Convention on the Rights of the Child
|Signed||20 November 1989|
|Location||New York City|
|Effective||2 September 1990|
|Parties||196 (all eligible states except the United States)|
|Languages||Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish|
|UN Convention on the Rights of the Child at Wikisource|
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is an international human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children. The Convention defines a child as any human being under the age of eighteen, unless the age of majority is attained earlier under national legislation.
Nations that have ratified this convention or have acceded to it are bound by international law. When a state has signed the treaty but not ratified it, it is not yet bound by the treaty's provisions but is already obliged to not act contrary to its purpose.
The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, composed of 18 independent experts, is responsible for supervising the implementation of the Convention by the states that have ratified it. Their governments are required to report to and appear before the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child periodically to be examined on their progress regarding the advancement of the implementation of the Convention and the status of child rights in their country. Their reports and the committee's written views and concerns are available on the committee's website.
Also, individuals can appeal to the Committee on the Rights of the Child if they believe that rights, according to the Convention, have been violated. The third possibility for monitoring the implementation of the Convention is inquiries that the Committee on the Rights of the Child can carry out on their own initiative if they have reliable information that leads them to believe that a member state has violated the Convention's rights. However, "states ... may opt-out from the inquiry procedure, at the time of signature or ratification or accession". Once a year, the Committee submits a report to the Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly, which also hears a statement from the CRC Chair, and the Assembly adopts a Resolution on the Rights of the Child.
The UN General Assembly adopted the Convention and opened it for signature on 20 November 1989 (the 30th anniversary of its Declaration of the Rights of the Child). It came into force on 2 September 1990, after it was ratified by the required number of nations. As of 1 December 2021, 196 countries are party to it, including every member of the United Nations except the United States.
Two optional protocols were adopted on 25 May 2000. The First Optional Protocol restricts the involvement of children in military conflicts, and the Second Optional Protocol prohibits the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. More than 170 states have ratified both protocols. A third optional protocol relating to communication of complaints was adopted in December 2011 and opened for signature on 28 February 2012. It came into effect on 14 April 2014.
The Convention deals with child-specific needs and rights. It requires that the "nations that ratify this convention are bound to it by international law." Ratifying states must act in the best interests of the child.
In all jurisdictions implementing the Convention requires compliance with child custody and guardianship laws as every child has basic rights, including the right to life, to their own name and identity, to be raised by their parents within a family or cultural grouping, and to have a relationship with both parents, even if they are separated.
The Convention obliges states to allow parents to exercise their parental responsibilities. The Convention also acknowledges that children have the right to express their opinions and to have those opinions heard and acted upon when appropriate, to be protected from abuse or exploitation, and to have their privacy protected. It requires that their lives not be subject to excessive interference.
The Convention also obliges signatory states to separate legal representation for a child in any judicial dispute concerning their care and asks that the child's viewpoint be heard in such cases.
The Convention forbids capital punishment for children. In its General Comment 8 (2006) the Committee stated that there was an "obligation of all state parties to move quickly to prohibit and eliminate all corporal punishment and all other cruel or degrading forms of punishment of children". Article 19 of the Convention states that state parties must "take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence", but it makes no reference to corporal punishment. The Committee's interpretation of this section to encompass a prohibition on corporal punishment has been rejected by several state parties to the Convention, including Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom.
Global standards and cultural relativism
Global human rights standards were challenged at the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna (1993) when a number of governments (prominently China, Indonesia, Malaysia and Iran) raised serious objections to the idea of universal human rights. There are unresolved tensions between "universalistic" and "relativistic" approaches in the establishment of standards and strategies designed to prevent or overcome the abuse of children's capacity to work.
Child marriage and slavery
Some scholars link child marriages to slavery and slavery-like practices. Child marriage as slavery is not directly addressed by the Convention.
States party and signatories
As of 1 December 2021, 196 countries are parties to the treaty (some with stated reservations or interpretations). This includes every member of the United Nations except the United States, plus the Cook Islands, Niue, the State of Palestine, and the Holy See. South Sudan did not sign the convention; however, ratification was complete in January 2015. Somalia's domestic ratification finished in January 2015 and the instrument was deposited with the United Nations in October 2015. Taiwan incorporated the Convention into domestic law on 20 November 2014, and signed an Instrument of Accession to the CRC on 16 May 2016.
