Clockwise from top left: All Saints Cathedral, the University of Allahabad, Khusro Bagh, the New Yamuna Bridge, Anand Bhavan, Sangam, the Allahabad High Court and the Thornhill Mayne Memorial at Alfred Park.
|Nickname(s): City of Prime Ministers,
|• Body||The Allahabad Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Abhilasha Gupta|
|• Member of Parliament||Shyama Charan Gupta (Agrahari)|
|• Metropolis||3,424 km2 (1,322 sq mi)|
|Elevation||98 m (322 ft)|
|• Density||1,087/km2 (2,820/sq mi)|
|• Metro rank||42nd|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||901 ♂/♀|
Allahabad i//, also known as Prayag, is a city in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Allahabad District. Located in the southern part of Uttar Pradesh, the metropolitan area of the city is 63.07 km2 (24.35 sq mi). As of 2011 Census, the population of the city was 1,117,094 and the metro population was 1,216,719.
The original name of the city was Prayaga (place of offerings) which was derived from its position at the sacred union of the rivers Ganges, Yamuna and Saraswati. It is the second-oldest city in India and plays a major role in the Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was originally founded as Kaushambi (now a separate district) by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital.
The name is derived from the one given to the city by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1583. The name in Indian languages generally is Ilāhābād (Hindi: इलाहाबाद); ilah (Hindi: इलाह) being Arabic for "Lord" or "God (Allah)" and -ābād (Hindi: आबाद) is Persian for "to construct or to create a garden", which explains the meaning of the name Allahabad as "Garden of Allah"
The city was known earlier as Prayāga – a name that is still commonly used. Prayāga existed during the Vedic period, and is mentioned in the Veda as the location where Brahma, the Creator of the Universe according to Hindu Religion, attended a sacrificial ritual. Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished Ware that dates to 600–700 BCE. The Puranas record that Yayati left Prayag and conquered the region of Saptha Sindhu. His five sons Yadu, Druhyu, Puru, Anu and Turvashu became the main tribes of the Rigveda. Lord Rama, the main protagonist in the Ramayana, spent time at the Ashram of Sage Bharadwaj before proceeding to nearby Chitrakoot.
When the Aryans first settled in what they termed the Āryāvarta (or Madhyadesha), Prayag (or Kaushambi) was an important part of their territory. The Kuru Kingdom, rulers of Hastinapur (near present day Delhi), established the town of Kaushambi near Prayag. They shifted their capital to Kaushambi when Hastinapur was destroyed by floods.
The Doaba region, including Allahabad, was controlled by several empires and dynasties in the ages to come. The area became a part of the Mauryan and Gupta empires of the east and the Kushan empire of the west before becoming part of the local Kannauj empire in 15th century. The city was the scene of Maratha incursions before colonial rule was imposed over India. In 1765, the British established a garrison at Allahabad fort. It is also known as the "Prime minister Capital of the India," the importance of the government to the city has led seven out of fourteen Prime Ministers of India. Prayag became a part of the Delhi sultanate when the town was annexed by Mohammad Ghori in A.D. 1193. Later, the Mughals took over from the slave rulers of Delhi and under them Prayag rose to prominence. Allahabad was a provincial capital in Moghul Empire under the reign of Jahangir. Akbar built a magnificent fort (viz. Allahabad fort), on the banks of the holy sangam and rechristened the town as Ilāhābād (Persian for "place of a god") in 1575.
In 1765, the combined forces of the Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II lost the Battle of Buxar to the British after which the Treaty of Allahabad was signed. Although the British did not yet establish direct rule, they realised the strategic position of Allahabad as the gateway to the northwest and established a garrison at the fort. In 1801, the Nawab of Awadh ceded the city to the British East India Company. Gradually the other parts of Doaba and adjoining region in its west (including Delhi and Ajmer-Mewara regions) were won by the British. The north western areas were made into a new Presidency called the "North Western Provinces of Agra", with their capital at Agra. Allahabad remained an important part of this state. In 1834, Allahabad became the seat of the Government of the Agra Province, and a High Court was established—but a year later both were relocated to Agra. In 1857, Allahabad was active in the Indian Mutiny. After the mutiny, the British truncated the Delhi region of the state, merging it with Punjab, and transferred the capital of North west Provinces to Allahabad, where it remained for 20 years. Later, in 1877 the two provinces of Agra (NWPA) and Awadh were merged to form a new state which was called the United Provinces. Allahabad served as the capital of United Provinces until 1920.
