South Kivu

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South Kivu Province
Jimbo la Kivu Kusini
Official seal of South Kivu Province
Democratic Republic of the Congo (26 provinces) - Sud-Kivu.svg
CountryDemocratic Republic of the Congo
Named forLake Kivu
Largest cityBukavu
 • TypeProvincial assembly
 • BodyProvincial Assembly of South Kivu
 • GovernorThéo Ngwabidje Kasi[1]
 • Vice-governorFiston Malago[1]
 • Total65,070 km2 (25,120 sq mi)
 • Rank17th
 • Total5,772,000
 • Rank3rd
 • Density89/km2 (230/sq mi)
License Plate CodeDemocratic Republic of the Congo CGO / 22
Official languageFrench
National languageSwahili
HDI (2015)0.391[2]
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South Kivu (Swahili: Jimbo la Kivu Kusini; French: Sud-Kivu) is one of 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[3] Its capital is Bukavu.


South Kivu Province was created from Sud-Kivu District in 1989, when the existing Kivu Province was divided into three parts (South Kivu, North Kivu and Maniema).

In June 2014, around 35 people were killed in an attack in the South Kivu village of Mutarule. The attack was apparently part of dispute over cattle.[4]

On 7 August 2015 the 2015 South Kivu earthquake, a magnitude 5.8 earthquake, struck 35 km (22 mi) north-northeast of Kabare at a depth of 12.0 km (7.5 mi).[5] One policeman was killed.

Approximate correspondence between historical and current province[edit]

Approximate correspondence between historical and current province
Belgian Congo Republic of the Congo Zaire Democratic Republic of the Congo
1908 1919 1932 1947 1963 1966 1971 1988 1997 2015
22 districts 4 provinces 6 provinces 6 provinces 21 provinces + capital 8 provinces + capital 8 provinces + capital 11 provinces 11 provinces 26 provinces
Bas-Uele Orientale Stanleyville Orientale Uele Orientale Haut-Zaïre Orientale Bas-Uele
Haut-Uele Haut-Uele
Ituri Kibali-Ituri Ituri
Stanleyville Haut-Congo Tshopo
Maniema Costermansville Kivu Maniema Kivu Maniema
Kivu Nord-Kivu Nord-Kivu
Kivu-Central Sud-Kivu


South Kivu borders the provinces of North Kivu to the north, Maniema to the west, and Katanga to the south. To the east it borders the countries of Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania.

Administrative organization[edit]

Administratively, the province of Sud-Kivu is divided into the capital city of Bukavu and the eight territories:


In the legal view, this province has three major cities of importance: Baraka (Fizi Territory), Bukavu (Provincial Capital) and Uvira (Uvira Territory).[6] The northern city of Minova grew exponentially from 1994 through 2012 with a steady influx of refugees as a result of the disruption of the Rwandan genocide and the First and Second Congo wars, and continued fighting in the area.[7]

The city of Bukavu has experienced an exponential urban growth since colonial times. Sadiki et al. (2010) report about 620,000 inhabitants for 2008. The population growth rate increased incredibly in 2002 due to the entry of massive population from Goma after the Nyiragongo eruption of 17 January 2002.[8]

Towns and villages[edit]

Health districts[edit]

South Kivu is divided into 34 health zones (zones de santé). These are grouped into five health districts (districts de santé). These districts do not match the geography of the territories.

War and human rights[edit]

The Banyamulenge, the term historically describing the ethnic Tutsi Rwandans (Banyarwanda) concentrated on the Itombwe Plateau of the province, have been the focus of much controversy. The ambiguous political and social position of the Banyamulenge has been a point of contention in the province in the wake of incursion by fleeing Interahamwe forces responsible for the genocide of Rwandan Tutsis into the Kivu region after the liberation of neighboring Rwanda by the Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front, leading to the Banyamulenge playing a key role in the run-up to the First Congo War in 1996–1997 and Second Congo War of 1998–2003. South Kivu, along with North Kivu, has been the center of the conflict, which followed the Second Congo War.

The UN estimates that in 2005, approximately 45,000 women were raped in South Kivu.[9] It forms the new Congolese military (FARDC's) 10th Military Region, under General Pacifique Masunzu, whose undisciplined former factional fighters are responsible for many continuing human rights abuses, due to a continuing culture of impunity for military personnel, challenging physical living conditions, lack of pay, and lack of training.[10]

Masunzu is a Banyamulenge (South Kivu Banyamulenge Tutsi) who broke with the Rwandan-backed Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD) back in 2003. He was formerly commander of the 122nd Brigade in the Minembwe area, who in 2005 rebelled against the authorities in defence of the Congolese Banyamulenge, against harassment and physical abuse. Also previously former second in command of 4th Military Region in Kasai-Occidental. Africa Confidential said in 2011 that he 'clearly remains implacably opposed to the Rwandan government.'[11][12] His deputy Colonel Baudouin Nakabaka is a former Mai-Mai fighter with close links to the FDLR.

In July 2007, United Nations human rights expert Yakin Erturk called the situation in South Kivu the worst she has ever seen in four years as the global body's special investigator for violence against women. Sexual violence throughout Congo is "rampant," she said, blaming rebel groups, the armed forces and national police. Her statement included that "Frequently women are shot or stabbed in their genital organs, after they are raped. Women, who survived months of enslavement, told me that their tormentors had forced them to eat excrement or the human flesh of murdered relatives."[13]

Mutarule massacre left thousand of people homeless and killed about 30 persons on 26 June 2014[14]


  1. ^ a b Uzima, Thomas (9 May 2019). "Sud-Kivu: le Gouverneur Théo Ngwabidje, désormais dans son cabinet de Nyamoma". La Prunelle Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  2. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  3. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2014). "Democratic Republic of the Congo". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  4. ^ Crispin Kyalangalilwa (June 7, 2014). "Dispute over cows leaves 37 dead, 20 others injured in eastern Congo". Chicago Tribune. Reuters. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
  5. ^ "M5.8 – 35km NNE of Kabare, Democratic Republic of the Congo". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
  6. ^ "Découpage des zones de santé du Sud Kivu". Archived from the original on 2008-03-21. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
  7. ^ "HOT Activation, South and North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo". Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team. 16 December 2012. Archived from the original on 8 January 2013.
  8. ^ Cishugi, Bahati; Dunia, Kalegamire; Ozer, Pierre; Ozer, André; Moeyersons, Jan; Vandecasteele, Ine; Ndyanabo, Sadiki (2010). "Développement de la ville de Bukavu et cartographie des vulnérabilités, R.D. Congo". Annales des Sciences et Sciences Appliquées de l'Université Officielle de Bukavu (in French). 2. hdl:2268/82774.
  9. ^ Johann Hari – Archive Archived 2007-07-07 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-07-24.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "Africa Confidential. Volume 44 Number 21. Published 24 October 2003". Africa Confidential. 44 (21): 1–8. 2003. doi:10.1111/1467-6338.00171. ISSN 0044-6483.
  12. ^ Stearns, Jason (2009-11-25). "Excerpts from the UN Group of Experts report". Congo Siasa. Retrieved 2019-08-27.
  13. ^ "Federal News Network | Breaking Federal News & Information | Experience the difference". Federal News Network. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
  14. ^ "DR Congo: Army, UN Failed to Stop Massacre". Human Rights Watch. 2014-07-02. Retrieved 2017-09-16.

Further reading[edit]

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