Chung Thye Phin
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Kapitan Chung Thye Phin MSC, JP (Chinese: 鄭大平; pinyin: Zhèng Dàpíng; 1879 - 1935) was a wealthy Malayan tin miner and rubber planter of Hakka ancestry who was raised on the island of Penang in the state of the same name in Malaysia, known at that time as British Malaya. He pioneered the cultivation of Roselle for the production of Roselle fibre rope and twine, his initial effort including the Sweet Kamiri Estate in Sungei Siput. He was a member of the Perak Advisory Board and the last Kapitan China of Perak and Malaya. At the time of his death he was said to have been the wealthiest man in Penang. There was a big turnout at his funeral in Penang (7 April 1935) including many prominent personalities from the Federated Malay States and the Straits Settlements and the funeral procession was a quarter of a mile long.
- 1 A Famous Pedigree
- 2 A Child of Taiping and Georgetown
- 3 The Tin Man
- 4 Revenue Farmer
- 5 Public Life
- 6 The Sportsman
- 7 Minting His Own Money
- 8 Held Up By Pirates On The Canton River
- 9 Architectural Memorials
- 10 The Traveller
- 11 A Road In His Honour
- 12 Well Connected
- 13 Chung, Thye Phin and Eu, Tong Sen
- 14 Education and Official Appointments
- 15 Personal life
- 16 Quotations
- 17 Sources
A Famous Pedigree
Kapitan Chung Keng Quee, Mandarin 2nd Class of the Imperial Chinese Court and leader of the Hai San secret society in British Malaya had nine male issue, the 4th and best known of whom was Chung, Thye-phin. Chung Thye Phin's Ch'i Yeh or godfather was Chin Seng Yam (Chin Ah Yam), the leader of the Ghee Hin, once the enemy of his father who was leader of the opposing Hai San, both factions (Ghee Hin and Hai San) fighting for domination of the tin fields of Larut.
A Child of Taiping and Georgetown
Kapitan Chung Thye Phin was born 28 Sep 1879 in Kota, Taiping, Perak, Malaya. He received his education at the St. Xavier's, Penang. Upon leaving school, he was initiated into his father's business. Born in the Federated Malay States, in 1902 he was granted a certificate of naturalisation by the Straits Government, making him a British citizen.
The Tin Man
An enterprising youth with a flair for progress, he later started a number of tin mines of his own, including a deep-shaft mine at Tronoh or Teronoh, adjoining the famous mine of the same name, and the hydraulic mine at Batu Tugoh. Tronoh was the centre of the mining field containing the mine of Chung Thye Phin's Tronoh Mines Company Ltd.
His open-cast mines were operated on the most modern system in his time. He had the distinction of being the first Chinese miner to have introduced the latest appliances on the mines, under the supervision of a European engineer.
In 1914 he was elected to the council of the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines.
Together with Ho Man and Foo Choong Nyit, Chung Thye Phin co-founded the Toh Allang Chinese Tin Company in Perak, the first Chinese limited liability company, in 1925. He was also a founder and member of the Board of Directors of the Eastern Smelting Company (1908), Ltd along with Eu Tong Sen, Ng Boo Bee, Ong Hung Chong, Khaw Joo Tok and his nephew Khaw Bian Kee. The Eastern Smelting Company, Penang was registered in August 1907, and in November that year, its prospectus was advertised in various newspapers offering shares to the public. Governor Sir John Andserson officiated at its opening in January 1908. The company appeared to be doing well and at its first ordinary general meeting in October that year a 5 per cent dividend was declared based on the good performance of the prior six months work. Problems arose the following year and by the end of it its works manager had resigned, accusing the managing director and other directors of financial mismanagement. By March 1911 it had been decided to sell off the business to a London company. Newspapers in July 1911 carried the prospectus of the new London-based company that was to acquire the business of the Malayan company. The chairmanship of the London-based public company was Chung Thye Phin's old friend, former British Resident, Sir Ernest Birch. By the end of November 1911 the transfer from old to new company had been completed and the first general meeting of the new London-based company took place. Ownership by the London-company of the Penang-company became complete with the liquidation of the Penang public company.
In 1907 he convened a public meeting held at his offices attended by leading miners and other prominent residents to discuss problems that could arise as a result of the construction of the proposed Tronoh Railway and calling for a memorandum to be sent to the government to postpone the letting of contracts until a full public enquiry could be taken.
He was also active in promoting tin mining and the latest tin mining technologies available at the time.
He also had vast interests in some of the Government revenue farm monopolies. On 2, July 1903, the public tenders were declared open for the running of the Kedah and Penang Opium Farms. There were eight tenders. The highest tender was made by Chung Thye Phin for the Penang farm at $260,000 a month.
An understanding was reached that: (i) the government cut the Penang opium farm from the $260,000 a month tendered by Chung Thye Phin to $220,000 (later reduced to $217,000), and agreed that the syndicate could have both the Penang and Kedah farms at an overall price of $260,000 per month; (ii) Gan Ngoh Bee could have half the farm, but the other half should go to Chung Thye Phin, whose tender was the highest; and (iii) the government would undertake to secure the Kedah farm on behalf of the Penang syndicate at $40,000 a month with one-to-three months' deposits.
Chung Thye Phin was a committee member of the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce (檳城華人商部局) which was founded in June 1903 and before that served as a President of the Penang Chinese Town Hall (平章公館) established in 1881. At one time he even led the Penang Chinese Literary Association.
He was a director of the Straits Echo.
Despite his many business concerns, Chung Thye Phin evinced a lively interest in various philanthropic works, foreign famine funds and local charities.
In 1904 he subscribed (1,000) to the building fund for the founding of the Seven States Medical School. At a Chinese concert at Ipoh in 1908 in aid of the Canton famine fund he paid $100 for a plate of icecream.
According to a deed dating back to 1906, he was one of the trustees of the Penang Chinese Recreation Club.
During the financial depression in Perak in 1908 he was one of the four members of a deputation (the other three being Eu Tong Sen, Foo Choo Choon and Yau Tet Shin) appointed by the whole of the Chinese community in Perak to plead their plight and bring to the attention of the acting resident of Perak, Mr E L Brockman their requests for government aid.
He donated a fountain to the Penang Turf Club and the Taiping Lake Gardens to the Perak State Government. Both of these still exist today. Together with Eu Tong Sen he donated land in Papan for a jail. This same pair contributed $1,500 to the Perak Chinese Recreation Club in 1913.
This worthy scion of Kapitan Chung, Keng Quee was the recipient of a tasseled "gold medal" from the Government of Indo China (Annam) for his liberal gifts to the Relief Fund. (Vide "The Chung Family Record", op. cit., pp. 9–12)
He appears in the 1904 List of Qualified Jurors. He was just 25 years of age at that time.
He was made a Justice of the Peace in 1917.
He also served as a member of the Commission to enquire into and report on the Mining Industry, for which all the members were thanked by Mr. E. L. Brockman, Chief Secretary, F. M. S., for "the thoroughness with which you have gone into the various and important points raised and the clearness with which the conclusion arrived at regarding them have been recorded". (K. L., F. M. S. Correspondence Ref: No. 508-1919 dated 29 January 1920)
Earlier that year he was part of a deputation, also comprising the Hon. Mr A N Kenion, the Hon. Mr J H Rich, Messrs. F S Physick, Herbert Cooper, C F Green, Chairman, Sanitary Board, Kinta and Cheang Heng Thoy, J. P., who met with the Hon. Mr W George Maxwell, C.M.G. British Resident of Perak to discuss Ipoh's electricity and lighting needs.