All successor states of Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic and Slovakia) and Yugoslavia (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia) made declarations of succession to the treaty and currently apply it.
The convention does not apply in the territories of Tokelau, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Gibraltar and Guernsey. However, the Government of Guernsey has declared its intention to have the UK's ratification of the convention extended to it by 2022.
Azerbaijan ratified the Convention on 21 July 1992. In terms of the ratification of the Convention, a significant number of laws, decrees and resolutions were approved in Azerbaijan by the President and the Cabinet of Ministers focusing on the development of the child welfare system. In this regard, the Convention No. 182 of the International Labour Organization, i.e. the Convention on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, the Recommendation No. 190 of the International Labour Organization and the Hague Adoption Convention were ratified by Milli Majlis, the parliament of Azerbaijan, in 2004.
There is a concern over the administration of juvenile justice in Azerbaijan, mostly regarding compliance with articles 37, 39, and 40 of the Convention, as well as other relevant standards such as the Beijing Rules, the Riyadh Guidelines, and the United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty. Therefore, international organizations assisted Azerbaijan to improve the situation in the field of juvenile justice. Juvenile offenders have been added to the Presidential pardons on a regular basis.
Azerbaijan has built cooperation with many international organizations, particularly with UNICEF in child protection. In 1993, UNICEF began its activity in Azerbaijan. In 2005, Azerbaijan and UNICEF signed a five-year country program. The country program for 2005-2009 was implemented in child protection, children's health and nutrition, children's education and youth health, and their development and participation. Also, UNICEF supports Azerbaijan in improving its juvenile justice system, establishing an alternative care system and raising awareness among youth about HIV/AIDS.
Canada became a signatory to the Convention on 28 May 1990 and ratified in 1991. Youth criminal laws in Canada underwent major changes resulting in the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) which went into effect on 1 April 2003. The Act specifically refers to Canada's different commitments under the Convention. The convention was influential in the administrative law decision of Baker v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration).
India ratified UNCRC on 11 December 1992, agreeing in principle to all articles but with certain reservations on issues relating to child labor. In India, there is a law that children under the age of 18 should not work, but there is no outright ban on child labor. The practice is generally permitted in most industries except those deemed "hazardous", for which minimum ages apply. Although a law in October 2006 banned child labor in hotels, restaurants, and as domestic servants, there continues to be a high demand for children as hired help in the home. There are different estimates as to the number of child laborers in the country. According to the government's conservative estimate, in 2011 4.4 million children under 14 years of age were working in India, while the NGO Save the Children in a statement of 2016 cites a study by the Campaign Against Child Labour that estimates the number of child laborers in India at 12.7 million.
In 2016, the Child and Adolescent Labour (Amendment) Act was introduced, which prohibited children's economic employment under the age of 14 years and the employment of adolescents (14–17 years of age) in hazardous occupations. Some exceptions exist in children under 14 years—they can aid in the family enterprise and participate in the entertainment industry. It does not harm their school education and does not work between 7 p.m. and 8 a.m.
Iran has adhered to the convention (except for alleged child slavery) since 1991 and ratified it in the Parliament in 1994. Upon ratification, Iran made the following reservation: "If the text of the Convention is or becomes incompatible with the domestic laws and Islamic standards at any time or in any case, the Government of the Islamic Republic shall not abide by it." Iran has also signed both optional protocols which relate to the special protection of children against involvement in armed conflict and the sale of children and sexual exploitation.
Although Iran is a state party to the Convention, international human rights organisations and foreign governments routinely denounced executions of Iranian child offenders as a violation of the treaty. But on 10 February 2012, Iran's parliament changed the controversial law of executing juveniles. In the new law, the age of 18 (solar year) would be considered the minimum age for adulthood and offenders under this age will be sentenced under a separate law. Based on the previous law, which was revised, girls at the age of 9 and boys at 15 (lunar year, 11 days shorter than a solar year) were fully responsible for their crimes.
