Jump to content

Child protection

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Child protection (also called child welfare) is the safeguarding of children from violence, exploitation, abuse, and neglect.[1][2][3][4] It involves identifying signs of potential harm. This includes responding to allegations or suspicions of abuse, providing support and services to protect children, and holding those who have harmed them accountable.[5]

The primary goal of child protection is to ensure that all children are safe and free from harm or danger.[4][6] Child protection also works to prevent future harm by creating policies and systems that identify and respond to risks before they lead to harm.[7]

In order to achieve these goals, research suggests that child protection services should be provided in a holistic way.[8][9][10] This means taking into account the social, economic, cultural, psychological, and environmental factors that can contribute to the risk of harm for individual children and their families. Collaboration across sectors and disciplines to create a comprehensive system of support and safety for children is required.[11][12]

It is the responsibility of individuals, organizations, and governments to ensure that children are protected from harm and their rights are respected.[13] This includes providing a safe environment for children to grow and develop, protecting them from physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and ensuring they have access to education, healthcare, and resources to fulfill their basic needs.[14]

Child protection systems are a set of services, usually government-run, designed to protect children and young people who are underage and to encourage family stability. UNICEF defines[15] a 'child protection system' as:

"The set of laws, policies, regulations and services needed across all social sectors – especially social welfare, education, health, security and justice – to support prevention and response to protection-related risks. These systems are part of social protection, and extend beyond it. At the level of prevention, their aim includes supporting and strengthening families to reduce social exclusion, and to lower the risk of separation, violence and exploitation. Responsibilities are often spread across government agencies, with services delivered by local authorities, non-State providers, and community groups, making coordination between sectors and levels, including routine referral systems etc.., a necessary component of effective child protection systems."

— United Nations Economic and Social Council (2008), UNICEF Child Protection Strategy, E/ICEF/2008/5/Rev.1, par. 12–13.

Under Article 19 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child , a 'child protection system' provides for the protection of children in and out of the home. One of the ways this can be enabled is through the provision of quality education, the fourth of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, in addition to other child protection systems. Some literature argues that child protection begins at conception; even how the conception took place can affect the child's development.[16]

Safeguards against[edit]

Child labor[edit]

Child labor is the practice of having children engage in economic activity on a part-time or full-time basis.[17][18] The practice is harmful to their physical and mental development. It is considered to be a form of exploitation and is illegal in many countries.[19][20][21]

Due to economic reasons, especially in poor countries, children are forced to work in order to survive. Child labor often happens in difficult conditions, which are dangerous and impair the education of future citizens, and increase vulnerability to adults.[22][23][24] It is hard to know exactly the age and number of children[25] who are affected. At least 152 million children under five years of age worked in 2016, but the figure is underestimated because domestic labor is not counted.[26] The actual statistics cannot be counted exactly due to the many cases of child labor going unseen.


Child endangerment is the act of placing a child in a situation which neglects their health or life.[27] Child endangerment can cause many negative physical and mental effects. This can stem from abusive parental care, child neglect, and a multitude of other reasons.

Infanticide (child murder)[edit]

Infanticide is the intentional killing of infants and young children.[28][29][30] This practice has been documented throughout history and still occurs in certain cultures today, usually as a result of poverty and/or other social pressures.[31][32][33] Infanticide can be carried out by parents, relatives, or strangers and is often seen as a form of gender-based violence, since female babies are more likely to be killed than male ones.[34][35][36] In some cases, infanticide may also be used to conceal evidence of incest or rape. It is most commonly practiced in cultures where there is a preference for male children, or where resources are scarce.

In some countries, children can be imprisoned for common crimes. In some countries, like Iran or China, criminals can even be sentenced to capital punishment for crimes committed while they were children (the United States abandoned the practice in 2005).[37][38][39][40] In contexts where military use of children is made, they also risk becoming prisoners of war. Other children are forced into prostitution, exploited by adults for illegal traffic in children, or endangered by poverty and hunger.[41][42] Infanticide today continues at a much higher rate in areas of extremely high poverty and overpopulation, such as parts of China and India. Female infants, then and even now, are particularly vulnerable, which is a factor in sex-selective infanticide.[43][44][45]

Child abuse[edit]