On 24 March 1921, His Highness Iskandar Shah K. C. M. G., the Sultan of Perak, with the advice of Colonel W. J. P. Hume, British Resident, Perak, conferred on him the title of "Kapitan China", in all probability, the last of the Chinese Kapitans in Malaya. He was installed by the Sultan of Perak in Kuala Kangsar amidst much traditional pomp and pagentry. His appointment was so popular with the community that he was escorted to Kuala Kangsar by the delegates of more than 70 Chinese organisations from Perak.
Later that year he was invited to Kuala Lumpur to give his views to the Trade Depression Commission during its two day's sitting in camera.
He was appointed trustee of the resuscitated Perak Miners' and Planters' association in 1922.
In July 1923 he was elected the first president of the newly inaugurated British Chinese Association. In November 1923, at the annual general meeting of the Perak Chinese Dramatic Club, he was elected Patron.
He presided over the Association of States and Straits Representatives (representing Chinese born in the Federated Malay States and the Straits Settlements) in 1923.
In 1926, together with Leong Sin Nam he was elected an honorary member of the Ipoh Club, whose members till then were restricted to the European community. The Times of Malaya said this was a compliment which should further cement the good feeling existing between the European and Chinese communities in Kinta.
In the name of His Majesty the King, His Excellency the High Commissioner awarded him a Certificate of Honour in recognition of his loyal and valuable services to the government of the F. M. S. in June 2007. He was presented the Malayan Certificate of Honour and its accompanying insignia by the Chief Secretary, F. M. S., Sir William Peel, in the throne room at Istana Nagara, Kuala Kangsar in August 1928, having received the same award on the occasion of H. M. the King-Emperor's birthday the year before.
According to berita.perak.gov.my, Foo Yet Kai, another Perak philanthropist, bought Chung Thye Phin's villa in Ipoh from the family of the late Kapitan and later gave permission for it to be converted into a private hospital, then known as Our Lady's Hospital and run by the Franciscan Sisters from Salzkotten, Germany. The hospital subsequently was renamed Kinta Medical Centre in the 1980s when the Foo Yet Kai Foundation took over the administration.
It is known that he owned expensive cars, prize-winning horses, and even issued his own currency for use in his mines.
Motoring was one of his passions.
Chung Thye Phin was an enthusiastic sportsman and on more than one occasion won the Blue Ribbon of the Straits Turf apart from many lesser events. Among his racing trophies are one for the 1905 Singapore Derby won by one of his horses, Devilment. He was also a good billiards player.
He was also said to be a first class billiard player and played an exhibition match with world billiard champion John Roberts at the E&O Hotel in the early 1900s.
Minting His Own Money
At one time, during the latter part of the first World War, he was among the few who were permitted by the Government to print and issue 10-cent notes for circulation. Chung Thye Phin first issued private banknotes in 10 cent denominations on 11 February 1918. These notes were only circulated within his mining concessions and the Kapitan's trading outlets at Phin Kee Chan in Ipoh and were used by large numbers of labourers in the mining areas in exchange for goods (Source: Museum Numismatik Maybank). No other denominations have been discovered. Circa 1918 the notes bear the legends Ten Cents "Phin Kee Chan Ten Cents" at top and bottom border and "Phin Kee Chan" at left and right border. The legend Chung Thye Phin was printed in a black panel diagonally. On the top left corner is a value of "10cents" and written in Chinese on the right is "bearer of this bill may exchange 10c from Phin Kee Chan". Embossed on it was an oval seal bearing the legend of Chung Thye Phin.
Held Up By Pirates On The Canton River
In 1897, during a trip to China, he found himself and his entourage held up by pirates. What's perhaps even more surprising is that more than a few United States newspapers carried the following story about this son of Malaya:
"Tacoma, Wash., August 30. -- The steamer Columbia, from Yokohama, brings Oriental advices up to July 27. News has just reached Hong Kong of the prevalence of pirates on the Canton River and one of the most daring outrages perpetrated. One of the sons of Capt. Chung Kewi, a Straits millionaire, Chung Ah Phin, was the victim. With a few of his relatives he hired a boat and they were proceeding to their native place. On the second day the boat stuck in the mud and could not proceed. During the night a gang of men with painted faces and fully armed boarded the boat. With revolvers leveled at the passengers they commanded silence, while four men began at once to look for plunder. Ah Phin brought from the Straits jewelry amounting in value to $50,000 and $20,000 in cash. These the pirates took, besides clothing, etc. They left, after threatening the victims with instant death if they made a noise till twelve hours afterwards. In the morning information was sent down to Canton, but before the authorities had time to get a gunboat up the river the pirates had made their escape."
Chung Thye Phin Building, 14 Station Road in Ipoh, Perak is a three-storey corner building from 1907. It originally housed the Medical Hall established by Dr. R.M. Connolly, the Oilfileds Dispensaries Ltd. and more recently the George Town Dispensary. Mr W. Cecil Payne, managing director of the Times of Malaya and a member of the Institute of Incorporated Accountants, had offices in Chung Thye Phin's buildings.
Apart from Phin Kee Chan (referred to by many other names, among them the Chung Thye Phin Building), he is also associated with his father's townhouse cum office in Penang, Hye Kee Chan, and with some other structures, like his country house on Dummond Hill in Taiping, Perak.
His villa in the heart of Ipoh, was bought by Foo Yet Kai who later allowed its conversion, free of rent, to a private hospital, then known as Our Lady’s Hospital. It was administered by the Sisters of the Franciscan Missionaries of the Divine Motherhood from April 1964 to Jan 1983 but has now been taken over by The Kinta Medical Centre.
The Chung Thye Phin Mansion at Gurney Drive on Penang island (the address at the time was No 2 Kelawai Road) with its subterranean passageways and chambers was, after his death, sold and turned into a hotel (The Shanghai Hotel) in the late 1930s but was later demolished in 1964 and on its footprint now stands an imposing condominium (1 Gurney Drive). Author Queeny Chang gives an extensive description of the place and her experience of it in her autobiography. At one time it served to house a club for German U-boatmen.
He designed Relau Villa (also on Penang island), his holiday resort with a swimming pool ringed by private and other types of rooms. Its derelict structure can still be seen and explored at Taman Metropolitan, Relau in Penang, today. According to family history Kapitan Chung Thye Phin was inspired by the artistic canals of Venice and the enchanting ponds and lakes of China when he designed the swimming-pool, which was constructed by Mr. B. H. Ung (Ung Ban Hoe was attached to the architectural firm of Stark & McNeil), the first Chinese architect who introduced reinforced concrete buildings to the community, notably the Ban Hin Lee Bank.