"According to Islamic sources, the criterion for criminal responsibility is reaching the age of maturity which, according to the Shi'ite School of the IRI, is 9 lunar years (8 years and 9 months) for girls and 15 lunar years (14 years and 7 months) for boys."
Ireland signed the Convention on 30 September 1990 and ratified it, without reservation, on 28 September 1992. In response to criticisms expressed in the 1998 review by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child in Geneva, the Irish government established the office of Ombudsman for Children. It drew up a national children's strategy. In 2006, following concerns expressed by the committee that the wording of the Irish Constitution does not allow the State to intervene in abuse cases other than in very exceptional cases, the Irish government undertook to amend the constitution to make a more explicit commitment to children's rights.
Israel ratified the Convention in 1991. In 2010, UNICEF criticized Israel for its failure to create a government-appointed commission on children's rights or adopt a national children's rights strategy or program to implement various Israeli laws addressing children's rights. The report criticizes Israel for holding that the Convention does not apply in the West Bank and for defining Palestinians under the age of 16 in the occupied territories as children, even though Israeli law defines a child as being under 18, in line with the Convention. A contemporaneous report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development found that Israel's investment in children is below the international average. The actual investment had fallen between 1995 and 2006. In 2012, the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child criticized Israel for its bombing attacks on Palestinians in the Gaza Strip, stating, "Destruction of homes and damage to schools, streets and other public facilities gravely affect children" and called them "gross violations of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, its Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict and international humanitarian law." It also criticized Palestinian rocket attacks from Gaza on southern Israel, which traumatized Israeli children, calling on all parties to protect children.
New Zealand ratified the Convention on 6 April 1993 with reservations concerning the right to distinguish between persons according to the nature of their authority to be in New Zealand, the need for legislative action on economic exploitation—which it argued was adequately protected by existing law, and the provisions for the separation of juvenile offenders from adult offenders.
In 1994, the Court of Appeal of New Zealand dismissed the suggestion that the Minister for Immigration and his department were at liberty to ignore the convention, arguing that this would imply that the country's adherence was "at least partly window-dressing".
The Children's Commissioner Act 2003 enhanced the office of Children's Commissioner, giving it significantly stronger investigative powers. The Office of the Children's Commissioner is responsible for convening the UNCROC Monitoring Group, which monitors the New Zealand Government's implementation of the Children's Convention, its Optional Protocols and the Government's response to recommendations from the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child. The monitoring group comprises members from the Human Rights Commission (New Zealand), UNICEF New Zealand, Action for Children and Youth Aotearoa and Save the Children New Zealand.
In May 2007, New Zealand passed the Crimes (Substituted Section 59) Amendment Act 2007, which removed the defence of "reasonable force" for the purpose of correction. In its third and final vote, Parliament voted 113 to eight in favour of the legislation.
Saudi Arabia ratified the Convention in 1996, with a reservation "with respect to all such articles as are in conflict with the provisions of Islamic law" which is the national law. The Committee on the Rights of the Child, which reviewed Saudi Arabia's treatment of children under the Convention in January 2005, strongly condemned the government for its practice of imposing the death penalty on juveniles, calling it "a serious violation of the fundamental rights." The committee said it was "deeply alarmed" over the discretionary power judges hold to treat juveniles as adults: In its 2004 report, the Saudi Arabian government had stated that it "never imposes capital punishment on persons ... below the age of 18". The government delegation later acknowledged that a judge could impose the death penalty whenever he decided that the convicted person had reached his or her majority, regardless of the person's actual age at the time of the crime or at the time of the scheduled execution. But the death penalty was ended for minors in April 2020.
On 20 October 2020, Human Rights Watch said that Saudi Arabia was seeking the death penalty against eight Saudi men who were accused of committing protest-related crimes at the age of 14 and 17. One of the boys who turned 18 in 2020 was charged with a nonviolent crime that he allegedly committed aged 9. Under the hudud – an Islamic law – prosecutors have reportedly sought the death penalty for the eight men, which if granted will make them ineligible for pardon.