Many children who come to the attention of the child welfare system do so because of situations which are often referred to as child abuse. Abuse typically involves abuse of power, or exercising power for an unintended purpose.[46][47] This includes willful neglect, knowingly not exercising a power for the purpose for which it was intended. This is why child abuse is defined as taking advantage of a position of trust having been invested with powers.[48][49]

  • Physical abuse is physical assault or battery on the child. Whilst an assault has some adverse consequence that the victim did not agree to (the difference between surgery and stabbing) the victim agrees to the consequences of battery but the agreement is fraudulent in some way (e.g. unnecessary surgery under false pretenses). Physical abuse is also harassment, a physical presence intended to provoke fear.
  • Child sexual abuse is sexual assault or battery on the child. The vast majority of physical assaults are a reaction to a situation involving a specific victim. Sexual assault is predominantly perpetrator gratification against any suitable target. Sexual abuse covers the range of direct and indirect assaults (e.g. imagery) and the means of facilitation such as stalking and internet offenses.
  • Child neglect is defined as failure to take adequate measures to safeguard a child from harm, and gross negligence in providing for a child's basic needs. Needs are the actions to be taken to protect and provide for the child. Safeguarding is the duty of a person given the powers of responsibility for the child to take the necessary measures to protect the child. If a child is physically or sexually abused then there is an (abusive) person responsible for the assault and a (negligent) person responsible for failing to protect from the assault. In some cases they may be the same.
  • Psychological abuse is when meeting the child's needs by taking the necessary steps to protect and provide for the child the child's wishes and feelings must be considered when deciding on delivery of the provision that best serves the child's needs. Willfully failing to provide in accordance with the child's wishes and feelings whilst it is in the child's best interests is emotional abuse (intentional infliction of emotional distress) or negligently is emotional neglect (negligent infliction of emotional distress).

Parental responsibility[edit]

Parental responsibility is the legal obligation of a parent to provide for their child's physical, emotional, and financial needs. This includes providing food, shelter, clothing, education, medical care, and emotional support. It also includes protecting the child from harm and ensuring their safety. In 1984 the Council of Europe, the body that supervises the European Convention on Human Rights, make Recommendation R(84) 4 on Parental Responsibilities.[50] These defined parental responsibility as a 'function' duties to be met and powers that can be exercised to meet those duties.[51] Child abuse and neglect is failure by a person with parental or any other protective responsibility to exercise the powers for the intended purpose, which is the benefit of the child.

Actions typically include services aimed at supporting at-risk families so they can remain intact to safeguard and promote the welfare of the child, investigation of alleged child abuse and, if necessary, assuming parental responsibility by foster care and adoption services.

Child maltreatment[edit]

Child maltreatment refers to any type of harsh treatment or abuse which results in harm to a helpless child. Examples of child maltreatment include physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, exploitation, deprivation and neglect.[52] The long-term impact of abuse on victims often includes physical injury, psychological and behavioral harm, and can potentially be carried across generations.[53][54]

Caregiver maltreatment of children is a global problem that can occur in adoption programs, regardless of social status and in cases of discrimination and early or unwanted pregnancy. Adopted children may be mistreated more than biological children. Additionally, children may suffer maltreatment due to their social status, and discrimination based on skin color has also been documented as a factor in child maltreatment. Unwanted pregnancies can also increase tension in the household, potentially leading to the mistreatment of a child.[55]

Various services exist to address or prevent child maltreatment; these services can be provided by businesses or by government agencies. Where these services encounter cases of maltreatment, the state then creates a supportive family environment for the abused child. This entails the regulation of both public and private entities providing care for children and families.[56]

Child maltreatment can even occur in cases where state or other guardians take responsibility for a child's welfare.


A 2014 European Commission survey on child protection systems listed the following categories of children needing help:[57]

  • Child victims of bullying or cyber-bullying
  • Child victims of female genital mutilation or forced marriage
  • Child victims of neglect or abuse
  • Child victims of sexual abuse/exploitation
  • Child victims of trafficking
  • Children affected by custody disputes, including parental child abduction
  • Children belonging to minority ethnic groups, e.g. Roma
  • Children left behind (by parents who move to another EU country for work)
  • Children in a situation of migration
  • Children in judicial proceedings
  • Children in or at risk of poverty
  • Children in police custody or detention
  • Children of parents in prison or custody
  • Children with disabilities
  • Children without parental care/in alternative care
  • Children who are not in compulsory education or training or working children below the legal age for work
  • Missing children (e.g. runaways, abducted children, unaccompanied children going missing)
  • Unaccompanied children in a situation of migration

International treaties[edit]

The International Labor Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labor issues, created in 1919. It takes care also of child labor issues, in particular with conventions 138 and 182.