A commentary by his grand daughter, Oola goes, "Chung Thye Phin had many residences, some of them mansions, in Penang, Ipoh and Taiping. His residence in what is now Persiaran Gurney was the most famous, with its grand entertaining rooms and undersea wing. It was built before there was a Persiaran Gurney or a Gurney Drive, and was therefore right on the shore. His largest residence in Ipoh was in a street that carried his name (and still does). This mansion now serves as a hospital. He built a summer house on a large estate near Relau and surrounded it with gardens, orchards and fish ponds. However its most striking feature was the fact that it was built around a swimming pool (the first in Penang) in the Roman tradition. This house still exists in its ruined state, now surrounded by high rise 21st century flats. There are indeed many stories to be told about Chung Thye Phin."
He also had property on Penang Hill, as was the way with the rich in those days. His was a bungalow named, simply, "Highlands".
Several articles have been published, mentioning these properties and erroneously attributing them to Thye Phin's father, Chung Keng Quee who died in 1901, well before any of these were built.
A widely travelled Malayan, Kapitan Chung Thye Phin had gone round the world on many a business-cum-pleasure trip. On one occasion, he undertook a perilous trip up the scenic gorges of the Yangtze River at Chungking, China, thus earning for himself the distinction of being the first non-China-born Chinese to have made the venture. It was here that he was enraptured by Nature's inimitable splendour.
A Road In His Honour
In Perak he was honoured with roads named after him. Jalan Chung Thye Phin in Ipoh borders the Kinta Medical Centre. This location is appropriate - the Centre, a private hospital under the administration of the Foo Yet Kai foundation, was formerly the family mansion of Chung Thye Phin. There is another road of the same name also named in his honour in his birthplace of Taiping.
Chung Thye Phin rubbed shoulders with the rich and powerful including Sultan Iskandar Shah of Perak, a polo lover. A photograph in the National Archives shows him sitting next to the Sultan.
In February 1907 When the Duke and the Duchess of Connaught and Princess Patricia paid an official visit to Penang in Feb. 1907, they were driven by Kapitan Chung Thye Phin in his own private car.
Chung, Thye Phin and Eu, Tong Sen
Eu Tong Sen and Chung Thye Phin were "blood" brothers. They went through Chinese ceremony to become "Keet Bye Heng Tai". When Chung Thye Phin travelled to Hong Kong, he stayed in Eu Tong Sen's villa there and they kept an account of his expenses in the company's account books. Eu Tong Sen's villa in HK was called "Eucliff". It has been torn down. It was built at Repulse Bay, HK, overlooking the sea. The property was huge. It was built with stone like a castle. It included within its walled area a tennis court and also a swimming pool.
Eu Tong Sen and Chung Thye Phin had common interests – motorcars, racehorses, country houses, etc. 1903 when the Ipoh Gymkhana Club was founded, both of them decided to enter their thoroughbreds regularly in the Ipoh races. They jointly built a weekend retreat, "Forest Lodge", at Gopeng Road with a large stable. In April 1912 Eu Tong Sen was appointed the permanent Chinese Member of the Federal Council, the seat having fallen vacant on the demise of Leong Fee. Chung Thye Phin sold his half-share to Eu Tong Sen who desired grander accommodations following the latter's elevation in status. Chung Thye Phin in turn bought Drummond’s Hill in Taiping, a 50-acre (200,000 m2) estate and the former Residency of Sir Hugh Low. In 1908, together with Chung Thye Phin he built a large Chinese theatre in the important mining town of Kampar near Ipoh.
Chung, Thye Phin's Penang firms served as the agent for Eu, Tong Sen in Penang before he (Eu) opened a branch on the island. Eu Tong Sen's Penang branch, at least according to business directories, was the latest in his branch office network. It seemed to have opened only in 1920.
Education and Official Appointments
He studied at St. Xavier's Institution on Penang Island. He was a patron of the Khek Community Guild (Singapore). He was appointed trustee of the Penang Tseng-Lung Hui-kuan in 1916 and tasked with overhauling the association, removing irresponsible elements from the association and repairing its premises. He also played an important role in the administration of the country, and was both a State Councillor and a Federal Councillor. He was a member of the Perak State Advisory Board and the last Kapitan China of Perak and Malaya. In 1900 he replaced his father as member of the Perak State Council, a position held by Chung Keng Quee since the council was first formed in 1877 and remained on the council till his resignation in 1927. On 24 March 1921, His Highness Iskandar Shah K. C. M. G., the Sultan of Perak, conferred on him the title of "Kapitan China". His installation ceremony was held on 28 March in the royal town of Kuala Kangsar and included a procession that went around the town, accompanied by firecrackers.
He was the son of Kapitan Chung Keng Quee (also spelt as Chung Ah Kwee) an immigrant from China. He had 7 wives but was survived by 6 of them who gave him 10 sons and 7 daughters. Chung Thye Phin was born in 1879 in Taiping, lived most of his life in Penang and died in 1935.
Chung, Kok Soon (KS, deceased 2006)
Chung, Kok Ching (KC, deceased 1994)
Chung, Kok Choon (Peter, deceased 1996)
Chung, Kok Heng (Frankie deceased)
Chung, Kok Khen (Khen, deceased 2006)
Chung, Kok En (Dennis, deceased 2014)
Chung, Kok Tong (Henry, deceased 2001)
Chung, Kok Leong (Leon, deceased 2014)
Chung, Kok Choy (Kenny, deceased 2005)
Chung, Kok Chuan (George, deceased 2009)
Chung, Yuet See (Mary, deceased 1995)
Chung, Yuet Kuen (Louise, deceased)
Chung, Guat Hooi
Chung, Guat Hong
Chung, Guat Kheng
Chung, Yuet Wah
Chung, Yuet Fong
Mr. Chung Thye Phin, M.C. (owner of mines in Gopeng, Taiping, and Tronoh districts): "I do not look for any general expansion of the industry. We are now greatly troubled with our coolies, who are independent and desert freely. In view of these labour troubles, I have installed tramming services where possible, and lengthened the working day."
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Chung Thye Phin
- Re-examination of the "Chinese nationalism" and Categorization of the Chinese in Malaya: The Case of the Chinese in Penang, 1890s-1910s by SHINOZAKI Kaori, Ph.D. student, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences University of Tokyo
- The Singapore and Straits Directory and the F.M.S. Directory under Eu Tong Sen.
- Mr Koh, Keng We co author of Chinese Enterprise in Colonial Malaya: the Case of Eu Tong Sen
- THE KAPITAN SYSTEM - XI Sunday Gazette, 19 June 1960, By Wu Liu (pen name of Mr. C. S. Wong/Wong, Choon Sang)
- A gallery of Chinese kapitans. by Mr. C. S. Wong/Wong, Choon Sang; Published in Singapore: Ministry of Culture, 1963. 114p. [DS596 Won]
- Twentieth Century impressions of British Malaya: its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources, by Arnold Wright, Published 1908 - Page 130, 203, 252, 262, 508, 509, 568
- The Record of Meritorious Deeds of the Chung Family, op. cit., pp. 9–12
- K. L. F. M. S. Correspondence Ref: No 3663-1917 dated 20 March 1918
- K. L., F. M. S. Correspondence Ref: No. 508-1919 dated 29 January 1920
- "Miscellaneous Chronicles of Penang", Kuang, Kuo-hsiang op. cit., pp. 112–113
- The Case of the Chinese in Penang, 1890s-1910s | SHINOZAKI Kaori, Ph.D. student
- 200 years of the Hakkas in Penang (檳城客家兩百年) By the Federation of Hakka Associations of Malaysia
- Reveal the True Face of Secret Societies (揭開私會黨真面目) Written by Guo Rende (郭仁德) Published by the Malaysian Chinese Cultural Center
- "The Luxuriant Tree" and "Chung Keng Kwee, the Hakka Kapitan" by CHUNG Yoon-Ngan (鄭永元)
- The installation of Chung Thye Phin as Capitan in 1921. G.1784 (N.22/84) National Archives of Malaysia.
