Chandrashekhar Agashe

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Chandrashekhar Agashe
Chandrashekhar-agashe-circa-1950.jpg
Agashe photographed in the 1950s
Managing Director of the Brihan Maharashtra Sugar Syndicate Ltd.
In office
21 September 1934 – 9 June 1956
Succeeded byJagdish "Panditrao" Agashe
President of the Bhor State Council
In office
1932–1934
MonarchRaghunathrao II Shankarrao, 11th Raja of Bhor
Secretary of the Bhor State Council
In office
1932–1932
MonarchRaghunathrao II Shankarrao, 11th Raja of Bhor
Chief Justice of the Bhor State
In office
1920–1932
MonarchShankarrao Chimnajirao, 10th Raja of Bhor (till 1922); Raghunathrao II Shankarrao, 11th Raja of Bhor (till 1932)
Personal details
Born(1888-02-14)14 February 1888
Bhor, Bhor State, Poona Agency, British Raj
Died9 June 1956(1956-06-09) (aged 68)
Pune, Maharashtra, India
Cause of deathMyocardial infarction
Spouse(s)
Indirabai Agashe (née Dwarka Gokhale) (m. 1914)
Children11 (including Jagdish "Panditrao" Agashe, Dnyaneshwar Agashe and Shakuntala Karandikar)
ParentsGovind Agashe II (father) and Radhabai Agashe (mother)
Alma materFergusson College (B.A.), Government Law College, Mumbai (L.L.B.)
OccupationIndustrialist, lawyer, educator

Chandrashekhar Agashe (Marathi: चंद्रशेखर आगाशे; IAST: Candraśekhara Āgāśe; 14 February 1888 — 9 June 1956) was an Indian industrialist and lawyer, best remembered as the founder of the Brihan Maharashtra Sugar Syndicate Ltd. He served as the managing director of the company from its inception in 1934 till his death in 1956. He served as the President of the Bhor State Council from 1932 to 1934.

Today, the Chandrashekhar Agashe College of Physical Education in Pune, the CGA – BMTRC in the Brihan Maharashtra College of Commerce, and the Chandrashekhar Agashe High School in Shreepur are named after him. He is also the namesake of the Chandrashekhar Agashe Museum wing in the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum and the Chandrashekhar Agashe Road in Shaniwar Peth, Pune. He also became the namesake of the Agashe pattern, a means of equity crowdfunding, among businesses and press in Maharashtra between 1934 and 1956.

Biography[edit]

Early life and family: 1888–1914[edit]

Agashe was born on 14 February 1888 at the Velhe Mahal in the town of Bhor, at the time part of the Bhor State in present-day Maharashtra. He was the eldest of four children to Govind Agashe II and Radhabai Agashe (née Bhimabai Bapat).[1] His family was Chitpavan Brahmin, and was established since the 1590s as the Agashe gharana of the village of Mangdari in the Bhor State. The family was traditionally occupied as the savkars (money lenders/bankers) under the Pantsachiv Kings of the Kingdom, and thus owned majority of the land in the village as vassals to the Pantsachiv rulers, where they continued the traditional family businesses of money lending and tenanted farming.[2] Agashe's father was the only Brahmin savkar at the royal court of Bhor at the time of his birth.[3]

Agashe with his wife Indira (center) and their sons Jagdish (left) and Dnyaneshwar (right) in the 1950s.

Agashe's maternal family were members of the Bapat gharana of Kalyan, having settled a branch of the original family in Junnar in 1698, traditionally occupied as the chieftains of the town.[4] His mother was the fourth daughter of Junnar's hereditary mamledar, Ramchandra Bapat V (b.1828, at Kamshet), who worked as a case historian and published several historical cartographs of old Pune after he was appointed the Karbhari of Tulsi Baug by the Sardar Khire (Tulsibaugwale) family in Pune.[5]

After his father's death in 1899, Agashe was meant to inherit the ancestral estate at age 11; but due to his youth, his paternal relatives unlawfully seized the lands, and ousted Agashe's mother and her children from the family home. She relocated the family to her parents' residence in Shaniwar Peth, Pune in 1900. The loss of the family's estate, made Agashe accept secretarial work at the Indian Post Office to support himself and his siblings through school. Later, he was left the Omkareshwar Mandir in Shaniwar Peth in the former owner's will.[6] Agashe attended the Nutan Marathi Vidyalaya, matriculating in 1905 at the age of 17, and later graduated with a Bachelor of Arts from Fergusson College in 1914, at the age of 26.[7]

