bukavu is located in Democratic Republic of the Congo
Bukavu
Bukavu
Location in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Coordinates: 2°30′S 28°52′E / 2.500°S 28.867°E / -2.500; 28.867Coordinates: 2°30′S 28°52′E / 2.500°S 28.867°E / -2.500; 28.867
Country Democratic Republic of the Congo
ProvinceSouth Kivu
Founded1901
Government
 • MayorFilemon Mulolo
Area
 • Total60 km2 (20 sq mi)
Elevation
1,498 m (4,915 ft)
Population
 (2016)
 • Total870,954[1]
Time zoneUTC+2 (Lubumbashi Time)
ClimateAw
WebsiteOfficial website ‹See Tfd›(in French) (** query broken URL)

Bukavu (former official names: Costermansville (French) and Costermansstad (Dutch)) is a city in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), lying at the extreme south-western edge of Lake Kivu, west of Cyangugu in Rwanda, and separated from it by the outlet of the Ruzizi River. It is the capital of the South Kivu province and as of 2012 it had an estimated population of 806,940. The current Governor of South Kivu is Claude Nyamugabo[2], elected on 29 October 2017, who replaced Marcelin Chishambo.

History[edit]

Bukavu is part of the ancient territory of Bushi Kingdom, the main ethnic group of South-Kivu. It was governed by a “Muluzi” Nyalukemba, when the first Arabs, then the European arrived in Bushi at the end of the 19th century. (“Muluzi” or “Baluzi” in the plural means « the nobleman or nobility to Shi. It is equivalent to Watutsi or Tutsi in Kinyarwanda. Before the Europeans came in Bushi Kingdom, Bukavu was called “Rusozi”. The name Bukavu comes from the transformation of word 'bu 'nkafu ' (farm of cows) in Mashi, the language of Bashi.[citation needed] Bukavu was established in 1901 by the Belgian colonial authorities.[3]Originally named "Costermansville" (in French) or "Costermansstad" (in Dutch) after Vice Governor-General Paul Costermans until 1966, it had a prominent European population under colonial rule.[4] They were attracted by the subtropical climate (Lake Kivu is 1,500 metres above sea level) and scenic location (Bukavu is built on five peninsulas and has been described as "a green hand, dipped in the lake"). Many colonial villas have gardens sloping down to the shore.

By contrast, the main residential district for ordinary people, Kadutu, climbs up the hillside inland. The surrounding hills reach a height of 2,000 metres. Formerly an administrative centre for the whole of the Kivu region, the town lost some of its status as a result of the growth of Goma and the wars that erupted in the Congo following the Genocide in Rwanda.

Following the Rwandan Genocide, Hutu refugees and many members of the former Hutu-led government fled as part of the Great Lakes refugee crisis. The refugee camps around Goma and Bukavu became a center of the Hutu insurgency from the camps against the new Watutsi government of Rwanda, although to a very minimal extent. In November 1996 at the start of the First Congo War, Rwandan government forces consequently attacked the Hutu camps, and forces of the then Zaire government which allowed the insurgency. The Rwandan government supported rebels in Zaire led by Laurent Kabila who overthrew the Kinshasa government with their help, and then fell out with them, leading to the Second Congo War. Rwanda supported the rebel Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD) against Kabila. The reason for this support is believed to be economic rather than the protection of the Rwandan territory. The RCD was dominated by the Banyamulenge, and Bukavu which with the rest of Sud-Kivu was held by the RCD saw sporadic fighting between rebels and government forces and their proxies, including the Mayi-Mayi, especially in 1998 and 2004.

On June 3, 2004, protestors in several Congolese cities took to the streets to demonstrate against the United Nations for failing to prevent Bukavu from falling to Rwandan-backed RCD forces led by General Nkunda.[5] About 16,000 women were raped on a single weekend after General Nkunda told his troops "This city is yours for three days."[6] In September 2007 Nkunda, who had been persuaded to fall in line with the peace accords which ended the war and re-integrate his troops with the Congolese government forces, again rebelled and started attacking government troops north of Goma.

