Triple-A (baseball)

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Triple-A (officially Class AAA[1]) is the highest level of play in Minor League Baseball in the United States since 1946. Currently, two leagues operate at the Triple-A level, Triple-A East and Triple-A West, with a total of 30 teams, 20 in the East and 10 in the West. Triple-A teams can be located both in smaller cities as well as larger metropolitan areas without Major League Baseball teams, such as Austin, Jacksonville, Columbus, and Charlotte.

All current Triple-A teams are located in the United States; before 2008, some Triple-A leagues also fielded teams in Canada,[2] and from 1967 to 2020 the Mexican League was classified as Triple-A. Other than the current two Triple-A leagues, only five other leagues have ever held the classification.


Prior to 1946, the top level of Minor League Baseball was Double-A, which had been established in 1912.[3][4]: 236  The Triple-A classification was created before the 1946 season, and began with all three leagues then in Double-A moving up to the new level:[4]: 15 

This structure would persist for the next 75 years with only a few changes:

  • 1952–1957: The PCL was classified as "Open" for these six seasons, in anticipation of it potentially becoming a third major league; once the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants relocated from New York City to California, the PCL returned to Triple-A for the 1958 season.[4]: 16, 497 
  • 1963–1968: The AA did not operate during these six seasons.[4]: 521, 541 
  • 1967: The Mexican League received Triple-A classification;[4]: 537  it had previously been Double-A since 1955[4]: 481 
  • 1979: The Inter-American League debuted with a Triple-A classification; the league disbanded in June[4]: 587 
  • 1998: Teams from the AA, which disbanded after the 1997 season, were added to the PCL and IL[5]

The IL, PCL, and Mexican League continued as Triple-A leagues until Major League Baseball (MLB) reorganized the minor leagues prior to the 2021 season. At that time, the IL and PCL were discontinued and replaced with Triple-A East and Triple-A West. The Mexican League continues to operate, independently.


Jackie Robinson with the Triple-A Montreal Royals in July 1946

While all current and the majority of past Triple-A teams have been located in the United States, Triple-A teams have also been based in:[4]: 104–106 


Triple-A teams' main purpose is to prepare players for the Major Leagues. ESPN wrote in 2010:[6]

Winning is nice, but secondary. It's much more important for a young prospect like outfielder Xavier Paul to get regular at-bats against lefties, or work on dropping down sacrifice bunts with a runner on first, than it is to take three of four from the Portland Beavers.[6]

Players of the Triple-A Nashville Sounds in August 2019

Both young players and veterans play for Triple-A teams:

There are the young prospects speeding through the organization on the fastest treadmill, the guys who used to be young prospects who are in danger of topping out in Triple-A, the 30-somethings trying to get back to the majors after an injury or a rough patch, and the guys just playing a few more seasons because someone still wants them and they still want to.[6]

Most, if not all, of the players on an MLB team's expanded roster who are not currently on the team's active roster are assigned to the team's Triple-A club. Expanded rosters consist of 40 players, while active rosters generally consist of 26 players as of the 2021 season. Most Triple-A teams are based close to their MLB parent club, as activating a Triple-A player as an injury replacement is a common occurrence.


Teams at this level are divided into two leagues: Triple-A East and Triple-A West. The Triple-A East fields teams primarily in the Eastern United States, while the Triple-A West fields teams mostly in the Western United States. Each of the 30 Major League Baseball teams has an affiliation with one Triple-A team in the United States.