In 1914, Agashe married Dwarka Gokhale, the eldest daughter of Narayan Gokhale VI from the Gokhale gharana of Dharwad. Her family had served as the hereditary royal saraf (jewellers) to the Peshwa Bhat family since the 18th century.[8][9] She was a great niece of Bapu Gokhale, a general under Peshwa Baji Rao II of the Maratha Empire.[10] She adopted the name Indirabai Agashe after marriage,[11] and the couple had a total of eleven children (including sons Jagdish "Panditrao" Agashe and Dnyaneshwar Agashe, and daughter Shakuntala Karandikar),[12] from which nine survived to adulthood.[13]

Career as an Educator, Lawyer and the Bhor State Council: 1914–1934[edit]

From 1914 to 1917, Agashe taught mathematics at the Nutan Marathi Vidyalaya in Pune, after which he was occupied as a visiting professor at a convent school in Karachi. From 1917 to 1926, Agashe worked as an educator in Mumbai, while he pursued the study of law, graduating with an L.L.B from the Government Law College, Mumbai in 1919. He began practicing his advocacy in Pune and was a lawmaking advisor to the Bhor State government.[14]

Between 1920 and 1932, he was also appointed the chief justice at the royal court of Pantsachiv Shankar Rao II Chimnaji Rao (r. 1871 – 1922).[15][16] Agashe encountered political unrest between the commoners and the gentry at the Pantsachiv's court resulting in violent rioting from the common-folk of the Bhor State. Agashe co-wrote an opinion piece against this political factionalism with Narasimha Chintaman Kelkar in the newspaper Kesari. With the permission of the king, he soon established a Lokpaksh for carrying out fair trial at the royal court to resolve conflicts.[17]

The discouraging response to the Lokpaksh from the Pantsachiv's subjects led Agashe to consider retiring from law in the late 1920s.[18] Upon attending a speech by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Agashe and his family began practicing the principles of the Swadeshi movement and started considering entrepreneurial ventures as a means to participate in the Indian independence movement in Maharashtra.[19] Agashe supported several Indian freedom fighters, including Lokmanya Tilak and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, but never considered entering politics himself; his younger brother, Narayan Agashe III actively participated in politics surrounding the Indian independence movement, serving prison time for rioting against the British Raj in the early 1930s, before aiding his elder brother in his business venture.[20][21]

Agashe circa 1930.

In 1932, Agashe was appointed as the Secretary of the Bhor State Council, and in under a year, he was elected to the post of the President of the Council, which he maintained till 1934.[20] As president, he provided financial encouragement and legal counsel to small and new business owners in Maharashtra.[16] During his presidency, Agashe used his legal acumen to seize back the family's lost estates in Mangdari from his paternal relations.[20]

The Brihan Maharashtra Sugar Syndicate Ltd.: 1934–1956[edit]

Earlier in 1933, the Governor of Bombay, The Lord Brabourne promoted the production of indigenous sugar, having had increased the import tax on the commodity shipping in from Mauritius.[22] This enabled Agashe to found the Brihan Maharashtra Sugar Syndicate Ltd. on 21 September 1934,[23][24] as a limited liability company after two years of crowd-funding campaigns,[13] with funds collected from amongst the Maharashtrian middle classes.[25][22] Prior to the syndicate's establishment, Agashe had aided Atmaram Raoji Bhat in the establishment of the Mahratta Chamber of Commerce in March 1934; and further guided the Chamber to pass legislation along with the Government of Mumbai for mandatory government aid for all Maharashtrian factory based businesses.[26]

Between 1934 and 1936, Agashe envisioned opening a factory branch of the Syndicate in his hometown of Bhor, and began cultivating 2,000 acres of land for the plantation of sugar cane. Plans for the factory were shot down after Agashe met with strong opposition from the local landed gentry. In 1935, he began employing tenanted farmers of the local gentry and independent farmers as producers or transportation workers of the sugar cane for the syndicate in the village of Bhorgaon. By 1936, he had licensed or purchased 12,000 acres of farm land to support the syndicate, being lauded for reviving the local economy and consequently receiving further land grants from bankers in Akluj and several politicians in the Bhor State. During this period, with Agashe being a brahmin, the syndicate received opposition and resentment from local Maratha politicians.[27]