On 20 November 1959 the United Nations General Assembly adopted a Declaration of the Rights of the Child during the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations Program headquartered in New York City, that provides long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.[citation needed]

In 2000, an agreement was reached among countries belonging to the United Nations[ambiguous] countries about the military use of children. [citation needed]

The effectiveness of these programs is contested and seems limited to some.[vague]


Provincial or state governments' child protection[58] legislation empowers the government department or agency to provide services in the area and to intervene in families where child abuse or other problems are suspected. The agency that manages these services has various names in different provinces and states, e.g., Department of Children's Services, Children's Aid, Department of Child and Family Services. There is some consistency in the nature of laws, though the application of the laws varies across the country.

The United Nations has addressed child abuse as a human rights issue, adding a section specifically to children in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding should be afforded the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life.

Child protection assessment[edit]

A key part of child protection work is assessment.

A particular challenge arises where child protection professionals are assessing families where neglect is occurring. Professionals conducting assessments of families where neglect is taking place are said to sometimes make the following errors:[59]

  • Failure to ask the right types of question, including
    • Whether neglect is occurring?
    • Why neglect is occurring?
    • What the situation is like for the child?
    • Whether improvement in the family are likely to be sustained?
    • What needs to be done to ensure the long-term safety of the child?

See also[edit]

Prominent child protection organizations[edit]