During the Rebellion of 1857, Allahabad, which had a significant European troops was the scene of a great massacre. Maulvi Liaquat Ali freedom fighter of 1857, unfurled the banner of revolt. In January 1858 Earl Canning quitted Calcutta and shifted his headquarters in Allahabad. The same year Earl Canning read out the declaration of Queen Victoria's Proclamation, at Minto Park, which marked the complete transfer of control over India from The East India Company to the British Crown resulting in British Raj. After the Mutiny was quelled, the British established the High Court, the Police Headquarters and the Public Service Commission in the city. This transformed Allahabad into an administrative center.
The fourth session of the Indian National Congress was held in the city in 1888. By the turn of the century, Allahabad was a nodal point for the revolutionaries. The Karmyogi office of Sundar Lal in Chowk sparked patriotism among youth. Nityanand Chatterji became a household name when he hurled the first bomb at the European club. It was at Alfred Park in Allahabad where, in 1931, the revolutionary Chandrashekhar Azad killed himself when surrounded by the British Police. The Nehru family homes Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan were at the center of the political activities of the Indian National Congress. In the years of the freedom struggle, Allahabad was home to thousands of satyagrahis, led, inter alii, by Purushottam Das Tandon, Bishambhar Nath Pande and Narayan Dutt Tiwari. The first seeds of the idea of Pakistan were sown in Allahabad. On 29 December 1930, Allama Muhammad Iqbal's presidential address to the All-India Muslim League proposed a separate Muslim state for the Muslim majority regions of India.
The city is also known as the "city of prime ministers" because post independence seven out of 13 prime ministers of India have belonged to Allahabad (Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Gulzarilal Nanda, Vishwanath Pratap Singh and Chandra Shekhar). All these seven leaders were either born in Allahabad, were alumni of Allahabad University, or were elected from a constituency in Allahabad.
Allahabad is in the southern part of the state, at  The region was known in antiquity as the Vats (initially Kuru) country. To its south west is the Bundelkhand region, to its east and south east is the Baghelkhand region, to its north and north east is the Awadh region and to its west is the (lower) doab of which it itself is a part. The city is divided by the railway line running through it. South of the railway line is the Old Chowk area, while the British-built Civil lines is situated in north. Allahabad stands at a strategic point both geographically and culturally. A part of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab, it is the last point of the Yamuna river, and culturally, the last point of the Indian west. As with the rest of Doab, the soil and water are predominantly alluvial in origin. The Indian GMT longitude (25.15°N 82.58°E) also passes near Allahabad. According to a United Nations Development Programme report, its wind and cyclone zone is "Low damage risk". Allahabad municipality is bounded by Pratapgarh in the north, Bhadohi in the east, Rewa in the south and Kaushambi in the west., at the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers.
Allahabad is subject to a humid subtropical climate common to cities in the plains of North India, that is designated Cwa under the Köppen climate classification. The annual mean temperature is 26.1 °C (79.0 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 18–29 °C (64–84 °F). Allahabad experiences three seasons: hot dry summer, cool dry winter and warm humid monsoon. Summer lasts from April to June with temperatures in the low 30s Celsius; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June. Monsoon begins in early July and lasts till September. Winter lasts from December to February. Temperatures rarely drop to freezing point. Maximum temperatures are around 22 °C (72 °F) and minimum around 9 °C (48 °F). Allahabad also suffers thick fog in January resulting in massive traffic and travel delays. It does not snow in Allahabad. The highest recorded temperature is 48 °C (118.4 °F), and the lowest is −2 °C (28 °F).
Rains brought either by the Bay of Bengal branch of the south-west summer monsoon or by the Arabian Sea from the Arabian Sea branch lash Allahabad between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 1,027 mm (40 in). The highest monthly rainfall total, 296 mm (12 in), occurs in August. The month with the wettest weather is August when on balance 333 mm (13 in) of rain, sleet, hail or snow falls across 21 days; while driest weather is April when on balance 5 mm (0 in) of rain, sleet, hail or snow falls across one day. The city receives 2961 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum sunlight exposure occurring in May.