The United Kingdom ratified the Convention on 16 December 1991, with several declarations and reservations, and made its first report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child in January 1995. Concerns raised by the Committee included the growth in child poverty and inequality, the extent of violence towards children, the use of custody for young offenders, the low age of criminal responsibility, and the lack of opportunities for children and young people to express views. The 2002 report of the Committee expressed similar concerns, including the welfare of children in custody, unequal treatment of asylum seekers, and the negative impact of poverty on children's rights. In September 2008, the UK government decided to withdraw its reservations and agree to the Convention in these respects.
The 2002 report's criticism of the legal defence of "reasonable chastisement" of children by parents, which the Committee described as "a serious violation of the dignity of the child", was rejected by the UK Government. The Minister for Children, Young People and Families commented that while fewer parents are using smacking as a form of discipline, the majority said they would not support a ban. The devolved legislatures of Scotland and Wales have passed laws banning smacking, in force in November 2020 and March 2022 respectively.
In evidence to the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights, the Committee was criticised by the Family Education Trust for "adopting radical interpretations of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in its pursuit of an agenda." The Joint Committee's report recommended that "the time has come for the Government to act upon the recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child concerning the corporal punishment of children and the incompatibility of the defence of reasonable chastisement with its obligations under the Convention." The UK Government responded that "the use of physical punishment is a matter for individual parents to decide".
Although child slavery is difficult to gauge within the UK, child slaves are imported into the UK and sold. Laws and enforcement mechanisms against slavery and human trafficking were consolidated and strengthened in the Modern Slavery Act 2015.
On 1 September 2020, the United Nations Convention On The Rights of the Child (Incorporation) (Scotland) Bill was introduced in the Scottish Parliament. This bill would enshrine the UNCRC into Scots Law. On 19 January, MSPs passed the general principles of the bill at stage 1, 118-0. The bill has been met with many endorsements, including strong endorsement from the Scottish Youth Parliament.
The United States government played an active role in the drafting of the Convention and signed it on 16 February 1995, but has not ratified it. It has been claimed that American opposition to the Convention stems primarily from political and religious conservatives. For example, The Heritage Foundation sees "a civil society in which moral authority is exercised by religious congregations, family, and other private associations is fundamental to the American order", and the Home School Legal Defense Association (HSLDA) argues that the CRC threatens homeschooling.
Most notably, at the time several states permitted the execution and life imprisonment of juvenile offenders, a direct contravention of Article 37 of the Convention. The 2005 Supreme Court landmark decision in Roper v. Simmons declared juvenile executions to be unconstitutional as "cruel and unusual punishment"; in the 2012 case Miller v. Alabama, the court held that mandatory sentences of life without the possibility of parole are unconstitutional for juvenile offenders.
State laws regarding the practice of closed adoption may also require an overhaul in light of the Convention's position that children have a right to identity from birth.
During his 2008 campaign for President, Senator Barack Obama described the failure to ratify the Convention as "embarrassing" and promised to review the issue but, as President, he never did. No President of the United States has submitted the treaty to the United States Senate requesting its advice and consent to ratification since the US signed it in 1995.
The United States has ratified two of the optional protocols to the Convention: the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, and the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.
The UN General Assembly adopted two optional protocols. The first, the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict requires parties to ensure that children under the age of 18 are not recruited compulsorily into their armed forces and calls on governments to do everything feasible to ensure that members of their armed forces who are under 18 years do not take part in hostilities. This protocol entered into force on 12 July 2002. As of 1 December 2021, 170 states are party to the protocol, and another 10 states have signed but not ratified it.
The second, the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, requires parties to prohibit the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. It entered into force on 18 January 2002. As of 1 December 2021, 176 states are party to the protocol, and another 7 states have signed but not ratified it.
A third, the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a Communications Procedure, which would allow children or their representatives to file individual complaints for violation of the rights of children, was adopted in December 2011 and opened for signature on 28 February 2012. The protocol currently has 51 signatures and 46 ratifications: it entered into force on 14 April 2014 following the tenth ratification three months beforehand.
