Cathedral of Our Lady (Antwerp)
|Cathedral of Our Lady|
|Region||Diocese of Antwerp|
|Ecclesiastical or organizational status||Cathedral|
|Geographic coordinates||51°13′14″N 4°24′02″E / 51.22056°N 4.40056°E|
|Architect(s)||Jan and Pieter Appelmans|
|Direction of façade||W|
|Length||120 metres (390 ft)|
|Width||75 metres (246 ft)|
|Width (nave)||53.5 metres (176 ft)|
|Height (max)||123 metres (404 ft)|
|Part of||Belfries of Belgium and France|
|Criteria||Cultural: ii, iv|
|Inscription||1999 (23rd Session)|
The Cathedral of Our Lady (Dutch: Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Antwerp, Belgium. Today's see of the Diocese of Antwerp started in 1352 and, although the first stage of construction was ended in 1521, has never been 'completed'. In Gothic style, its architects were Jan and Pieter Appelmans. It contains a number of significant works by the Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens, as well as paintings by artists such as Otto van Veen, Jacob de Backer and Marten de Vos.
The belfry of the cathedral is included in the Belfries of Belgium and France entry in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The first Christian missionaries arrived in the 7th century. The first parish church dedicated to Saint Peter and Saint Paul was constructed in the current Sint Michielsstraat. After the Viking raids in 836, the church was damaged and restored, and subsequently dedicated to Saint Michael. In the 10th century, a group of 12 secular canons were connected to this church. They would dedicate all of their time to the Liturgy of the Hours, and mainly opposed the beliefs of the established Roman Catholic Church. Upon hearing of their dissent behavior, the bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cambrai (to which Antwerp belonged at the time) then sent Norbert of Xanten to discipline them. In 1124, Norbert of Xanten convinces 4 of the secular canons to start a norbertine abbey and thus the parish church becomes a monastery church, known as St. Michael's Abbey. The 8 other secular canons prefer to keep their freedom and move to a different location, a chapel dedicated to Our Lady, the Virgin Mary.
This chapel becomes Antwerp's new parish church, and is located between the Saint Michael residential area, and an older settlement around the area of Het Steen.
Our Lady's church
Becoming more popular, the chapel is demolished and replaced by a much bigger romanesque church. The three-aisled nave corresponded in width to the cathedral's current central aisle, the inner and partly the middle aisles. The cloverleaf-shaped eastern section with a full aisle had a width of no less than 42 m. In 1294, the church gets a novum opus extension, indicating the first signs of gothic architecture.
Our Lady's cathedral and damage
In 1352, construction was begun on a new Our Lady's church which would become the largest Gothic church in Belgium. In the beginning, it was to be provided with two towers of equal height. In 1521, after nearly 170 years, the new church of Our Lady was ready. The south tower reached only as far as the third-string course.
During the night of 5–6 October 1533, the new church was largely gutted by fire, however Lancelot II of Ursel managed to save the building. The completion of the second tower was therefore delayed, which led to its ultimate postponement. Moreover, the church only became the cathedral of the bishopric of Antwerp in 1559 but lost this title again from 1801 to 1961, following the Concordat of 1801. During the Iconoclasm of 20 August 1566 (part of the Beeldenstorm at the start of the Eighty Years' War), Protestants destroyed a large part of the cathedral interior. The eye-witness Richard Clough, a Welsh Protestant merchant then in Antwerp, wrote that the cathedral: "looked like a hell, with above 10,000 torches burning, and such a noise as if heaven and earth had got together, with falling of images and beating down of costly works, such sort that the spoil was so great that a man could not well pass through the church. So that in fine [short], I cannot write you in x sheets of paper the strange sight I saw there, organs and all destroyed."