|Climate data for Allahabad|
|Record high °C (°F)||28.8
|Average high °C (°F)||23.6
|Average low °C (°F)||8.9
|Record low °C (°F)||1.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||17.9
|Avg. rainy days||2.0||2.6||1.0||1.2||2.0||5.7||16.3||13.2||10.7||2.1||0.6||1.1||58.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||224.9||244.2||263.2||274.1||292.3||206.4||143.3||180.6||184.3||259.7||256.7||244.0||2,773.7|
|Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1901–2000)|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory|
The Ganga-Jamuna Doab, of which Allahabad is a part, lies on the western part of the Great Indo-Gangetic Plain region. The Doab, including the Terai, is responsible for the city's unique flora and fauna. Since human arrival, almost half of the country's vertebrates have become extinct. Others are endangered or have had their range severely reduced. The arrival of humans, with associated changes to habitat and the introduction of reptiles, snakes and other mammals, led to the extinction of bird species, including large birds like eagles. Allahabad Museum, one four national museums in India, has undertaken an exercise to document the existing flora and fauna in the Ganga and Yamuna river belt.
The most common birds found in the state are doves, peacocks, junglefowl, Black Partridge, House Sparrows, songbirds, Blue Jays, parakeets, quails, bulbuls, and comb ducks. Other animals in the state include reptiles such as lizards, cobras, kraits, and gharials. During winter, large numbers of Siberian birds are reported in sangam and nearby wetlands.
The 2011 census reported 1,216,719 Allahabad Statistical Division. Provisional data suggest a density of 1,087 people per km2 in 2011, compared to 901 in 2001. Native people from Uttar Pradesh form the majority of Allahabad's population. According to the 2001 census, 78% of the population is Hindu,20% of the population is Muslim 1.8% Jain, and 0.20% Sikh. The remainder of the population includes Buddhists, and other religions; 0.48% did not state a religion in the census.
Allahabad's literacy rate of 86.50% is close to the all-India average of 74%. This rate is the highest in the region. The male literacy rate is 90.21%, while the female literacy rate is 82.17%. Among 35 major cities in India, Allahabad reported the greatest number of violations of Special & Local Laws to the National Crime Records Bureau.
Hindi, the official state language, is the dominant language in Allahabad. English is also used, particularly by the white-collar workforce. Urdu is spoken by a sizeable minority. The dialect of Hindi spoken in Allahabad is Awadhi, although Khariboli is more common in the city. In the eastern, non-Doabi, part of Allahabad district, Awadhi dialect is more common. Bengali and Punjabi are also spoken in some quarters.
Allahabad is administered by several government agencies.Allahabad city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Allahabad Metropolitan Region. The Allahabad Nagar Nigam (ANN), also called Allahabad Municipal Corporation (AMC), oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city. The corporation came into existence in 1864, when Lucknow Municipal Act was passed by the Government of India. City municipal area is divided into 80 wards, and a member (the Corporator) from each ward is elected to form the Municipal Committee. The Corporators elect the Mayor of city. The chief executive is the Commissioner of Allahabad, who is appointed by the state government. Allahabad's rapid growth has created problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Allahabad Nagar Nigam has found challenging to address. The unplanned nature of growth in the city has resulted in massive traffic gridlocks, which the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems. The land is very costly in Allahabad esp. in the Allahabad Central- Civil Lines locality. Also, numerous real estate projects are being carried out in Civil Lines thus resulting in the construction of tall skyscrapers ranging from 10–15 floors & even more.
As of 2012, the [BSP] controls the AMC. The city has an apolitical titular ruler, who presides over city-related functions and conferences. As the seat of the Government of Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad is home to the offices of the local governing agencies, and the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly: the state secretariat, which is situated in the premises of Allahabad High Court. The Allahabad Police, headed by a police commissioner, is overseen by the Uttar Pradesh Ministry of Home Affairs. The Allahabad district elects two representatives to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and 12 representatives to the state legislative assembly.
Allahabad has been divided into several blocks within tehsils. As of 2011, there are 20 blocks under eight tehsils: The entire division of Allahabad covers the districts of Fatehpur, Kaushambi and Allahabad. Some areas of the western parts of the district of Allahabad were assembled together in the newly formed Kaushambi. The administrative divisions are Phulpur, Koraon, Meja, Sadar, Soraon, Handia, Bara and Karchana.