  1. ^ Katz, Ilan; Katz, Carmit; Andresen, Sabine; Bérubé, Annie; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; Fallon, Barbara; Fouché, Ansie; Haffejee, Sadiyya; Masrawa, Nadia; Muñoz, Pablo; Priolo Filho, Sidnei R.; Tarabulsy, George; Truter, Elmien; Varela, Natalia; Wekerle, Christine (June 2021). "Child maltreatment reports and Child Protection Service responses during COVID-19: Knowledge exchange among Australia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Germany, Israel, and South Africa". Child Abuse & Neglect. 116 (Pt 2): 105078. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105078. ISSN 0145-2134. PMC 8446926. PMID 33931238.
  2. ^ Oates, Kim (July 2013). "Medical dimensions of child abuse and neglect". Child Abuse & Neglect. 37 (7): 427–429. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.05.004. ISSN 0145-2134. PMID 23790510.
  3. ^ Southall, David; MacDonald, Rhona (2013-11-01). "Protecting children from abuse: a neglected but crucial priority for the international child health agenda". Paediatrics and International Child Health. 33 (4): 199–206. doi:10.1179/2046905513Y.0000000097. ISSN 2046-9047. PMID 24070186. S2CID 29250788.
  4. ^ a b Barth, R.P. (October 1999). "After Safety, What is the Goal of Child Welfare Services: Permanency, Family Continuity or Social Benefit?". International Journal of Social Welfare. 8 (4): 244–252. doi:10.1111/1468-2397.00091. ISSN 1369-6866.
  5. ^ Child Custody & Domestic Violence: A Call for Safety and Accountability. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc. 2003. doi:10.4135/9781452231730. ISBN 978-0-7619-1826-4.
  6. ^ Editorial team, Collective (2008-09-11). "WHO Regional Office for Europe and UNAIDS report on progress since the Dublin Declaration". Eurosurveillance. 13 (37). doi:10.2807/ese.13.37.18981-en. ISSN 1560-7917. PMID 18801311.
  7. ^ Nixon, Kendra L.; Tutty, Leslie M.; Weaver-Dunlop, Gillian; Walsh, Christine A. (December 2007). "Do good intentions beget good policy? A review of child protection policies to address intimate partner violence". Children and Youth Services Review. 29 (12): 1469–1486. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2007.09.007. ISSN 0190-7409.
  8. ^ Holland, S. (2004-01-01). "Liberty and Respect in Child Protection". British Journal of Social Work. 34 (1): 21–36. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bch003. ISSN 0045-3102.
  9. ^ Wulcyzn, Fred; Daro, Deborah; Fluke, John; Gregson, Kendra (2010). "Adapting a Systems Approach to Child Protection in a Cultural Context: Key Concepts and Considerations". PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e516652013-176.
  10. ^ Léveillé, Sophie; Chamberland, Claire (2010-07-01). "Toward a general model for child welfare and protection services: A meta-evaluation of international experiences regarding the adoption of the Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and Their Families (FACNF)". Children and Youth Services Review. 32 (7): 929–944. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.03.009. ISSN 0190-7409.
  11. ^ Winkworth, Gail; White, Michael (March 2011). "Australia's Children 'Safe and Well'?1 Collaborating with Purpose Across Commonwealth Family Relationship and State Child Protection Systems: Australia's Children 'Safe and Well'". Australian Journal of Public Administration. 70 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8500.2010.00706.x.
  12. ^ Wulcyzn, Fred; Daro, Deborah; Fluke, John; Gregson, Kendra (2010). "Adapting a Systems Approach to Child Protection in a Cultural Context: Key Concepts and Considerations". PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e516652013-176.
  13. ^ Howe, R. Brian; Covell, Katherine (July 2010). "Miseducating children about their rights". Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. 5 (2): 91–102. doi:10.1177/1746197910370724. ISSN 1746-1979. S2CID 145540907.
  14. ^ "Child protection". www.unicef.org. Archived from the original on 2023-03-07. Retrieved 2023-03-18.
  15. ^ "Economic and Social Council" (PDF). UNICEF. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 23, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  16. ^ "Protecting Children from Violence: Historical Roots and Emerging Trends", Protecting Children from Violence, Psychology Press, pp. 21–32, 2010-09-13, doi:10.4324/9780203852927-8, ISBN 978-0-203-85292-7
  17. ^ ANKER, Richard (September 2000). "The economics of child labour: A framework for measurement". International Labour Review. 139 (3): 257–280. doi:10.1111/j.1564-913x.2000.tb00204.x. ISSN 0020-7780.
  18. ^ Martin, Mervyn (June 2013). "Child labour: parameters, developmental implications, causes and consequences". Contemporary Social Science. 8 (2): 156–165. doi:10.1080/21582041.2012.751501. ISSN 2158-2041. S2CID 167660954.
  19. ^ Charrière, Florence (2017-01-01), "UNICEF: Engaging Stakeholders on Children's Rights", The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, Brill | Nijhoff, pp. 777–794, doi:10.1163/9789004295056_038, ISBN 9789004295049
  20. ^ Donnelly, Peter; Petherick, Leanne (September 2004). "Workers' Playtime? Child Labour at the Extremes of the Sporting Spectrum". Sport in Society. 7 (3): 301–321. doi:10.1080/1743043042000291659. ISSN 1743-0437. S2CID 145578897.
  21. ^ "Child Maltreatment 2014 Best Article Award". Child Maltreatment. 20 (3): 221. 2015-07-13. doi:10.1177/1077559515594086. ISSN 1077-5595. S2CID 220187852.
  22. ^ Karavias, Markos (2013-11-28), "The Structural Framework for Corporate Obligations in the Context of Human Rights", Corporate Obligations under International Law, Oxford University Press, pp. 163–198, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199674381.003.0006, ISBN 978-0-19-967438-1
  23. ^ "2 The Varying Requirements and Pathways for Completing High School", Dropping Out, Harvard University Press, pp. 20–46, 2011-12-31, doi:10.4159/harvard.9780674063167.c3, ISBN 978-0-674-06316-7
  24. ^ Grey, Jeffrey; Brett, Rachel; Specht, Irma (2005). "Young Soldiers: Why They Choose to Fight". International Journal. 60 (4): 1181. doi:10.2307/40204117. ISSN 0020-7020. JSTOR 40204117.
  25. ^ Digital, Swace (2007). "Save the Children's Definition of Child Protection". Save the Children's Resource Centre. Retrieved 2023-03-08.
  26. ^ "Global Estimates of Child Labour, Results and Trends, 2012–2016" (PDF). International Labour Organization. 2017. Retrieved 2018-01-23.