On 7 October 2020, the vote on United Nations Draft Resolution A/HRC/45/L.48/Rev.1 - "Rights of the child: Realizing the rights of the child through a healthy environment" submitted by Germany (on behalf of the European Union), Uruguay (on behalf of GRULAC) was adopted. The Russian Federation Amendments L.57 and L.64 to include Parental Rights were rejected.
Russian Federation, Ms. Kristina Sukacheva (Introduced L.57- L.64) Tasked with introducing the Convention language on parental rights, Russia ominously noted that governments voting against parents deliberately shirk their international responsibilities to provide for the rights of the child."
At the time of adoption, Uruguay stated that the incorporation of parental rights language, added by the Russian Federation, would "bring imbalance to the resolution and would also go against the spirit of the resolution". The assertion that parents knock children's rights out of "balance" directly contravenes the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the international community's most ratified treaty, which references parents, and their rights, repeatedly. Notably, the Russian addition was sourced word for word from the Convention.
- Cartoons for Children's Rights
- Child advocacy
- Child custody
- Child labour
- Child laundering
- Child survival revolution
- Children's rights
- Children's rights education
- Children's rights movement
- CRY America
- Declaration of the Rights of the Child
- Evolving capacities
- Execution of Rizana Nafeek
- Global Movement for Children
- iRights Framework
- Inter-Agency Guiding Principles on Unaccompanied and Separated Children
- Intergenerational equity
- International child abduction
- International Play Association
- Save the Children
- Stop Child Executions
- Student voice
- Youth voice
- Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999
- United Nations (2020). "Chapter IV. Human Rights. 11) Convention on the Rights of the Child" in: United Nations Treaty Collection. Depositary. Status of Treaties. Archived 8 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
- "Article 49 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child" (PDF). Website of the United Nations (in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish). United Nations. 20 November 1989. p. 22 (paper), 52 (this PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- "Article 47 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child" (PDF). Website of the United Nations (in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish). United Nations. 20 November 1989. p. 21 (paper), 51 (this PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- The Campaign for U.S. Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), ed. (2018). "What is the CRC?". Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- "Article 1 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child". Website of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). United Nations. 20 November 1989. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- UNICEF (ed.). "How the Convention on the Rights of the Child works. Joining, implementing, and monitoring the world's most widely ratified human rights treaty". Archived from the original on 4 June 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (ed.). "Committee on the Rights of the Child. Monitoring children's rights". www.ohchr.org. Archived from the original on 13 August 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (ed.). "Human Rights Bodies - Complaints Procedures". Archived from the original on 5 November 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- Child Rights Information Network (2008). Convention on the Rights of the Child Archived 4 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 44 Resolution 25. Convention on the Rights of the Child A/RES/44/25 20 November 1989. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
- Amnesty International USA (2007). Convention on the Rights of the Child: Frequently Asked Questions Archived 22 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
- "UN convention on the rights of the child" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
- United Nations Treaty Collection: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict Archived 25 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 20 October 2010.
- United Nations Treaty Collection: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 20 October 2010.
- "Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure". United Nations Treaty Collection. Archived from the original on 25 August 2012.
- General Comment 8 Archived 4 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Committee on the Rights of the Child.
- Article 19, Convention on the Rights of the Child.
- Simalis, Linda (21 March 2010). "Aussie parents to defy UN smacking ban". The Sunday Telegraph. Sydney. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- Sutherland, Elaine E. (2003). "Can International Conventions Drive Domestic Law Reform? The Case of Physical Punishment of Children" in Dewar J., Parker S. (eds.) Family law: processes, practices, pressures: proceedings of the Tenth World Conference of the International Society of Family Law, July 2000, Brisbane, Australia. Oxford: Hart, p. 488. ISBN 978-1-84113-308-9
- White, Ben (1999). "Defining the intolerable: Child work, global standards and cultural relativism". Childhood. 6 (1): 133–144. doi:10.1177/0907568299006001010. S2CID 27668970.
- Turner, Catherine (2013). "Out of the Shadows: Child Marriage and Slavery". Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2016. Cite journal requires
- "United Nations Treaty Collection". Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- "Joint statement on Somalia's ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child". UNICEF. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- Child and Youth Welfare and Rights Promotion Group (November 2016). "Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Initial Report Submitted under Article 44 of the Convention" (PDF). Republic of China Executive Yuan.