Current teams[edit]

Current Triple-A East and Triple-A West team locations:
  Triple-A East
  Triple-A West

Triple-A East[edit]

Division Team Founded MLB Affiliation Affiliated Since City Stadium Capacity
Midwest Columbus Clippers 1977 Cleveland Guardians 2009 Columbus, Ohio Huntington Park 10,100
Indianapolis Indians 1902 Pittsburgh Pirates 2005 Indianapolis, Indiana Victory Field 13,750
Iowa Cubs 1969 Chicago Cubs 1981 Des Moines, Iowa Principal Park 11,500
Louisville Bats 1982 Cincinnati Reds 2000 Louisville, Kentucky Louisville Slugger Field 13,131
Omaha Storm Chasers 1969 Kansas City Royals 1969 Papillion, Nebraska Werner Park 9,023
St. Paul Saints 1993 Minnesota Twins 2021 Saint Paul, Minnesota CHS Field 7,210
Toledo Mud Hens 1965 Detroit Tigers 1987 Toledo, Ohio Fifth Third Field 10,300
Northeast Buffalo Bisons 1979 Toronto Blue Jays 2013 Buffalo, New York Sahlen Field 16,600
Lehigh Valley IronPigs 2008 Philadelphia Phillies 2007 Allentown, Pennsylvania Coca-Cola Park 10,100
Rochester Red Wings 1899 Washington Nationals 2021 Rochester, New York Frontier Field 10,840
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders 1989 New York Yankees 2007 Moosic, Pennsylvania PNC Field 10,000
Syracuse Mets 1934 New York Mets 2019 Syracuse, New York NBT Bank Stadium 10,815
Worcester Red Sox 2021 Boston Red Sox 2021 Worcester, Massachusetts Polar Park 9,508
Southeast Charlotte Knights 1976 Chicago White Sox 1999 Charlotte, North Carolina Truist Field 10,200
Durham Bulls 1980 Tampa Bay Rays 1998 Durham, North Carolina Durham Bulls Athletic Park 10,000
Gwinnett Stripers 2009 Atlanta Braves 1965 Lawrenceville, Georgia Coolray Field 10,427
Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp 1962 Miami Marlins 2021 Jacksonville, Florida 121 Financial Ballpark 11,000
Memphis Redbirds 1998 St. Louis Cardinals 1998 Memphis, Tennessee AutoZone Park 10,000
Nashville Sounds 1978 Milwaukee Brewers 2021 Nashville, Tennessee First Horizon Park 10,000
Norfolk Tides 1961 Baltimore Orioles 2007 Norfolk, Virginia Harbor Park 11,856

Triple-A West[edit]

Division Team Founded MLB Affiliation Affiliated Since City Stadium Capacity
East Albuquerque Isotopes 2003 Colorado Rockies 2015 Albuquerque, New Mexico Rio Grande Credit Union Field at Isotopes Park 13,500
El Paso Chihuahuas 2014 San Diego Padres 2014 El Paso, Texas Southwest University Park 9,500
Oklahoma City Dodgers 1962 Los Angeles Dodgers 2015 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark 9,000
Round Rock Express 2000 Texas Rangers 2021 Round Rock, Texas Dell Diamond 11,631
Sugar Land Skeeters 2012 Houston Astros 2021 Sugar Land, Texas Constellation Field 7,500
West Las Vegas Aviators 1983 Oakland Athletics 2019 Summerlin, Nevada Las Vegas Ballpark 10,000
Reno Aces 2009 Arizona Diamondbacks 2009 Reno, Nevada Greater Nevada Field 9,013
Sacramento River Cats 2000 San Francisco Giants 2015 West Sacramento, California Sutter Health Park 14,014
Salt Lake Bees 1994 Los Angeles Angels 2001 Salt Lake City, Utah Smith's Ballpark 14,511
Tacoma Rainiers 1960 Seattle Mariners 1995 Tacoma, Washington Cheney Stadium 6,500

Triple-A All-Star Game[edit]

2015 PCL All-Stars meeting on the pitcher's mound

The Triple-A All-Star Game was a single game held between the two affiliated Triple-A leagues—the International League and the Pacific Coast League. Each league fielded a team composed of the top players in their respective leagues as voted on by fans, the media, and each club's field manager and general manager.[7] The event took place every year since 1988 when the first Triple-A All-Star Game was played in Buffalo, New York. Prior to 1998, a team of American League-affiliated Triple-A All-Stars faced off against a team of National League-affiliated Triple-A All-Stars.