During the 2015 South Kivu earthquake, at least one policemen were killed.

Geography[edit]

Lake Kivu in Bukavu
Lake Kivu view

Although not threatened by volcanoes as Goma is, Bukavu is equally in danger from a potential limnic eruption from Lake Kivu, in which vast quantities of dissolved carbon dioxide and methane could explode from the lake and threaten the lives of the 2 million people who live near the lake.[7]

Climate[edit]

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as tropical wet and dry (Aw).[8]

Climate data for Bukavu
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25
(77)
25.1
(77.2)
25.1
(77.2)
24.6
(76.3)
24.7
(76.5)
25
(77)
25.7
(78.3)
26.8
(80.2)
26.6
(79.9)
25.6
(78.1)
25
(77)
24.8
(76.6)
25.3
(77.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 19.8
(67.6)
19.9
(67.8)
19.9
(67.8)
19.6
(67.3)
19.9
(67.8)
19.6
(67.3)
19.5
(67.1)
20.4
(68.7)
20.5
(68.9)
20.1
(68.2)
19.8
(67.6)
19.7
(67.5)
19.9
(67.8)
Average low °C (°F) 14.7
(58.5)
14.7
(58.5)
14.7
(58.5)
14.7
(58.5)
15.1
(59.2)
14.2
(57.6)
13.4
(56.1)
14
(57)
14.5
(58.1)
14.7
(58.5)
14.6
(58.3)
14.6
(58.3)
14.5
(58.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 135
(5.3)
137
(5.4)
170
(6.7)
165
(6.5)
103
(4.1)
34
(1.3)
17
(0.7)
52
(2.0)
110
(4.3)
151
(5.9)
172
(6.8)
145
(5.7)
1,391
(54.7)
Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 1490m[8]

Architecture[edit]

An art deco building in Bukavu

The city has over 100 art deco buildings which were constructed during Belgian colonial rule and proposals have been made to preserve these so that the city can be a tourist attraction for architecture enthusiasts.[9]

Transport[edit]

Bukavu is an important transport hub and gateway to eastern DR Congo, but as a result of the wars the road network has deteriorated and highways to Goma, Kisangani and other towns have not been fully restored. As with Goma, close proximity to the paved road network of East Africa and the functioning eastern section of the Trans-African Highway to Mombasa may allow a faster recovery than other Congolese towns. Bukavu's proximity to the Lake Tanganyika ports of Bujumbura and Kalundu-Uvira give it an additional advantage, with access on the lake to the railheads of Kigoma (linked to Dar es Salaam) and Kalemie (rail link to Katanga, in need of rehabilitation). Isolation, largely due to bad road infrastructure, has been found to be an important determinant of wealth and/or development in South Kivu.[10]

Bukavu has numerous lakeside wharves and boat transport is used extensively in the Congolese waters of the lake in the absence of well maintained roads.

Kavumu Airport (ICAO code: FZMA, IATA code: BKY) located about 30 kilometres north is the domestic airport for Bukavu. This airport has not been renovated for many years. The renovation of this airport will be a great relief to the region and will facilitate many business and the growth of the economy.

Education[edit]

The Official University of Bukavu was founded in 1993.

Parks[edit]

Entrance to Kahuzi-Biéga National Park

Kahuzi-Biéga National Park, a World Heritage Site and one of two homes of the eastern lowland gorilla, is close to the city and can be accessed from the road to Kavumu. The park headquarters at Tshivanga is located 31 km from Bukavu.

Places of worship[edit]

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Christian churches and temples (Catholic: Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bukavu, Protestant: Kimbanguist Church, Province of the Anglican Church of the Congo, Presbyterian Community in Congo, Evangelical Christian: Baptist Community of Congo, Baptist Community of the Congo River, Assemblies of God).[11] There are also Muslim mosques.

