|Founded||1899as "Shahekou factory", then "Dalian Locomotive Works" (1945-2007)|
|Headquarters||Dalian, Liaoning, China|
|Products||Diesel and electric locomotives, EMUs, diesel engines|
Number of employees
CRRC Dalian Co., Ltd. (Chinese: 中车大连机车车辆有限公司; literally: "CRRC Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co.,Ltd."), often abbreviated as DLoco, is a company located in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China, producing railway locomotives, multiple units and diesel engines.
The factory was established in 1899 during the period of construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway, as the Shahekou works, and was under Japanese control from 1905, and later part of the Manchukuo state. After the end of the Second World War the railway was under joint Chinese and Russian control until the 1950s when the Chinese Eastern Railroad and the city of Dalian were transferred to sole Chinese control. The factory was state owned, and controlled by the Ministry of Railways until 2001 when LORIC (China National Railway Locomotive & Rolling Stock Industry Corporation) was split into two groups; it then became one of the constituent companies of China CNR Corporation, and after June 1, 2015, CRRC.
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The locomotive factory in Dalian was founded in 1899, contemporary with the construction of the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway during the lease of the Liaodong Peninsula from China to the Russian Empire,[n 1] and to the development of Dalian as a port and town.
In 1905, the "Shahekou Plant"[n 2] came under Japanese control as a result of the Treaty of Portsmouth,[n 3] and in 1906 the railway from Dalian to Changchun became part of the Japanese controlled South Manchurian Railway.
In 1945 at the end of the Second World War the city came under Soviet Russian control. The Changchun Railway was jointly operated by China and Russia until 1952, when control was passed entirely to the Chinese government. Soviet Russian occupation ended in 1955.
In 1956 the company manufacturerd the China Railways HP[n 4] prototype 2-10-2 steam locomotive. and in 1957, the first China Railways JS class 2-8-2 locomotive,[n 5] of which 1916 were built at different plants. as well as other steam locomotives.
Diesel locomotives were developed and produced at the plant, a prototype diesel electric type "JuLong" (巨龙 meaning 'grand dragon') was produced in 1958 based on the Russian ТЭ10 locomotive and Fairbanks Morse FM38D opposed piston engine, which led to the DF class diesel electric locomotives entered production in 1964.
The change from steam to diesel production began in 1965, and in 1969, the first of the China Railways DF4 class of locomotives was produced. The DF4 series of locomotive type became the main mainline diesel locomotive type in China, and developments were produced in the following decades; including the DF4B in 1984, the DF4D in 1996.
In the 1980s the company began a decade long research partnership with Ricardo plc into increasing the power output and efficiency of its DL240 diesel engine products. In 1997 it began working with Southwest Research Institute (USA) on the design of a new locomotive diesel engine.
By 2000 the company was producing half of the China's internal supply of diesel locomotives, and manufactured 80% of the countries diesel locomotive exports.
The state company China National Railway Locomotive & Rolling Stock Industry Corporation, or LORIC, was split into the northern and southern groups; in 2002 the company became part of the newly formed China Northern Locomotive & Rolling Stock Industry (Group) Corporation along with other rail vehicle manufacturers in China.
In the first decade of the 21st century the plant began producing two new mainline locomotive product types; the China Railways HXD3 electric locomotives in association with Toshiba, a joint venture with Toshiba (大连东芝机车电气设备有限公司, Dalian Toshiba Locomotive Electric Equipment Co., Ltd.) was formed in 2002 to manufacture electric equipment for rolling stock. Also in the 2000s the diesel electric locomotives China Railways HXN3 were produced at Dalian in association with GM EMD.
In 2009 the groundbreaking ceremony took place for a new plant in the Port Arthur economic development zone (Lushunkou District); the new facility was developed in conjunction with the municipal council of Dalian city. The facility, on a 2 km (1.2 mi) site, is designed to have a production of around 1000 locomotives, 1000 rail vehicles and 1000 diesel engines per year. The plant officially opened in August 2011, the first vehicles on the production line were metro passenger units for Line 2, Tianjin Metro.
One of the company's latest export orders came in January 2015 from the Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority for 15 metro trains for the Lagos Rail Mass Transit system in Nigeria, with an option for 14 more. This order came about following a failed acquisition of old H-series carriages retired from the Toronto, Canada metro system.
Research, development and education
In 1956, Dalian Locomotive and Rolling Stock Manufacturing School was established nearby on Huanghe Road, which became the Dalian Railway Institute (Chinese: 大连铁道学院) in 1958, and in 2004 Dalian Jiaotong University (Chinese: 大连交通大学).
Also in Dalian is the CNR Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd. (中国北车集团大连机车研究所有限公司), founded 1922; the organisation became a company subsidiary of China CNR Corporation in 2007.
Products and services
The company's primary products are railway rolling stock and related parts; it has a production capacity of ~600 locomotives and 300 metro rail vehicles per year.
- The lease and railway construction rights were obtained in the Li–Lobanov Treaty of 1896
- The plant was located in the Shahekou District of Dalian
- Treaty of Portsmouth, Article VI : "The Imperial Russian Government engages to transfer and assign to the Imperial Government of Japan, without compensation and with the consent of the Chinese Government, the railway between Chang-chunfu and Kuanchangtsu and Port Arthur, and all the branches, together with all the rights, privileges and properties appertaining thereto in that region .."
- HP refers to "Heping" (Chinese: 和平号) meaning "Peace"
- JS refers to "Jian She" meaning "Construction"
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