- "UNTC". Archived from the original on 11 February 2014.
- "The Children and Young People's Plan". States of Guernsey. 2019.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan, ed. (2013). "Rights of children". www.mfa.gov.az. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
- UNICEF, ed. (2009). "UNICEF Azerbaijan launched special edition of State of the World's Children to mark the 20th Anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in the Parliament". www.unicef.org. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
- "The Child Protection System in Azerbaijan: Situation Analysis" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
- Fidan Mahmudova (2016). Embassy of Azerbaijan to Poland (ed.). "Statement by the Delegation of Azerbaijan. Human Dimension Implementation Meeting. Working Session 16: Rights of the Child". Website of the OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe). Archived from the original on 28 August 2017.
- Public Health Agency of Canada, ed. (1 February 2012). "UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and Canada's Role". Archived from the original on 3 December 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- "Census Data on Child Labour" (PDF). Ministry of Labour & Employment, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- "Statistics of Child Labour in India State Wise". www.savethechildren.in. Save the Children. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
- Bokhary, F.; Kelly, Emma (2010). "Child Rights, Culture and Exploitation: UK Experiences of Child Trafficking". Child Slavery Now. 2010: 145–159. ISBN 9781847426093. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- "Children's Rights: Iran". Library of Congress. 4 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Children's Rights is Everyone's Responsibility, says UNICEF Iran Representative on CRC Anniversary" (Press release). UNICEF. 20 November 2010. Archived from the original on 7 March 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Report on the death penalty in Iran" (PDF). International Federation of Human Rights. April 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
- "Reaction to the execution of Delera Darabi" (Press release). Human Rights Watch. May 2009. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- French reaction to the execution of Delera Darabi, May 2009 (in French); European Union's reaction to the execution of Delera Darabi, May 2009.
- "Iran changes law for execution of juveniles". Iran Independent News Service. 10 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012.
- "Death penalty for people under 18 is prohibited". Ghanoon Online (in Persian). 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012.
- Nayyeri, Mohammad Hossein (2012). "New Islamic Penal Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran: An Overview". University of Essex: Research Paper Series.
- "Children's Rights Alliance website". Archived from the original on 27 January 2008.
- O'Brien, Carl (28 September 2006). "UN to seek changes in Constitution in support of children." Irish Times (Dublin).
- Or Kashti (21 November 2010). "UNICEF: Israel negligent in guarding children's rights Archived 5 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine". Haaretz (Tel Aviv).
- Children suffering devastating and lasting impact of Gaza crisis, says UN Committee on the Rights of the Child Archived 18 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 22 November 2012.
- "United Nations Treaty Collection". treaties.un.org. Archived from the original on 11 February 2014.
- Tavita v Minister of Immigration, 17 December 1993  2 NZLR 257 at 265, cited in Ferdinandusse, Ward N., Direct Application of International Criminal Law in National Courts, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 161. ISBN 978-90-6704-207-9
- "Children's Commissioner Act 2003 No 121 (as at 29 November 2007), Public Act – New Zealand Legislation". legislation.govt.nz. 2011. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
Children's Commissioner Act 2003
- "Our role in the Children's Convention". www.occ.org.nz. Office of the Children's Commissioner. Archived from the original on 13 May 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
The Children's Commissioner has a statutory role to advance and monitor the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
- "Timeline: Anti-smacking legislation". TVNZ. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- Saudi Arabia: Follow U.N. Call to End Juvenile Death Penalty Archived 4 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Human Rights Watch, 28 January 2006.
- "Saudi Arabia: Alleged Child Offenders Face Death Sentences". Human Rights Watch. 20 October 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- Frost, Nick, Child Welfare: Major Themes in Health and Social Welfare, Taylor and Francis, 2004, p. 175; Routledge, 2005, ISBN 978-0-415-31257-8
- Davies, Martin, The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Social Work, Blackwell, 2000, p. 354. ISBN 978-0-631-21451-9
- "UK to sign UN children convention". BBC News. 19 September 2008. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
- Easton, Mark (19 September 2008). "UK to give up child rights opt-outs" Archived 20 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. BBC reporters blog.