Medical care[edit]

Panzi Hospital

The city is home to the Panzi Hospital, founded by the Swedish Pentecostal Mission in 1921, his director Denis Mukwege (Nobel Prise of Peace in 2018) operates on women, who survive sexual violence and is one of only two doctors in the eastern Congo qualified to perform a reconstructive surgery.[12]

Panzi Hospital is a teaching hospital of the Evangelical University in Africa. Bukavu is also home to the Catholic University of Bukavu's School of Medicine and General Reference teaching hospital. The pharmaceutical factory Pharmakina owned by a German immigrant and a French immigrant produces the antimalarial drug quinine and the generic AIDS medicament Afri-vir. Pharmakina also runs an AIDS diagnostic and treatment center.[13] With 740 employees and about 1000 free-lance workers. After Great Lake Plantations SARL, which is Congo's only modern tea manufacturing company, Pharmakina is the largest employer in town.[14]

Social issues[edit]

Women continue to face major problems of violence in the wake of war in the eastern DRC. Fondation chirezi in August 2007 launched a project for women's trauma healing and care, based in Bukavu.

Another NGO launched a program to help women affected by Violence in Panzi next to Fondation Panzi called V-Day[15]

Notable residents[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.caid.cd/index.php/donnees-par-villes/ville-de-bukavu/?domaine=fiche
  2. ^ "Claude Nyamugabo élu gouverneur du Sud-Kivu". Radio Okapi (in French). 2017-08-29. Retrieved 2017-09-16.
  3. ^ Emizet Francois Kisangani, Scott F. Bobb, Historical Dictionary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Scarecrow Press, USA, 2009, p. 59
  4. ^ Britannica, Bukavu, britannica.com, USA, accessed on July 7, 2019
  5. ^ "Global Witness Under-Mining Peace – The Explosive Trade in Cassiterite in Eastern DRC" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2007-12-24.
  6. ^ Schwabe, Alexander (2006-05-16). "Kongo: Berserker von Bukavu torpediert die Wahlen". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  7. ^ "Killer Lakes." BBC Two Thursday 4 April 2002, summarised at www.bbc.co.uk.
  8. ^ a b "Climate: Bukavu - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  9. ^ The Independent, Bukavu, Africa’s forgotten art deco jewel, Wednesday 20 March 2013, https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/nature_studies/bukavu-africas-forgotten-art-deco-jewel-8542338.html
  10. ^ Ulimwengu, J., Funes, J., Headey, D. and You, L. 2009. Paving the way for development? The impact of transport infrastructure on agricultural production and poverty reduction in the Democratic Republic of Congo, IFPRI Discussion Paper 00944, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington DC, USA. 48 pp. [1]
  11. ^ J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ‘‘Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices’’, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, p. 777
  12. ^ Stephanie Nolen (Spring 2005). ""Not Women Anymore…": The Congo's rape survivors face pain, shame and AIDS". Ms. Archived from the original on 2016-10-31. Retrieved 2011-12-04. It took Thérèse Mwandeko a year to save the money... She walked with balled-up fabric clenched between her thighs, to soak up blood that had been oozing from her vagina for two years, since she had been gang-raped by Rwandan militia soldiers who plundered her village in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Finally, she arrived at Panzi Hospital... Dr. Denis Mukwege, Panzi’s sole gynecologist and one of two doctors in the eastern Congo who can perform such reconstructive surgeries, can repair only five women a week.
  13. ^ Das Parlament – Publication of the German Bundestag Archived June 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Die Zeit Nr.29 2005: "Kongos kleines Wirtschaftswunder"
  15. ^ "Why Congo? - City of Joy". City of Joy. Retrieved 2017-09-16.
  • Diallo, Siradiou (1975). Le Zaire aujourd'hui. Editions Jeune Afrique. ISBN 2-85258-021-7.
  • UN Department for Humanitarian Affairs, Inter-Regional Information Network briefings IRIN

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Bukavu

External links[edit]