Nicolas Sander, an English Catholic exile who was a professor of theology at Louvain, described the destruction in the church:
... these fresh followers of this new preaching threw down the graven [sculpted] and defaced the painted images, not only of Our Lady but of all others in the town. They tore the curtains, dashed in pieces the carved work of brass and stone, brake the altars, spoilt the clothes and corporesses, wrested the irons, conveyed away or brake the chalices and vestiments, pulled up the brass of the gravestones, not sparing the glass and seats which were made about the pillars of the church for men to sit in. ... the Blessed Sacrament of the altar ... they trod under their feet and (horrible it is to say!) shed their stinking piss upon it ... these false bretheren burned and rent not only all kind of Church books, but, moreover, destroyed whole libraries of books of all sciences and tongues, yea the Holy Scriptures and the ancient fathers, and tore in pieces the maps and charts of the descriptions of countries.
Later, when Antwerp came under Protestant administration in 1581, a number of artistic treasures were once again destroyed, removed or sold. The restoration of Roman Catholic authority came in 1585 with the fall of Antwerp.
In 1794 the French revolutionaries who conquered the region plundered Our Lady's Cathedral and inflicted serious damage. Around 1798, the French administration intended to demolish the building but after each blow, the cathedral was able to recover. In 1816, various important works of art were returned from Paris, including three Rubens masterpieces. Over the course of the 19th century, the church was completely restored and refurnished.
Between 1965 and 1993, a complete restoration took place.
At the beginning of the 15th century, the cathedral's choir started developing an active musical life, and as a result, the cathedral's importance in the history of music soon soared. Johannes Ockeghem, one of the most important composers of the 15th century, served here as a vicar-singer in 1443, and so did Jacob Obrecht between 1492 and 1497. Sixteenth-century choirmasters included Antoine Barbe, Geert van Turnhout, Séverin Cornet, and Andreas Pevernage. Organists who worked at the cathedral include Henry Bredemers (1493–1501), who went on to become a teacher to Philip the Handsome's children and the renowned English composer John Bull (1615–1628), who fled to Flanders from his home country escaping justice. From 1725 to 1731 Willem de Fesch served as Kapelmeester, followed from 1731 to 1737 by Joseph-Hector Fiocco, and from 1737 by André-Joseph Blavier. Lesser known but locally important figures, such as Jacobus Barbireau and Andreas Pevernage, also worked at the cathedral.
Significant architectural details
The church's one finished spire is 123 meters (404 ft) tall, the tallest church tower in the Benelux. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor commented that the spire should be kept under glass, and Napoleon compared the spire to Mechlin lace. The largest bell in the tower requires 16 bell ringers.
The west portal features statues which include the missionary Saint Willibrord. He is thought to have spent time in Antwerp in the 7th century.
Major works of art
The cathedral possesses a number of major works of art :
- The effigy from the Tomb of Isabella of Bourbon
- The Raising of the Cross – Peter Paul Rubens
- Assumption of the Virgin Mary – Peter Paul Rubens
- The Descent from the Cross – Peter Paul Rubens
Two of these artworks were confiscated by Napoleon and moved to France, The Raising of the Cross (which was actually the main altar piece of the St Walburga church) and The Descent from the Cross, but were returned to the cathedral in the 19th century.
Inside the Cathedral some important graves still can be found, amongst them family members of the noble houses of Rubens, Fourment, Goubau, Tucher, Plantin, Moretus, de Borrekens, etc. Some stones were resited there after Saint-Michael's abbey church was lost.
- Laevinus Torrentius
- Ambrosius Capello
- Aubertus van den Eede
- Municipal and Grand Almoners of the City
- Aegidius de Brialmont. (+1668) marries to Barbe van Wyck.
- Petrus de Vos (+1719), married to Maria Clara Bosschaert.
- Alexander I Goubau, (1540-1614), married to Anna Anthoni.
- Joannes Beerenbroek, (+1761): 173
- Hendrik Moens, (+1643): Alderman of Antwerp: married to Maria Fourment, sister of Hélène Fourment.
- Joannes Placquet, (+1652); married to Anne Vermeulen.
- Adriaen Stevens, (+1640) married to Maria Bosschaert.: 137
- Godefridus Joseph van Paeffenrode, (+1763) Alderman of Antwerp.