- Harvey, Colin J., Human Rights in the Community: Rights As Agents For Change, Oxford: Hart, 2005, p. 234. ISBN 978-1-84113-446-8
- Hughes, Beverley (8 October 2008). "Article defending the Government's position on smacking" (Press release). Department for Children, Schools and Families. Archived from the original on 12 November 2009.
- "Scotland becomes first UK country to ban smacking". BBC News. 3 October 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
- Scottish Parliament. Children (Equal Protection from Assault) (Scotland) Act 2019 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk.
- "Wales to bring in smacking ban after assembly vote". BBC News. 28 January 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
- Senedd Cymru – Welsh Parliament. Children (Abolition of Defence of Reasonable Punishment) (Wales) Act 2020 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk.
- Evidence to the Joint Committee on Human Rights Archived 29 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, UK Parliament, 12 May 2003.
- House of Lords and House of Commons Joint Committee on Human Rights, The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child Archived 29 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Tenth Report of Session 2002–03, page 55.
- "Government Responses to Reports from the Committee" Archived 29 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Session 2005-06, paras. 82, 85, 86: HL 104, HC 850.
- "United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child Incorporation Scotland Bill". beta.parliament.scot. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
- Report, Official (24 January 2014). "Official Report". www.parliament.scot. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
- Smolin, David M. "Overcoming Religious Objections to the Convention on the Rights of the Child"[permanent dead link], Emory International Law Review, vol.20, p. 83.
- "Human Rights and Social Issues at the U.N.: A Guide for U.S. Policymakers" Archived 6 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Heritage Foundation
- "HSLDA.org". Archived from the original on 16 June 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
- US Supreme Court: Roper v. Simmons, No. 03-633: 1 March 2005
- "Questions and Answers on the UN Special Session on Children (Human Rights Watch, May 2, 2002)". hrw.org. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- "U.S.: Supreme Court Ends Child Executions (Human Rights Watch, March 1, 2005)". Archived from the original on 1 November 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Miller v. Alabama certiori to the Court of Criminal Appeals of Alabama, No. 10-9646 (Argued 20 March 2012 - Decided 25 June 2012)
- Walden University Presidential Youth Debate Archived 11 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, October 2008.
- "Child Rights Information Network". Archived from the original on 8 December 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- Podgers, "The Last Holdout", ABA Journal 84 (March 2016)
- Yun, Seira (2014). "Breaking Imaginary Barriers: Obligations of Armed Non-State Actors Under General Human Rights Law – The Case of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child". Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies. 5 (1–2): 213–257. doi:10.1163/18781527-00501008. SSRN 2556825.
- "UN rights chief welcomes new measure to stop violence against children". UN News Service Section. 20 December 2011. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "United Nations Vote on Draft Resolution A/HRC/45/L.48/Rev.1 Vote Item:3 - 38th Meeting, 45th Regular Session Human Rights Council". United Nations Web TV. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- "Russian Federation, Ms. Kristina Sukacheva speaking at time code 00:05:04 - A/HRC/45/L.48/Rev.1 Vote Item:3 - 38th Meeting, 45th Regular Session Human Rights Council". United Nations Web TV. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- "Uruguay, Ms. María Alejandra Costa Prieto speaking at time code 00:25:01 - A/HRC/45/L.48/Rev.1 Vote Item:3 - 38th Meeting, 45th Regular Session Human Rights Council". United Nations Web TV. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- United Nations General Assembly (20 November 1989). "Text of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child". ohchr.org. UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Signatures and ratifications, at depositary
- Information for children on the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the website of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR).
- Information on the Convention of the Rights of the Child on the website of UNICEF, the children's organization of the United Nations.
- Procedural history, related documents and photos on the Convention on the Rights of the Child (including its Optional Protocols) in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law.
- NGO Alternative Reports submitted to the Committee on the Rights of the Child.
- Biography of Eglantyne Jebb, author of the original Declaration.
- Convention on the Rights of the Child - Guidelines regarding the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (adopted by the Committee at its eighty-first session on 13–31 May 2019).