After Agashe established the syndicate's headquarters at the Commonwealth Building on Laxmi Road, the Mahratta Chamber of Commerce declared the sale of 300,000 shares of the syndicate, with the first share going at Rs. 25 in January 1935.[28] Between 1935 and 1937, Agashe toured several states and jagirs within the Deccan States Agency, promoting the syndicate at several village gram panchayats.[27] Upon going public, Agashe was supported by the Kesari newspaper with public relations and received financial encouragement from the newly established Bank of Maharashtra. Agashe's mode of operation and rallying for investment or sales of shares, was popularly regarded as the Agashe pattern among Pune businesses and press.[29] This business modus operandi involved the collection of risk capital in the form of equity, instead of debentures. Agashe became associated with this procedure after becoming one of the first few businesses in Maharashtra to successfully raise funds with this method.[30] In November 1937, Agashe ordered sugar cane processing machinery from Škoda Works in Czechoslovakia before the outbreak of World War II. Following Adolf Hitler's rise to power and the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, Agashe considered retracting his order, but received the ordered machinery before the Reichswerke Hermann Göring took over Škoda.[31]

He began construction for the first factory in April 1938, and finally established the syndicate's first sugar cane processing factory in the village of Bhorgaon in March 1939,[32] further purchasing an estate and the surrounding lands as a means to look after his own sugar plantations,[33] with the syndicate's principal factory soon producing 150,000 sacs of sugar per annum by 1940.[34] Selling the sugar under the trademark Shree, the village panchayat of Bhorgaon changed the village's official name to Shreepur.[32] At this time, Agashe continued to practice law from the Joshi Wada in Sadashiv Peth, Pune alongside his brother's practice of business consultation.[35]

In 1943, the Bombay Presidency decreed the plantation of food crops as mandatory for private sugar manufacturers in order to support British troops during World War II. Agashe founded the Laxmi Narayan Farmers' Union so as to meet the demand for food crops from the British Raj without disrupting the sugar cane processing; this move was not popular with many of Agashe's employed farmers because of low profitability.[36] After Indian independence in 1947, Agashe was able to expand the syndicate's production to 1000 tonnes of sugar cane processed per annum by 1950.[37] After Gandhi's assassination by Nathuram Godse in 1948, Agashe nor the syndicate were victimized or vandalized in the immediate aftermath of riots against Brahmin houses and businesses.[38][39][40]

By 1953, there was strong opposition to Agashe's role as the managing director of the syndicate from his critics. This was backlash from several scandals and court cases involving Agashe or the syndicate in allegations of duping shareholders and depositors in the early 1950s. Agashe responded to these scandals by writing all of the press releases of the syndicate himself in the newspaper Kesari, which gained him notoriety among the newspaper's predominantly Marathi readership for their humor or references to pop culture of the time.[41][42][43] He further published a 400-page report criticizing his retractors of corruption and factionalism based on evidence that his critics were backed by his competitor Karamshi Jethabhai Somaiya, who had previously shown interest in purchasing the syndicate.[44][45][46]

Memorial bust of Agashe in Shreepur, Maharashtra sculpted by P. V. Kelkar

On 9 June 1956, while on a spiritual retreat in Jogeshwari, Agashe began showing symptoms of myocardial infarction and was recommended by his doctor to return home. He died that same day, from a heart attack upon reaching his residence in Shaniwar Peth, Pune.[47]

Philanthropy[edit]

Agashe's most notable philanthropic donation came in the form of the foundation of the Brihan Maharashtra College of Commerce in November 1944, after he donated capital towards the infrastructure of the college to the Deccan Education Society. In honor of his donation, the Society named the commerce college after Agashe's sugar syndicate. His donation was further used by the society in development of their Willingdon College, Ahilyadevi High School, Navin Marathi School and the Ranade Baalak Mandir.[48][49] He also donated to the Brihan Maharashtra Bhuvan in New Delhi. Agashe's philanthropy was heavily criticized by his competition, who viewed it as self-fulfilling.[50]

Agashe began constructing the Agashe Primary School in the village of Shreepur in April 1942, with the school receiving sanctions from the Government in July 1943.[51][52] He further donated to the campaign of Indian freedom fighter Narhar Vishnu Gadgil.[53] He also donated to the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute towards their research work on the Mahabharata.[24][54] He also established the Brihan Maharashtra Bhavan in New Delhi for the growing Marathi diaspora in the capital.[55]

Legacy[edit]