- Embertus Tholinckx.: 141
- Ludovic van den Heuvel (+1727), knight and Lord of Calfennes.: 141
- Joannes van Colen (+1724), Lord of Burcht.: 41
- Michiel [de] Vri[e]ndt, (+1637), married to Sara Rabat: Panel-maker of P.P. Rubens.: 136
- Joannes Cnobbaert (+1637), Son of Michaël; married to Marie de Man; Editor and Publisher.: 132
- Simon Jordaens, married to Maria de Bodt.
- Daniël Faes, (+ 1654), book-Editor; married to Sara de Waele.
- Abraham Ortelius (+1598), placed after burials inside Saint-Michaels Abbey.: 129
- Cornelis de Vos, marr. Susanne Cock, children Joannes Bptiste and Elisabeth
- Philippus Gallaeus, (+1612), Sculptor, married to Catharina Rollanda.: 130
- Peter Verbrugghen, sculptor. Marr. Cornelia Quellinus
- Jan Wildens, (+1653) marr. Maria Stappaert, niece of Hélène Fourment.
- Nicolaes Somers, marries to Anne de Winter. Dean of the Silver sculptors.
- Henricus de Moy, marr. Clara van Gulick, parents in law of Philip I Rubens.
- Joannes Brantius: iuris conslvltius, married Clara de Moy; parents of Isabella Brant.: 176
- Hubert Waelrant
- Michaëllis Cnobbaert (+1623), Alderman, married to Jacominne de Roy.: 132
- Alexander vander Goes (+1642), Alderman, married Maria della Faille.: 176
- Maol Muire Ó hÚigínn, Archbishop of Tuam in Ireland (1586–1590) – died in Antwerp on his return to Ireland from Rome
- Maria Goubau, marr. Renald Huygens.
- Thomas de Prêt (+1653), married to Suzanne Fourmenois.
- Gaspar Gevartius, Secretary of the City.
- Jacobis Anthonius de Witte (+1631); royal Councillor and Judge, married to Maria Catharina Mailliart.
- Jacobus della Faille.
- Abraham Verspreet (+1638), married to Elisabeth van der Noot; Greffe of the political Council.
- Henricus Walraevens.
- Reynier Floris.
- Bartholomeus Tucher, (+1542); married to Herberta Dens.: 128
- Plantyn family
- Christopher Plantyn, marr. Joanne Riviera.
- Johnnes Moretus, marr. Martina Plantyn.
- Balthasar Moretus, marr. Anne Goos.
- Arnold de Pret, marr. Maria Moretus.
Facts and figures
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "History". Diocese of Antwerp. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- ^ "Belfries of Belgium and France". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
- ^ "De vroegromaanse Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekapel". Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- ^ "De romaanse Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk". Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- ^ analysed in Arnade, 146 (quoted); see also Art through time Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ The bishopric of Antwerp was abolished during this period
- ^ Spicer, 109 (spelling modernized); see also Arnade, 146–148
- ^ Eye-witness Account of Image-breaking at Antwerp, Universiteit Leiden Archived 2012-07-09 at archive.today
- ^ Miola, 58–59, 59 quoted
- ^ John A. Rice, Saint Cecilia in the Renaissance: The Emergence of a Musical Icon (Chicago, 2022).
- ^ "Cathedral of Our Lady". www.visitantwerpen.be. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- ^ a b Coe, Fanny E. (1896). Dunton, Larkin (ed.). The World and Its People. Vol. 9. Book V. Modern Europe. Boston: Silver, Burdett & Co. p. 164.
- ^ Coe, Fanny E. (1896). Dunton, Larkin (ed.). The World and Its People. Vol. 9. Book V. Modern Europe. Boston: Silver, Burdett & Co. p. 165.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n De Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal van Antwerpen. Kunstpatrimonium van het Ancien Régime. Brepols. 1996. ISBN 9789056220075.
- ^ Antwerpen - Cathedrale Kerk, Volume 1
- Rynck, Patrick (2005). The Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp. Ghent: Ludion. ISBN 90-5544-580-0.