  27. ^ "10 U.S. Code § 919b – Art. 119b. Child endangerment". Office of the Law Revision Council United States Code. 2016-12-23. Retrieved 2023-09-30.
  28. ^ Higginbotham (2011). "<em>Reformers, Patrons and Philanthropists: The Cowper-Temples and High Politics in Victorian England</em>, by James Gregory". Victorian Studies. 53 (3): 536. doi:10.2979/victorianstudies.53.3.536. ISSN 0042-5222. S2CID 142590142.
  29. ^ Brookman, Fiona; Nolan, Jane (July 2006). "The Dark Figure of Infanticide in England and Wales". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 21 (7): 869–889. doi:10.1177/0886260506288935. ISSN 0886-2605. PMID 16731989. S2CID 11302352.
  30. ^ Denham, Aaron R.; Adongo, Philip B.; Freydberg, Nicole; Hodgson, Abraham (August 2010). "Chasing spirits: Clarifying the spirit child phenomenon and infanticide in Northern Ghana". Social Science & Medicine. 71 (3): 608–615. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.04.022. ISSN 0277-9536. PMID 20605304.
  31. ^ LEE, JAMES Z.; FENG, WANG (2009-06-30). One Quarter of Humanity. Harvard University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctvjf9vt6. ISBN 978-0-674-04005-2.
  32. ^ Patterson, Cynthia (1985). ""Not Worth the Rearing": The Causes of Infant Exposure in Ancient Greece". Transactions of the American Philological Association. 115: 103–123. doi:10.2307/284192. ISSN 0360-5949. JSTOR 284192.
  33. ^ Rose, Lionel (2015-08-27). The Massacre of the Innocents. doi:10.4324/9781315671604. ISBN 978-1-315-67160-4.
  34. ^ Bhatt, R.V. (December 1998). "Domestic violence and substance abuse". International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 63: S25–S31. doi:10.1016/s0020-7292(98)00181-7. ISSN 0020-7292. PMID 10075209. S2CID 25528652.
  35. ^ Krantz, G. (2005-10-01). "Violence against women". Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 59 (10): 818–821. doi:10.1136/jech.2004.022756. ISSN 0143-005X. PMC 1732916. PMID 16166351. S2CID 29376851.
  36. ^ Murthy, Ranjani K. (January 1998), "7. Learning about Participation from Gender Relations of Female Infanticide", The Myth of Community, Rugby, Warwickshire, United Kingdom: Practical Action Publishing, pp. 78–92, doi:10.3362/9781780440309.007, ISBN 978-1-85339-421-8
  37. ^ Johnson, David T.; Zimring, Franklin E. (2009-05-01). The Next Frontier. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337402.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-533740-2.
  38. ^ B., J. H.; Young, E. Hilton (November 1912). "Foreign Companies and Other Corporations". Harvard Law Review. 26 (1): 96. doi:10.2307/1324306. hdl:2027/coo1.ark:/13960/t3ws97m00. ISSN 0017-811X. JSTOR 1324306.
  39. ^ Peters, Rudolph (2006-02-13). Crime and Punishment in Islamic Law. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511610677. ISBN 978-0-521-79226-4.
  40. ^ HOOD, ROGER (July 2001). "Capital Punishment". Punishment & Society. 3 (3): 331–354. doi:10.1177/1462474501003003001. ISSN 1462-4745. S2CID 143875533.
  41. ^ Ibarra, Peter R. (July 2007). "Children in the Global Sex Trade. By Julia O'Connell Davidson. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005. Pp. viii+178. $62.95 (cloth); $24.95 (paper)". American Journal of Sociology. 113 (1): 292–294. doi:10.1086/520904. ISSN 0002-9602.
  42. ^ Ojo, Matthias Olufemi Dada (2013-01-28). "A Sociological Investigation of Awareness and Causes of Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria: A Survey of Agege, Lagos State". Asian Social Science. 9 (2). doi:10.5539/ass.v9n2p231. ISSN 1911-2025.
  43. ^ Reproduction and Society: Interdisciplinary Readings. 2014-09-04. doi:10.4324/9781315754222. ISBN 978-1-315-75422-2.
  44. ^ Digby, Leslie (2000-11-02), "Infanticide by female mammals: implications for the evolution of social systems", Infanticide by Males and its Implications, Cambridge University Press, pp. 423–446, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511542312.019, ISBN 978-0-521-77295-2
  45. ^ Nandi, Arindam; Deolalikar, Anil B. (July 2013). "Does a legal ban on sex-selective abortions improve child sex ratios? Evidence from a policy change in India". Journal of Development Economics. 103: 216–228. doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2013.02.007. ISSN 0304-3878.
  46. ^ Zimring, Franklin E.; Johnson, David T. (2005-05-26). "On the Comparative Study of Corruption". The British Journal of Criminology. 45 (6): 793–809. doi:10.1093/bjc/azi042. ISSN 1464-3529.
  47. ^ Orentlicher, Diane F. (1991). "Settling Accounts: The Duty to Prosecute Human Rights Violations of a Prior Regime". The Yale Law Journal. 100 (8): 2537–2615. doi:10.2307/796903. ISSN 0044-0094. JSTOR 796903.
  48. ^ World Health Organization (January 2002). "WHO/CONRAD Technical Consultation on Nonoxynol-9, World Health Organization, Geneva, 9–10 October 2001: Summary Report". Reproductive Health Matters. 10 (20): 175–181. doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(02)00085-x. ISSN 0968-8080. PMID 12569895. S2CID 23890301.
  49. ^ Malin, Nigel (2020-02-05), "Professional abuse of power: discreditation or a lowering of productivity?", De-Professionalism and Austerity, Policy Press, pp. 183–208, doi:10.1332/policypress/9781447350163.003.0011, ISBN 978-1-4473-5016-3, S2CID 243151818
  50. ^ "Council of Europe European Committee on Legal Co-operation – European Committee on Legal Co-operation – www.coe.int". European Committee on Legal Co-operation. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  51. ^ "Children Act 1989". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  52. ^ "ERIC – Education Resources Information Center". eric.ed.gov. Retrieved 2023-03-23.
  53. ^ "Home – Child Welfare Information Gateway". www.childwelfare.gov. Retrieved 2023-03-23.
  54. ^ "Child Protection Integrated Flood Response". www.shifafoundation.org. 15 April 2023. Retrieved June 15, 2023.
  55. ^ "National Center for Biotechnology Information". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2023-03-23.
  56. ^ "UK Government Web Archive" (PDF). Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  57. ^ "EUSurvey – Survey unavailable". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  58. ^ "Child Protection Services". Save the Children. Retrieved June 13, 2023.
  59. ^ "Cookies Required". library.nspcc.org.uk. Retrieved June 13, 2023.