- List of Qualified Jurors, Penang, 1904 transcribed from the Straits Settlements Government Gazette, 23 December 1904.
- Heritage Road named in honour of Chung Thye Phin by Sita Ram, Stories Of Yesteryear, The Ipoh Echo 16–31 March 2006
- Timothy Tye who has been researching Chung Keng Quee for AsiaExplorers and historian Khoo Salma Nasution
- The Tin Resources of the British Empire by Norman Mosley Penzer, published by W. Rider in 1921, page 90 of 716 pages.
- Chinese Architecture in the Straits Settlements and Western Malaya: Temples, Kongsis, and Houses By David Kohl - Originally published as the author's thesis (M.A.--University of Hong Kong, 1978) - Published by Heinemann Asia, 1984. ISBN 967-925-066-0, ISBN 978-967-925-066-4
- Chinese Business in Southeast Asia: Contesting Cultural Explanations, Researching Entrepreneurship By H. Hsiao, Edmund Terence Gomez, Xinhuang Xiao, Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, Published by Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0-7007-1415-4, ISBN 978-0-7007-1415-5
- Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Vol. 3, pt. 2 comprises a monograph entitled: British Malaya, 1864–1867, by L.A. Mills, with appendix by C. O. Blagden, 1925. Issued also separately) By Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland Malayan Branch Published by The Branch, 1923
- Chinese Business in Southeast Asia: Contesting Cultural Explanations by Edmund Terence Gomez, Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, Page 169
- The Straits Times, 10 September 1925, Page 8 -- Capitan Chung Thye Phin has sold his large rubber estate, situated in Sungei Siput, for an amount exceeding $700,000, the purchasers being Messrs. Barlow and Co., Kuala Lumpur. The Times of Malaya understands that the sale was put through by a well known Chinese business man of Penang.
- He was appointed a member of the Federation Malay States Rubber Restriction Committee in 1922 - The Straits Times, 28 October 1922, Page 8 National Library of Singapore microfilm reel NL499
- The rise of ersatz capitalism in South-East Asia - Page 203
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 2 September 1922, Page 11 -- NEW MALAYAN INDUSTRY. -- That success is attending the efforts of planters who several months ago went in for Roselle fibre is evident from a notice appearing in the advertisement columns of our Ipoh contemporary, announcing that at the present time rope made of this fibre can be obtained at 24 cents per lb, F.O.R. Sungei Siput! The advertisement states that not only are "all sizes of rope up to 3 1/2 inch circumference in stock," but that the Manager of Sweet Kamiri Estate, Sungei Siput, is prepared to supply "any larger size" to order. Credit in this connection for most praise-worthy enterprise, for thus setting an excellent example to the general public, is, if we mistake not, due to Mr. Chung Thye Phin, the Captain China, who was among the first, if not the very first, to invest in this kind of product, making his initial effort at Sweet Kamiri Estate, Perak, many months ago. Since then, as was mentioned in our columns recently scores of planters in all parts of the Peninsula have gone in for Roselle fibre, the prospects of this useful commodity figuring regularly among our exports before very long being excellent. For twine and rope-making it is admirably adapted and as the plant flourishes in Malaya and native labour is cheap there is no reason why the manufacture of rope in Malaya should not become just as important an industry in the near future as that of the enterprising China Clay and Pottery Company, of Gopeng, for which Messrs McAlister * Co., Ltd., are, the local agents. (S. Echo.)
- The Straits Times, 5 October 1903, Page 5, National Library of Singapore microfilm reel NL294
- DEATH OF CAPITAN CHUNG THYE PIN. One Of Malaya's Pioneer Motorists, The Straits Times, 1 April 1935, Page 15
- The Straits Times, 31 March 1935, Page 1, National Library of Singapore microfilm reel NL2360
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 8 April 1935, Page 3 -- FUNERAL OF CHUNG THYE PHIN -- Penang, 5 Apr.. -- THE funeral of Capitan Chung Thye Phin, which took place from his residence, 58, Northam yesterday morning, was attended by nearly 500 friends and relatives, some of whom had come from Ipoh, Taiping and Kuala Lumpur. There were approximately 200 mourners, including the deceased's wives, children, and grandchildren. The procession was a quarter of a mile long. Innumerable Chinese banners, Chinese priests, the Municipal Band, and Boys Scouts from the Second Penang (A.C.S.) Troop, under S.M. Yeoh Seng Chan, former the almost unending train, which was brought up in the rear by the coffin and finally the mourners and followers. Many prominent local and outstation men were present including Hon. Mr. Palgrave Simpson, Mr. Leong Sin Nam, Mr. Cheah Cheang Lim, Dato Panglima Kinta and Mr. Heah Joo Seang. The procession started shortly after 11 a.m., proceeding down Northam Road into Transfer Road and Sri Bahari Road, to come out into Penang Road. The train broke up at the junction of Burma and Penang Roads, from where the coffin was borne up to Bagan Jermal for burial in a private piece of land in the estate of the late Cheang Keng Kwee. After the burial ceremony was over at the grave side, the procession proceeded home.
- The principal village in Taiping at the time of the Larut wars was Kota which was about four kilometers from Klian Pauh: Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 64 By Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Malaysian Branch, 1991, page 4
- Twentieth Century Impressions of British Malaya: Its History, People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources By Arnold Wright, H. A. Cartwright Published by Lloyd's Greater Britain publishing company, limited, 1908
- The Straits Times, 24 May 1902, Page 4, National Library of Singapore microfilm reel NL288
- The Straits Times, 3 March 1914, Page 3 -- F.M.S. Chamber of Mines.
- Straits Tin; a Brief Account of the First Seventy-five Years of the Straits Trading Company, Limited. 1887-1962. By K G Tregonning. Published by Straits Times Press, 1962.
- More than merchants: a history of the German-speaking community in Penang, 1800s-1940s By Salma Nasution Khoo, Areca Books (2006), ISBN 983-42834-1-5, ISBN 978-983-42834-1-4
- Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 79, Issue 1 by The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, JMBRAS 2006, Pg 64
- Chinese Business Enterprise By Rajeswary Ampalavanar Brown. Published by Taylor & Francis, 1996. ISBN 0-415-14293-8, ISBN 978-0-415-14293-9. Pp 61, 62, 63, 64. Chapter 3: The Khaw group: Chinese business in early twentieth-century Penang by J. W. Cushman
- The Rise of Ersatz Capitalism in South-East Asia, By Kunio Yoshihara, Published by Oxford University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-19-588885-5, ISBN 978-0-19-588885-0, p 203
- The Straits Times, 2 November 1909, Page 6
- The Straits Times, 10 August 1907, Page 7 -- NEW SMELTING CONCERN. The success of the smelting industry in Singapore has led to the formation of a syndicate to enter into competition with the Straits Trading Company. With a capital of $1,250,000, divided into 125,000 shares of $10 each, the Eastern Smelting Company has been registered recently at Penang, and application is now being made to the Federated Malay States Government for permission to export ore. We understand that the concern is composed chiefly of Straits-born Chinese. The export restrictions were aimed, it is stated, at the formation, some time since, of an American tin trust. It is believed that another syndicate, with a similar object in view, is in course of formation.