Agashe died of a Myocardial infarction at the age of 68 on 9 June 1956 at his residence in Shaniwar Peth, Pune.[56][57] He was survived by his wife Indirabai Agashe, until her death in 1981.[58] He was survived in business by his sons Panditrao Agashe and Dnyaneshwar Agashe.[59][23] He is remembered as one of the influential people from Pune in the 20th century.[60][61]

In July 1977, the founder of the Mahrashtriya Mandal of Pune, Shivarampant Damle, established the Chandrashekhar Agashe College of Physical Education in Gultekdi, Pune, honoring Agashe posthumously.[62][63] Agashe was further honored when the Pune Municipal Corporation renamed the street in Shaniwar Peth, Pune where his family had maintained a traditional brahmin Wada upon relocating to Pune,[52] as the Chandrashekhar Agashe Road.[64]

In 1993/94, the Brihan Maharashtra College of Commerce celebrated its golden jubilee by commissioning the Chandrashekhar Govind Agashe Business Motivation, Training and Research Centre (CGA – BMTRC) in his honor, which was inaugurated in August 1998.[65]

Agashe's son Dnyaneshwar Agashe began work on the Chandrashekhar Agashe High School in the village of Shreepur in 1955,[51][66] and donated his family collection of ancient Indian musical instruments to the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum.[12][67][68] The exhibit was titled the Chandrashekhar Agashe Museum wing,[69] honoring the kinship of Agashe's widow and the founder of the museum, Dr. Dinkar G. Kelkar, with them being fourth cousins.[70][71]