Further reading[edit]

  • Fieldston, Sara. Raising the World: Child Welfare in the American Century (Harvard University Press, 2015) 316 pp.
  • McCutcheon, James, 2010."Historical Analysis and Contemporary Assessment of Foster Care in Texas: Perceptions of Social Workers in a Private, Non-Profit Foster Care Agency". Applied Research Projects. Texas State University Paper 332. TXstate.edu Archived 2012-03-18 at the Wayback Machine
  • Handbook: Child protection UNICEF, IPU, 2004
  • Eileen Munro.2008. Effective Child Protection. Publisher-SAGE ISBN 1412946956, 9781412946957.
  • Jeff Fowler. 2003. A Practitioner's Tool for Child Protection and the Assessment of Parents. Publisher Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 1843100509, 9781843100508
  • Eileen Munro. 2007. Child Protection: Sage Course Companions Series. Publisher- SAGE. ISBN 1412911796, 9781412911795
  • Harries et al. 2008. Reforming Child Protection. Publisher- Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415429056, 9780415429054
  • Janet Polnay. 2001. Child Protection in Primary Care. Publisher-Radcliffe Publishing. ISBN 1857752244, 9781857752243
  • Chris Beckett. 2007. Child Protection: An Introduction. Publisher-SAGE. ISBN 1412920922, 9781412920926
  • Gerald Cradock. Risk, Morality, and Child Protection: Risk Calculation as Guides to Practice. Science, Technology, & Human Values, Vol. 29, No. 3, Special Issue: Reconstructing Order through Rhetorics of Risk (Summer, 2004), pp. 314–331
  • Leigh A. Faulconer. In the Best Interests of Children? Family Relations, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Jul., 1994), pp. 261–263
  • Eileen Munro. Common errors of reasoning in child protection work

External links[edit]

Media related to Child welfare at Wikimedia Commons