Allahabad is known for its literary and artistic heritage; as the former capital of United Provinces it was the birthplace of holy scriptures – the Vedas and the grand epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata– and in the Puranas as Prayag. Allahabad has been called the "literary capital of Uttar Pradesh". Allahabad's antiquity attracted curious itinerants from East Asia. Huen Tsang and Fa Hien, the Chinese travellers, who visited it in the fifth and the seventh centuries respectively, found it a flourishing city. Over the centuries that followed, Allahabad remained on the forefront of national importance – more so during the days of the Indian independence struggle. The city has a tradition of political graffiti depicting everything from outrageous slander to witty banter and limericks, caricatures, and propaganda.
Allahabad has many buildings adorned with Indo-Islamic and Indo-Saracenic architectural motifs. Several major buildings from the colonial period have been declared "heritage structures"; however, others are decaying. Established in the 1930s to serve as the residence of the Nehru family, the Swaraj Bhavan was transformed into the local headquarters of the Indian National Congress, which showcases memorabilia of the Gandhi-Nehru family.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, Hindi literature was modernised through the works of authors such as Mahadevi Varma, Sumitranandan Pant, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', and Harivansh Rai Bachchan. Another noteworthy poet was Raghupati Sahay, better known as Firaq Gorakhpuri. Firaq Gorakhpuri and Mahadevi Varma were awarded the Jnanpith Award.
Allahabad has been the biggest centres of publication of Hindi literature – for instance Lok Bharti, Rajkamal and Neelabh. Persian – and Urdu literature has a significant respect in city. Akbar Allahabadi is a well-known poet of modern Urdu literature. Poets like Nooh Narwi, Tegh Allahabadi, Shabnam Naqvi, Raaz Allahabadi, Asghar Gondvi, Ibn e Safi,Adil Rasheed, Azam Kuraivi, Dr.Aijaz Husain, Dr.Aqeel Rizwi, Hakeem Asrar Kuraivi also hail from the city. English author and Nobel Laureate Rudyard Kipling (1907) was an assistant editor and overseas correspondent for The Pioneer.
Though Hindu women traditionally wear the sari, the shalwar kameez and Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women. Western-style dress has greater acceptance among men, although the traditional dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals. Sherwani is a more formal male dress and is frequently worn along with chooridar on festive occasions.
Diwali or Deepavali (celebrated between mid-October and mid-December) referred as the festival of lights bringing joy and happiness and Rama Navami are the two most popular and main festival festivals in city. In Allahabad, the festival attains special celebrations as Puja, Arti, fairs, decorations diyas light up the banks of the sacred rivers Ganga and Yamuna.
Though the city is known for its religious tourism, but echelon into three categories viz. Historic, Cultural and Religious. History flank includes Alfred Park, Victoria Memorial, Thornhill Mayne Memorial, Minto Park, Allahabad Fort, Ashoka Pillar and Khusro Bagh; whereas religious attraction comprehend Kumbh Mela, Triveni Sangam and All Saints Cathedral. Besides these cultural segment has Allahabad Museum, Jawahar Planetarium and the University of Allahabad. Allahabad host the largest religious gathering in the world known as Maha Kumbh Mela which is celebrated every twelve years and Ardh (half) Kumbh Mela is celebrated every six years.
Prayaga is one of the holiest shrine in Hinduism, Shaktism a prominent cult of Hinduism has considered Prayaga as a Maha Shakti Peetha Shakti Peethas are shrines that are considered as a highly revered place of worship by Shaktas(Shaktism). The corpse of Sati Devi was carried by Shiva and parts of it fell in the path Shiva wandered. There are 51 Shakti Peeth linking to the 51 alphabets in Sanskrit. The finger of Sati is believed to have fallen near the sangam in Prayag. Shakti of Prayag is addressed as Madhaveshwari and the Kalabhairava shrine which most of the Shakti peethas consists is addressed as Bhava.
Allahabad is served by Allahabad Airport (IATA: IXD, ICAO: VIAL) which began operations in February 1966. The airport is 12 km from the city centre. Air India and Spice Jet connect Allahabad to Delhi & Mumbai. Air India has started operating on the Delhi-Allahabad-Mumbai sector from 9 September 2013. The most hassle-free way to commute is by taxi. Other airports nearby are in Varanasi, Lucknow and Kanpur.