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 26 November 1907, Page 1 -- The eastern Smelting Company Limited. Incorporated under the Companies Ordinance 1889 of the Straits Settlements. Capital $1,500,000. Divided into 150,000 Shares of $10 each. 25,000 Shares are now offered for Subscription at par, payable $1 per Share on Application, $2 per Share on Allotment and the balance on the 28th day of December, 1907. MANAGING DIRECTOR: HERRMANN HESSEN ... ... ... Penang. DIRECTORS: R. L. CORBETT ... ... ... Ipoh. CHUNG THYE PHIN ... ... ... Ipoh. EU TONG SEN ... ... ... Kampar. NG BOO BEE ... ... ... Taiping. LIN KEK CHUAN ... ... ... Penang. KHAW JOO TOK ... ... ... Penang. CHU SHU MING ... ... ... Seremban. LOKE CHOW THYE ... ... ... Seremban. LEE CHIN HO of Penang will join the Board after allotment. BANKERS: CHARTERED BANK OF INDIA, AUSTRALIA AND CHINA, Penang. AUDITORS: MESSRS. EVATT & CO., Penang and Singapore. SOLICITORS: MESSRS. PRESGRAVE & MATTHEWS, 13 Beach Street, Penang. REGISTERED OFFICEl No. 73, Dato Kramat Road ... ... ... Penang. PROSPECTUS. It is proposed to form this Company to purchase and take over as a going concern the well-known business of Tin Smelting carried on during the past 10 years by Mr. Lee Chin Ho of No 73, Dato Kramat Road, Penang, together with the Smelting works and premises belonging thereto and situate at No. 73, Dato Kramat Road, Penang, and all the plant machinery, furnaces, chimney stacks, fixtures, engines, motors, office furniture, implements and permanent appliances whatsoever used in connection therewith and the goodwill of the business and generally to carry on the business of Tin Merchants, Tin Smelters and Tin Refiners. The total purchase price payable to the Vendor Mr. Lee Chin Ho is $300,000 of which $150,000 represents the value of the works and premises and the plant machinery &c., used in connection therewith and $150,000 is the amount payable for the Goodwill. The purchase price will be paid as to $250,000 in fully paid up shares in the Company and as to the balance of $50,000 only in Cash. Arrangements have also been made for taking over the stock and the benefit of all contracts which have been entered into by the Vendor in connection with the business and which shall be in existence at the date of the completion of the purchase at the price to be agreed upon between the Vendor and the Company or in default of agreement at a price to be settled by arbitration. There are at present four furnaces on the premises and the works are capable of turning out 25 tons of refined tin per day. There is ample space upon the premises in Dato Kramat Road for the erection of more than double the present number of furnaces. It is intended to establish Agencies in the Federated Malay States and elsewhere to buy ore and it is estimated that the present output of refined tin which now averages from 250 to 300 tons per month will be increased to between 800 and 1,000 tons per month. Mr. Herman Jessen, who during the last 6 years has been with the firm of Messrs. Behn Meyer & Co., has had considerable experience in the tin business and will act as the first Managing Director of the Company upon terms to be arranged between himself and the Company. Mr. Lee Chin Ho has also promised the Company the full benefit of his services, skill and experience for the next 3 years at least. The business will be carried on and conducted upon the most modern and up to date lines. All preliminary expenses down to and including the day on which the Company is entitled to commence business will be paid by the Company but no promotion money will be paid. One Hundred Thousand Shares in the Company have already been privately applied for; 25,000 shares go to the Vendor in part payment of the purchase money and the remaining 25,000 Shares are now offered to the Public for subscription at par. As a large number of the leading Tin Miners in the Straits and F. M. S. have applied for the bulk of the Shares in the Company the Directors have every confidence in the future success of the Company. A Contract dated the 27th day of July 1907, has been entered into between Lee Chin ho of the one part and Herrmann Jessen of Penang for and on behalf of the Company of the other part for the sale and purchase of the business of the Company and copies of such Contract can be inspected at the premises of the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China in Penang, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, Taiping and Medan during the usual business hours until the Subscription list is closed. Application for Shares should be made on the accompanying forms and forwarded to the Company's Bankers at Penang with a remittance for the amount payable on application not later than 30 November 1907. Where no allotment is made the deposit will be returned in full. For the purpose of facilitating the transfer of Shares the Company will have power to issue Share Warrants to Bearer in respect of any fully paid-up Shares of the Company upon such terms and subject to such conditions as may be resolved upon by the Directors. Prospectuses and forms of application can be obtained at the offices of the Company or from the Company's Bankers or Solicitors. Dated this 6th day of November, 1907.
- The Straits Times, 18 January 1908, Page 7 -- STRAITS ENTERPRISES. OPENING OF EASTERN SMELTING WORKS. Governor's Speech. COMPETITION WITH STRAITS TRADING COMPANY. Opening Ceremony Performed by Miss Anderson. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) Penang, 18, 10 January.20a.m. His Excellency the Governor, Sir John Anderson, K.C.M.G., participated in the opening of the Eastern Smelting Company here to-day. In a speech delivered by His Excellency, he alluded to the present depression in the tin industry, which had been produced by the grave shock sustained by the credit of the markets of the world, and especially by the United States. This depression in the markets, the mining industry in the Federated Malay States had been unable to withstand, and he feared, looking to the history of similar depressions in the past, that the end had not yet been reached. His Excellency also referred to the competition of the Eastern Smelting Company with one of the greatest institutions in the Colony -- the Straits Trading Company. He expressed himself as confident that there would be no cut-throat competition between the two concerns, as there were level-headed men at the head of both. We did not want monopolists in the Colony and Federated Malay States, bu healthy competition resulting in a reasonable margin of profit. His Excellency then dealt with the prospects of the Eastern Smelting Company, with Penang as the gate of Perak and the Siamese Malayan States. The Governor was presented by the management of the new Company with an address in a silver casket. Thereafter, the gubernatorial party went over the works and viewed the smelting process. Miss Anderson opening the works with a gold key, which was thereupon presented by the management for her acceptance.
- The Straits Times, 22 October 1908, Page 8 -- Promising Future for the Eastern Smelting Company. The first ordinary general meeting of the Eastern Smelting company, Limited, was held on Thursday afternoon at the company's registered offices at Penang. The Managing Director, Mr. Herrmann Jessen, occupied the chair and gave a resume of the company's work for the last six months, which was regarded by the large number of shareholders present as very satisfactory. The Chairman said that the Directors were in the happy position of being able to declare an interim dividend of 5 per cent. This would absorb half of the net profit earned during the half-year. The Chairman was very glad to be able to assure the meeting that the outlook for the future was very promising. Mr. J. D. Ke,p. of the Rahman Tin Company, was then elected unanimously to the vacant seat on the Board of Directors, and, with a vote of thanks to the Chairman, the proceedings terminated.