In 1992, Agashe was the subject of a biography written by his second-eldest daughter Shakuntala Karandikar.[72] In 1997, Agashe became the name sake of his great-grand son Chandrashekhar Agashe II.[73]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ranade 1974, p. 61, आगाशे, चंद्रशेखर गोविंद.
  2. ^ Agashe & Agashe 2006, p. 52.
  3. ^ Ranade 1974, मांगदरी घराण्याचे इतिहास.
  4. ^ Bapat & Bapat 2007, p. 600, The 41st Gharana; 8th Generation Genealogy Table.
  5. ^ Bapat & Bapat 2007, p. 603, Ramchandra V (born 1828), son of Krishna Bapat III and Radha Bapat.
  6. ^ Karandikar 1992, pp. 4–6, 8, Chapter 1: Jeevatichya haati.
  7. ^ Bapat & Bapat 2007, p. 603, The Brihan Maharashtra Sugar Syndicate Limited; Chandrashekhar Agashe Biography.
  8. ^ Bapat & Bapat 2007, p. 603, चंद्रशेखर आगाशे.
  9. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. 8.
  10. ^ Pathak 1978, Talekhasan — Pirandavanwadi Gokhale Gharana.
  11. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. 9, lines 2–4.
  12. ^ a b Kelkar, Siddhart (2009). "Friends recall royal Agashe, despite taint". Indian Express. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  13. ^ a b Agashe & Agashe 2006, p. 62.
  14. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. 10, 11.
  15. ^ "Bhor Princely State (9 gun salute)".
  16. ^ a b Agashe & Agashe 2006, p. 61.
  17. ^ Karandikar 1992, pp. 10–12.
  18. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. 12, 13.
  19. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. 13.
  20. ^ a b c Karandikar 1992, p. 14.
  21. ^ Agashe & Agashe 2006, p. 62, Agashe, Narayan Govind.
  22. ^ a b Karandikar 1992, pp. 15–16.
  23. ^ a b Bapat & Bapat 2007, pp. 603–604.
  24. ^ a b "Shri Chandrashekhar Govind Agashe". Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. vol. 36, no. 3/4. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. 1955. pp. 382–382 – via JSTOR.
  25. ^ Advani, A. H. (1982). Business India. Northwestern University. p. 83.
  26. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. 26.
  27. ^ a b Karandikar 1992, pp. 19/20, 22, 23–25.
  28. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. 27, 28.
  29. ^ Karandikar 1992, pp. 32/33.
  30. ^ Karandikar 1992, pp. 52–61.
  31. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. 33, Paragraph 2.
  32. ^ a b Karandikar 1992, pp. 36–39.
  33. ^ Karandikar 1992, pp. 17–18.
  34. ^ Bapat & Bapat 2007, p. 604.
  35. ^ Karandikar 1992, pp. 14–19.
  36. ^ Karandikar 1992, pp. 40–42.
  37. ^ "Ek hazar tonni karkhana suru jhala" [Production of factory at 1000 tonne]. Kesari (in Marathi). 30 May 1950.
  38. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. 43/44.
  39. ^ Mohanty, Manoranjan (Editor); Srinivas, M.N. (Author) (2004). Class, caste and gender. New Delhi [u.a.]: Sage Publ. pp. 161–162. ISBN 978-0761996439. Retrieved 25 July 2017.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  40. ^ "Sakhar karkhana yashasvi" [The sugar cane factory is prosperous]. Kesari (in Marathi). 12 December 1951.
  41. ^ "Bhaag gela, sheen gela". Kesari (in Marathi). 1 February 1952.
  42. ^ "Agaa upay bale pangu. Pahaad nako. — Dnyaneshwari". Kesari (in Marathi). 2 August 1953.
  43. ^ "Sheyarvar nafaa ha swartha". Kesari (in Marathi). 3 November 1953.
  44. ^ Karandikar 1992, pp. 63–70, 84–87.
  45. ^ "Co-existence and not aggression". Kesari (in Marathi). 3 June 1955.
  46. ^ "The nation had a Lionheart, I only roared". Kesari (in Marathi). 11 January 1955.
  47. ^ Karandikar 1992, pp. 121/122.
  48. ^ Bachal, Dr V. M. (1 January 2017). VATCHAL FERGUSSONCHI (in Marathi). Mehta Publishing House. ISBN 9789386454010.
  49. ^ Bapat & Bapat 2007, p. 603/4.
  50. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. 49/50.
  51. ^ a b Barve, Vartak & Belvalkar 2002, p. 151.
  52. ^ a b Karandikar 1992, p. 61.
  53. ^ Sādhū, Aruṇa (1988). Kakasaheb Gadgil. University of Michigan: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 124.
  54. ^ Banhaṭṭī, Shrinivas Narayan (1971). Jñāneśvarīrahasya (in Marathi). University of Michigan: Kauśika Vyākhyānamālā.
  55. ^ "Brihan Maharashtra Bhawan in 10056, Gali No. – 2, Multani Dhanda, Near Police Station ,Pahar Ganj ,New Delhi, Delhi | Brihan Maharashtra Bhawan". www.mapsofindia.com.
  56. ^ Prasidha udyogpati Chandrashekhar Agashe yethe rahat hote [The illustrious businessman Chandrashekhar Agashe resided here] (Plaque outside building) (in Marathi). Shaniwar Peth, Pune: Pune Municipal Corporation.
  57. ^ "Punyasmaran". Maharashtra Times. 9 June 2017.
  58. ^ Agashe & Agashe 2006, p. 61/2.
  59. ^ Agashe & Agashe 2006, p. 62, आगाशे, ज्ञानेश्वर; आगाशे पंडितराव.
  60. ^ "Pune's Pride: Those Who Contributed Towards Making Pune the Cultural Capital of Maharashtra from Chatrapati Shivaji to Chandu Borde". www.punediary.com. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  61. ^ Barve, Vartak & Belvalkar 2002, p. 1, 2.
  62. ^ "About Us: The Chandrashekhar Agashe College of Physical Education (CACPE)". agashecollege.org.[permanent dead link]
  63. ^ Gadgil, Amarendra Laxman (1973). Śrīrāmakośa (in Marathi). University of California: Śrīrāmakośa Maṇḍaḷa. The Chandrashekhar Agashe College of Physical Education, established 1977...
  64. ^ "चंद्रशेखर अगाशे पथ". Google Maps.
  65. ^ "Welcome to BMCC The Brihan Maharashtra College of Commerce". Bmcc.ac.in. 2 August 1998. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  66. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. 49.
  67. ^ "A Call Answered – A Legacy Bestowed ..." Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  68. ^ "Chandrashekhar Agashe museum- Section of Raja Dinkar Kelkar museum". Tourism Places. 2014. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2017. This whole collection was donated by his son Dnyaneshwar Agashe.
  69. ^ "Chandrashekhar Agashe museum". Gorism: Tour & Adventure Camp Organizer. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  70. ^ Kelkar, Bhaskar (1993). Kelkar Kulavruttant [The Kelkar Family Genealogy] (2nd ed.). Pune. pp. 82–83.
  71. ^ Barve, Vartak & Belvalkar 2002, p. 3,4.
  72. ^ Karandikar 1992, p. Cover & back.
  73. ^ Agashe & Agashe 2006, p. 62, आगाशे, आदित्य मंदार.

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