Allahabad Junction is one of the main railway junctions of northern India. It is the headquarters of the North Central Railway Zone. The four prominent railway stations of Allahabad are Prayag Station, City Station at Rambagh, Daraganj Station and Allahabad Junction. It is connected to most cities in Uttar Pradesh as well as all major cities of India such as Jhansi, Kolkata, New Delhi, Mumbai, Visakhapatnam Chennai, Hyderabad, Indore, Bhopal, Kanpur, Lucknow and Jaipur. Three-wheeled yellow and black auto-rickshaws, referred to as vikram, are a popular form of transport. They are metered and can accommodate at least six passengers. Taxis, commonly called City Taxis, are usually available only on call. Taxis are metered and are generally more expensive than auto-rickshaws. Tempos are the cheapest mode of travelling in Allahabad.
Buses operated by Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) are an important means of public transport available in the city. Besides these, National Highway 2 runs through the middle of the city. India's primus cable-stayed bridge The New Yamuna Bridge, erected between 2001 and 2004, is located in Allahabad and connects the city of Allahabad to its suburb Naini next to the banks of the Yamuna River. The Old Naini Bridge now accommodates railway and car traffic. Road bridges on the Ganges and Yamuna rivers have been built to connect Allahabad with its suburbs, including Naini and Jhusi. The development plan for Allahabad Monorail is also underway.
Cricket and field hockey are the most popular sports in Allahabad. The most played sports in the rural areas near the city are Kabaddi, Kho-Kho, Gilli Danda and Akhada wrestling. The game of gully cricket also known as street cricket is popular among the youth in the city. Children as well as teenagers play the game of cricket in alleys and lanes. There are several sports complexes that can be used by both amateurs and professionals. These include the Madan Mohan Malviya Stadium, Amitabh Bachchan Sports Complex and the Boys' High School & College Gymnasium. There is an International level swimming complex at Georgetown. National Sports Academy in Jhalwa (Allahabad west) which produces world class gymnasts, the academy had been chosen as the flagbearer of Indian Gymnastic in Commonwealth games. In Allahabad every year Indira Marathon is organised; it began in 1985–86 in memory of late prime minister Indira Gandhi.
The Allahabad education system has remained distinct from that of the rest of state's other cities, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education. Allahabad's schools are run by the state government and by private organisations, many of which are religious. English is the medium of instructions in most private schools, while government schools and colleges offer both Hindi and English medium education. Urdu is also used. Schools in Allahabad follow the 10+2+3 plan. After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in schools that have a higher secondary facility and are affiliated with the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education, the ICSE, or the CBSE. They usually choose a focus on liberal arts, business, or science. Vocational programs are also available.
Allahabad attracts students and learners from all over country. As of 2010, Allahabad has one central university, three deemed universities, and an open university. The colleges are each affiliated with a university or institution based either in Allahabad or elsewhere in India. Allahabad University, founded in 1876, is the oldest modern university in the state. Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology is one of the twenty National Institutes of Technology and an Institute of National Importance of India. Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences is the oldest modern university in South Asia. Nationally renowned professional institutes in Allahabad include the IIIT-A, Motilal Nehru Medical College (MNMI), Uttar Pradesh Rajarshi Tandon Open University (UPRTOU), Harish-Chandra Research Institute (HRI), Govind Ballabh Pant Social Science Institute (GSSI), Institute of Engineering and Rural Technology (IERT), Ewing Christian College (ECC), United College of Engineering & Research and Birla Institute of Technology.
Notable scholars who were born, worked or studied in Allahabad include mathematician Manindra Agrawal and Sorab K. Ghandhi, poet Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, novelist Julia Strachey, philanthropist Jagmal Raja Chauhan, notable actor Amitabh Bachchan, Nobel laureates Rudyard Kipling and Lieutenant General in the Indian Army Syed Ata Hasnain,S. Abbas Husainy the famous Editor, printer and publisher of detective novel series "Jasoosi Duniya" written by Ibne Safi in 1952
Among Allahabad's widely circulated Hindi-language newspapers are Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Bhaskar, Nai Dunia, Hindustan Dainik, Aj, and Rajasthan Patrika. The Leader and The Pioneer are two major English-language newspapers that are produced and published from Allahabad. Other popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Allahabad include The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express, and the Asian Age. Prominent financial dailies like The Economic Times, Financial Express, Business Line, Rashtriya Sahara and Business Standard are widely circulated. Vernacular newspapers, such as those in the Urdu, Gujarati and Punjabi lanuages, are read by minorities.
All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs AM radio stations in the city. Allahabad has five local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including two from AIR. Other regional channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services, or internet-based television. Allahabad has one Doordarshan centre as well.Cable TV Digitalization is necessary for Allahabadis from March 2013.
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