- The Straits Times, 2 November 1909, Page 7 -- EASTERN SMELTING CO. AFFAIRS. [Articles] -- EASTERN SMELTING CO. AFFAIRS. (From On Own Correspondent.) Penang. 1 November. The resignation of Mr. J. H. Robertson from the directorate of the Eastern Smelting Co. is alleged to be due to differences with the other directors regarding loans and advances to certain directors from the company's funds.
- The Straits Times, 2 November 1909, Page 6 -- In connection with the resignation of Mr. J. H. Robertson from the directorate of the Eastern Smelting Co., Penang, to which reference is made in our telegraphic news to-day, the Pinang Gazette points out that Mr. 11. Jessen, the managing director, now remains with Mr. J. D. Kemp who is away in Europe -- the only European director of the company, the other directors, according to the last report, being Messrs. Khaw Joo Tok, Lee Chin Ho, Ng Boo Bee, Chung Thye Phin, Chu Shu Ming, Quah Beng Kee, Ong Hong Beng and Loke Chow Kit.
- The Straits Times, 11 November 1909, Page 7 -- Eastern Smelting Co. [Articles] -- Eastern Smelting Co. ACRIMONIOUS AND PERSONAL RECRIMINATIONS. Protracted Meeting. (From Our Own Cobrbspondbnt.) Penang, 11 November. A crowded meeting of the Eastern Smelting Company was held here yesterday and a protracted sitting took place. Messrs. Jessen and Robertson occupied a considerable time in acrimonious and personal recriminations. Mr. Robertson declared under Jessen the Company lost $76,000 in tin dealings with London in 1908, and $1,100 in 1909. He also stated Jessen had overdrawn his private accounts by $21,000 and had taken shares for the Company in mining ventures which proved unsuccessful. Jessen rejoined that everything had been done with the knowledge and approval of the board. They had repaid the overdraft. He asserted the unsatisfactory state of the Company's affairs was due to Robertson's failure to keep proper accounts at the Works, incorrect estimates and to refusal to co-operate with the head office. The disclosures revealed an extraordinary state of affairs in the Company. The directors were empowered to inquire into their own alleged short-comings and to report on the whole of the affairs of the Company to shareholders early in 1910.
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 22 March 1911, Page 6 -- EASTERN SMELTING CO. Sold to London. Penang, 21 Mar 10am. The meeting of the shareholders of the Eastern Smelting Company today resolved by 29 votes to one to authorise the sale of the concern to a London Company. The Hon A. E. Adams, who presided stated that the present shareholders would get par value of their shares in sterling in the London Company, and it was proposed to sell the business of the whole Company including the assets but excluding the profits for 1910 and for the present year to date of sale.
- The Straits Times, 24 July 1911, Page 6 -- In our advertising columns to-day will be found the prospectus of the new company under the title of Eastern Smelting Co., Ltd., which has been registered in London to take over as a going concern the business of the Eastern Smelting Co., Ltd., Penang, with a capital of £250,000, divided into 50,000 in preferred ordinary £1 shares and £200,000 ordinary shares.
- The Straits Times, 22 August 1911, Page 8 -- EASTERN SMELTING COMPANY. Particulars of the recently issued prospectus. Sir Ernest Birch, ex-British Resident of Perak, is Chairman of company.
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 20 November 1911, Page 9 -- EASTERN SMELTING CO LTD. TRANSFER OF THE BUSINESS COMPLETED. FINANCIAL POSITION. The first general meeting of the Eastern Smelting Company, Ltd. was held on 24 Oct. at the offices. 7 Laurence Pountney-hill, E. C., Sir Ernest Woodford Birch, K.M.C.G. (the Chairman), presiding. The secretary (Mr F C Bell) having read the notice convening the meeting and the certificate of the auditors. The Chairman said: the company was incorporated on 20 July this year, and the prospectus offering 50,000 Preferred Ordinary shares of £1 each was issued on 21 July, The issue was very successful, 35,736 shares being applied for in this country and 37,125 in Malaya, making 72,861 in all. Of this number 27,000 shares were allotted as to 13,870 to Malayan applicants and 13,130 to London applicants. Before the formal transfer of the business to the new company could take place, it was necessary for our auditors to prepare a balance sheet showing the vendor company's financial position at 26 July at which date the nominal transfer took place. The preparation of this balance sheet took somewhat longer than was anticipated and it was not until 2 October that the directors were enabled to complete the formal transfer of the business. The transfer has now been duly registered in the Straits Settlements and in the Federated Malay States so the new company is in full possession.
- The Straits Times, 4 January 1913, Page 3-- EASTERN SMELTING CO. Final Meeting of the Penang Company. The final meeting of The Eastern Smelting Company, Limited (in liquidation) was held at Penang, on Monday, the Hon. A. R. Adams in the chair. After the notice convening the meeting had been read. Mr. P. E. Laws, the liquidator, presented his accounts, which were regarded as very satisfactory. The accounts showed that every shareholder had been transferred to the London company, and had received shares in that company equivalent to his holding in the Penang company, and that after paying for the cost of the liquidation, there was a balance in hand of $1,287.39. The Hon A R Adams said he was sure that the shareholders in the Penang company had no cause to regret the transfer to the London company and proposed that the cash balance in hand be given to the Penang Maternity Hospital. After some discussion this was agreed to. Mr. A. F. G. Anderson moved that the provisional payment of $2,669.15 for the directors' legal costs in the action brought by Mr Robertson against the directors be confirmed. Mr Hoefeld seconded and the motion was carried.
- The Straits Times, 20 January 1912, Page 9 -- EASTERN SMELTING CO. Shareholders Decide on Voluntary Liquidation. An extraordinary general meeting of the above-named company was held at the registered office of the company, F. M. S. Hailway Buildings, China Street Ghaut, on Wednesday afternoon, when the subjoined resolutions, which were duly passed at the extraordinary general meeting of the company held on the 28th ultimo, were submitted for confirmation as special resolutions:-- That the company be wound up voluntarily. That Mr Percival Edward Laws of Penang be and is hereby appointed liquidator for the purpose of such winding up. There were present Messrs H Jessen, L Hoefeld, Jas T Dobbie, Yeo Geok Keat, and Lee Quee Hock; several shareholders were represented by proxies.
- The Straits Times, 8 February 1907, Page 10 -- IPOH-TRONOH RAILWAY.
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 18 March 1922, Page 12 -- TIN MINE. A miniature tin mine will be exhibited by Captain Chung Thye Phin, J.P., and Messrs. Werf-Conrad, Ltd., of Ipoh will show a model mine worked by means of a Werf-Conrad gravel-pump made of aluminium. The pump is made to scale and is pumping sand and water up to...
- Chinese Business in the Making of a Malay State, 1882-1941: Kedah and Penang By Wu Xiao An, Xiao An Wu Published by Routledge, 2003; ISBN 0-415-30176-9, ISBN 978-0-415-30176-3, Pg 111
- Page 70. Records and Recollections (1889-1934): Chinese Women, Prostitution & a Welfare Organisation By Neil Jin Keong Khor, Keat Siew Khoo, Izrin Muaz Md. Adnan. Published by Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 2004. ISBN 967-9948-32-3, ISBN 978-967-9948-32-5. 181 pages
- Eastern Daily Mail and Straits Morning Advertiser, 19 March 1907, Page 3
- TAN TECK GUAN BUILDING, COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, SINGAPORE by YKLee, SING MED J. 1988; 29:289-292
- Lee, Y.K. "The founding of the Medical School in Singapore (Part I)". S, Med. J. 1980; 21:544-55.
- Lee, Y.K. "The founding of the Medical School in Singapore (Part II)". S. Med. J. 1980; 21:666-76.
- The Straits Settlements Medical Report, 1909, 1910, 1911.
- The Straits Times, 22 June 1911,24 June 1911.
- Singapore Free Press, 26 June 1911.
- The Straits Times, 22 September 1908, Page 6, National Library of Singapore microfilm reel NL316
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 18 July 1908, Page 11 -- FINANCIAL DEPRESSION IN PERAK.
- Sita Ram, Stories Of Yesteryear, The Ipoh Echo, 16–31 March 2006
- Chung Thye Phin Fountain donated to the Penang Turf Club (1904) by Walter Macfarlane & Co and The Saracen Foundry Glasgow Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Penang Heritage Buildings, Penang Heritage Trust
- The Straits Times, 28 August 1909, Page 6 -- The Government, says the Ipoh paper, is busy surveying some blocks of land in Papan, on which it is intended to erect a new gaol. The land has been given gratis by Towkays Chung Thye Phin of Ipoh and Eu Tong Sen of Kampar.
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 24 November 1913, Page 2 -- We hear that the Hon. Eu Tong Sen and Mr Chung Thye Phin have contributed one thousand dollars and five hundred dollars to the Perak Chinese Recreation Club respectively. M.D.C.
- SCHOOL OF THE COMMUNITY: THE ROLE AND DEVELOPMENT OF SMJK YUK CHOY IPOH by Foo Ho Loke, Ex-Principal (1998–1999), published in 1999.
- School Tablets, Sekolah Menengah Jenis Kebangsaan Yuk Choy, Ipoh
- The Straits Times, 4 April 1917, Page 10 -- JUSTICES of the Peace. The acting resident of Perak has appointed the following to be Justices of the Peace within and for the State of Perak:-- ... Mr. Chung Thye Phin, M.C., ...
- Correspondence related to the appointment of Chung Thye Phin to the position of Unofficial Member of the Federal Council of the Federated Malay States during the temporary absence on leave of the Eu Tong Sen by Sir Arthur Henderson Young then High Commissioner of the Federated Malay States.
- The Straits Times, 6 October 1920, Page 8, National Library of Singapore microfilm reel NL472
- The Straits Times, 6 October 1920, Page 8 -- The following gentlemen were appointed office-bearers of the Chinese Widows' and Orphans' Institution, Perak, at the seventeenth annual general meeting held in Ipoh on Sunday President, Chung Thye Phin, M.C., J.P., vice president, Ng Hoi hon. secretary, Loo Seong Lan hon. treasurer, Law Joo Poh committee Cheah Kee Ec, J.P.,...
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 11 May 1920, Page 12 -- ELECTRICITY FOR IPOH.
- The Straits Times, 3 October 1923, Page 8
- The Straits Times, 21 December 1920, Page 10
- The Impact of Chinese Secret Societies in Malaya: A Historical Study By Wilfred Blythe, Royal Institute of International Affairs Published by / Issued under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs [by] Oxford U.P., 1969
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 28 February 1921, Page 12 -- CAPITAN CHINA F. M. S. -- Mr. Chung Thye Phin, of Ipoh and Taiping, Perak, who has just been appointed Capitan China by the F. M. S. Government, an honour, which his father, the late CapiLan Chang Keng Quee, better known as Capitan Ah Quee. held with much distinction, and...
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 3 March 1921, Page 138
- "Miscellaneous Chronicles of Penang", Kuang, Kuo-hsiang op. cit., pp. 112-113
- The Straits Times, 3 September 1921, Page 9 -- THE TRADE COMMISSION
- The Straits Times, 16 May 1922, Page 10 -- MINERS AND PLANTERS.
- The Straits Times, 26 July 1923, Page 15
- The Straits Times, 12 November 1923, Page 15, National Library of Singapore microfilm reel NL512
- The Straits Times, 26 July 1923, Page 15, National Library of Singapore microfilm reel NL508
- The Straits Times, 15 May 1926, Page 10, National Library of Singapore microfilm reel NL542
- The Straits Times, 15 May 1926, Page 10 -- Kapitan China Chung Thye Phin, J.P., M.S.C.. and Towkay Leong Sin Nam, J.P., M.S.C., have been elected honorary members of the Ipoh Club —a compliment, says the Times of Malaya, which should further cement the good feeling existing between the European and Chinese communities in Kinta.
- The Straits Times, 4 June 1927, Page 8
- The Straits Times, 18 August 1928, Page 8
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 28 August 1928, Page 2
- Kinta Valley: pioneering Malaysia's modern development (384 pages) by Salma Nasution Khoo and Abdur-Razzaq Lubis, Published 2005 by Perak Academy, ISBN 983-42113-0-9, ISBN 978-983-42113-0-1, Page 235
- The Straits Times, 25 October 1953, Page 12
- Paper Currency of Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei (1849-1970) By William Shaw, Mohd. Kassim Haji Ali Published by Muzium Negara Malaysia, 1971
- The Straits Times, 25 November 1974, Page 24 -- When oldtime miners ran out of coins.. IPOH Sun. -- Old-time miners and businessmen in Perak had a solution when there was an acute shortage of coins during the latter part of the World War I period. They issued their own 10 cents notes bearing their name or that of their companies, and these were accepted as legal tender. Mr. E.E. Sim, Chief Registrar of the High Court in Kuala Lumpur, and president of the Numismatic Society, Malaysia, said here today that four such 10 cents currency notes issued during 1917 and 1918 in Perak are in the National Museum. One, signed by the late Towkay Leong Sin Nam and issues in 1918, bears the name of the Perak Chamber of Commerce, two others are signed by the late Kapitan Chung Thye Phin, and the fourth is signed "Kwong Loy" on behalf of "Choy Kwong Loy" for circulation in Gopeng, Perak, only. FACE VALUE. "These notes could have been issued to overcome the shortage of subsidiary silver coins in Perak," said Mr. Sim. "It should be remembered that due to the rising price of silver in the world from early 1915, the coins in circulation in the then Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements became intrinsically worth more than the face value. A lot of silver coins in those days, issued by the Government, went to the melting pot to be sold eventually as bullion. Subsequently, the Governments here started printing notes for 10 cents and later of five cents and 25 cents as well. Many of these notes were in circulation until about 25 years ago and have since been completely withdrawn."
- The Evening Telegram. St. John's Newfoundland, 13 September 1897; Boston Evening Transcript - 30 August 1897; New York Tribune 31 August 1897; The Islander. (Friday Harbor, San Juan County, Wash.) 1891-1899, 9 September 1897; The Record-Union, Sacramento, Monday Morning, 30 August, The San Francisco Call, 30 August 1897
- Ipoh: The Town That Tin Built, a Review of the History, Progress and Development of Perak's Capital Published for the Ipoh Municipal Council by Phoenisc Communications, 1962
- The Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society By Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland Malaysian Branch, Singapore Published 1991, Vol. 3, pt. 2 comprises a monograph entitled: British Malaya, 1864-1867, by L.A. Mills, with appendix by C. O. Blagden, 1925. Issued also separately.
- Patriarch well known for his generosity published in The Star, 7 January 2002
- Page 50, Memories of a Nonya By Queeny Chang Published by Eastern Universities Press, 1981 ISBN 9971-71-145-1, ISBN 978-9971-71-145-0.
- Malaya: 500 Early Postcards (288 pages) by Cheah Jin Seng, Published by Editions Didier Millet, 2008, ISBN 981-4155-98-5, ISBN 978-981-4155-98-4
- Shooting the War By Otto Giese, James E. Wise, Jr.
- Urban exploration - Malaysia
- CS Wong - Gallery of Chinese Kapitans
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
- Mysteries of dilapidated mansion By K. Kasturi Dewi, The Star, Saturday 13 October 2007 Archived 24 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Pioneer businessman by Clarence Y K Ngui published in Malaysian Business, 16 October 2003
- Group photograph, Ipoh, Perak; 1927, Seated, seventh from left to right : Raja Chulan ; Raja Muda Abdul Aziz; Capitan China Chung Thye Phin; His Highness Sultan Iskandar Shah. The occasion could have been after the installation of Chung Thye Phin as Capitan in 1921. G.1784 (N.22/84), National Archives of Malaysia Call/Reference Number 2001/0025914
- F.M.S. Chinese Towkays Who Presented The Address To King George V, When He Visited Singapore In 1901 As The Duke Of Cornwall.Left To Right (Sitting): Foo Choo Choon, Heah Swee Lee, Chung Thye Phin, Leong Fee, Captain Yap Kwan Seng, Dr. Loke Yew C.M.G., San Peng And Chan Sow Lin. Left To Right (Standing): Mr. G.T. Hare, Yap Lin, Chai Chit Sam, Tong Takin, Li Sam, Yap Loong Hin, San Ah Wing, Lee Kong Lam And Chew Win. G.124, National Archives of Malaysia Call/Reference Number 2001/0057183
- Kajian Malaysia: Journal of Malaysian studies - Page 53, A gallery of Chinese kapitans - Page 86
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 5 February 1907, Page 6 -- THE ROYAL TOUR. DUKE OF CONNAUGHT IN PENANG. His Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught visited Penang for the second time on Wednesday last. On the occasion of his first visit -- on 23 March 1890 -- his steamer was delayed and did not arrive till after sunset. The Duke was then, therefore, unable to see much of the town in the dark. However, yesterday he was more fortunate. He P. and O. Royal mail steamer Delhi, flying the Duke's flag, with Their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of Connaught and Princess Patricia on board, anchored near Swettenham Wharf at halfpast three o'clock in the afternoon. The Hon. R. N. Bland, Acting Resident Councillor, accompanied by Lieut-Colonel R.F.S. Walker, Commandant Malay States Guides, and Captain H. W. D. Adams, Officer Commanding the Penang Detachment of the Malay States Guides, went on board the s.s.s Delhi to receive His Royal Highness's orders. At a quarter to four o'clock the Colonial launch Rosebud came alongside Victoria Pier. T.R.H. the Duke and Duchess of Connaught landed informally, accompanied by Princess Patricia, Miss Pelly (Lady-in-waiting), Brigadier-General Sir John Maxwell, Staff Officer, and Lieut. the Hon. M. Ponsonby, Grenadier Guards (aide-de-ca,p). Commander D.C. Macintyre, R.N.R., Harbour Master, was then introduced by Mr. Bland to the Duke and Duchess. Messrs. Chung Thye Phin, C. E. Paterson, W. H. Rose, and A. Bowers Smith kindly placed their motor cars at the disposal of the Resident Councillor and themselves acted as chauffeurs. The Suke and Duchess, with Mr. Bland and Lieut, Ponsonby, took their seats in the car of Mr. Chung Thye Phin. In the second car were Princess Patricia, Miss Pelly, Colonel Walker, and Mr. Paterson, Brigadier-General Sir john Maxwell accompanied Mr. W. H. Rose in the third car; and Captain Adam and Mr. A. Bowers Smith followed in the fourth motor-car. The route taken was along Downing Street into Beach Street, Light Street, Farquhar Street, Northam Road, Larut Road, Anson Road, Macalister Road, Barrack Road, Residency Road, and Western Road, into Waterfall Road to the Chetty Temple. The Tai-Pusum Festival now celebrated, the Temple was seen at its best. The Chetties met the Royal Party on their arrival at the Temple, where the unusual visit of His Majesty the King's brother was heralded with the sounds of many trumpets and drums. The distinguished visitors were conducted through the temple, decked with gralands, and presented with limes, etc., in accordance with the Chetties' usual method of showing their hospitality. Princess Patricia and Miss Pelly, who carried hand cameras, took numerous snapshots, the Princess photographing a group of Chetties drawn up outside the temple. On coming out of the Temple, the Duke addressed a few words to one of thee Sikh policemen in the latter's own language. The Royal party then resumed their drive and proceeded to the Waterfall Gardens, subsequently being driven to the Residency, which was reached at five o'clock, for tea. Shortly after six o'clock the Royal party returned by the same route to Victoria Pier, where the four gentlemen who had given the use of their motor cars -- Messrs. W. H. Rose, A. Bowers Smith, C.E. Paterson, and Chung Thye Phin -- were introduced to the Royal Visitors. Their Royal Highnesses thereafter went on board the Delhi at 6.30p.m., the vessel sailing for Singapore half-an-hour later. Notwithstanding the crowds of people at Victoria Pier and the Chetty Temple, excellent order was maintained by the Police, under the direction of Mr. H. O. Newland, the Chief Police Officer, who travelled to and from the Temple in another motor car. -- (Pinang Gazette).
- Sir Ernest Birch, The Straits Times, 27 January 1921, Page 6, National Library of Singapore microfilm reel NL475
- The Straits Times, 27 January 1921, Page 6 -- Sir Ernest Birch. Sir Ernest Birch was entertained Tuesday afternoon by the Chinese of Perak at the residence of Mr. Chung Thye Phin in Ipoh. Invitations had been issued to all old residents of Perak, European and Chinese, to meet Sir Ernest and the response demonstrated the...
- Ipoh Echo[permanent dead link]
- The Mandarin-Capitalists from Nanyang: Overseas Chinese Enterprise in the Modernisation of China 1893-1911 By Michael R. Godley with contributions from Patrick Hannan, and Denis Twitchett. Published by Cambridge university press, 2002. ISBN 0-521-52695-7, ISBN 978-0-521-52695-1
- A short history of the Tseng-Lung Hui-kuan, Penang (檳城增龍會館).
- The Hakka Community in Malaysia, Microfiche collection Mkf 2481 - 2487, National Library of Malaysia (Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia).
- SATURDAY, 24TH NOV., 1900. in: The Straits Times, 24 November 1900, Page 2
- The Perak Pioneer & Native States Advertiser Vol Vii Taiping - Saturday 14 Dec 1901 No. 143 Page 2
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 22 October 1900, Page 2
- The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 6 January 1927, Page 16
- A cycle of Chinese festivities By Choon-San Wong, Malaysia Pub. House, 1967, Pg 94
- Malay tin-fields; mining position broadly reviewed (1906) by Stokes, Ralph S. G, published by Straits Times Press (Singapore), pp 38-39