Traditionally, the game was held on the day after the mid-summer Major League Baseball All-Star Game.[8] Such games mark a symbolic halfway-point in the season, despite occurring later than the actual halfway-point of most seasons. Both Triple-A leagues shared a common All-Star break, with no regular-season games scheduled for two days before the All-Star Game itself. Some additional events, such as the All-Star Fan Fest and Triple-A Home Run Derby, were held each year during this break in the regular season.[9]

While the 2021 schedule originally included a three-day All-Star break of July 12–14,[10] this was removed after Opening Day was pushed back one month.[11] Team schedules for the 2021 season were subsequently issued without an All-Star break.[12]

Triple-A Championship[edit]

Beginning in 2006, the annual Triple-A National Championship Game was held to serve as a single championship game between the champions of the International League and Pacific Coast League to determine an overall champion of Triple-A baseball. It was originally held annually at Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark in Oklahoma City, and known as the Bricktown Showdown.[13] Starting in 2011, the game was held in a different Triple-A city each year.[14] Previous postseason interleague championships include the Junior World Series (1932–34, 1936–62, 1970–71, 1973–74), Triple-A World Series (1983, 1998–2000), and Triple-A Classic (1988–91).

For the 2021 season, Minor League Baseball extended the Triple-A regular season to October 3,[15] with league champions determined based on regular-season records through the original end date of the season (September 19 for Triple-A East, and September 21 for Triple-A West).[16] The final 10 games of the season, played after those dates, were deemed the "Final Stretch", with the team posting the best winning percentage during that period (the Durham Bulls, who went 9–1) winning a cash prize.[16][17]

Pace-of-play initiatives[edit]

As a part of professional baseball's pace of play initiatives implemented in 2015, 20-second pitch clocks entered use at Triple-A stadiums in 2015.[18] In 2018, the time was shortened to 15 seconds when no runners are on base. Other significant changes implemented in 2018 included beginning extra innings with a runner on second base and limiting teams to six mound visits during a nine-inning game.[19] For the 2019 season, the number of mound visits was reduced to five, and pitchers were required to face a minimum of three consecutive batters unless the side is retired or the pitcher becomes injured and is unable to continue playing.[20]


  1. ^ The Official Professional Baseball Rules Book (PDF). New York City: Office of the Commissioner of Baseball. 2021. p. 10. Retrieved May 1, 2021 – via
  2. ^ "Lynx are outta here: Team sold, will move to U.S." Ottawa Citizen. April 13, 2016. Archived from the original on November 19, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  3. ^ "National Commission Grants Minor Leaguers Everything Asked For: Big Moguls of Baseball...Establish Much Wanted Class AA". The Philadelphia Inquirer. January 5, 1912. p. 10. Retrieved April 14, 2021 – via
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h The Encyclopedia of Minor League Baseball. Lloyd Johnson & Miles Wolff, editors (Third ed.). Baseball America. 2007. ISBN 1932391177.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^ "Notable Events in American Association History". Triple-A Baseball. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c Shelburne, Ramona (September 1, 2010). "John Lindsey waits for his chance". ESPN. Archived from the original on September 6, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  7. ^ Wild, Danny (May 30, 2014). "Voting begins for Triple-A All-Star Game". Minor League Baseball. Archived from the original on August 25, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  8. ^ "Omaha Storm Chasers and Werner Park to Host 2015 Triple-A Baseball All-Star Game". Omaha Storm Chasers. Minor League Baseball. March 5, 2014. Archived from the original on March 15, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  9. ^ "Durham Lands 2014 Triple-A ASG". Minor League Baseball. February 20, 2013. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  10. ^ "Bisons Unveil 2021 Playing Schedule, Opening Day Set for April 6 at Sahlen Field". Buffalo Bisons. Minor League Baseball. February 18, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  11. ^ Harrigan, Thomas (March 2, 2021). "Triple-A Start Delayed; Alternate Sites to Return". Major League Baseball. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  12. ^ "Printable Schedule". Worcester Red Sox. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  13. ^ "Bricktown Showdown To Determine Triple-A Baseball Champion" (PDF). Triple-A Baseball. July 12, 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
  14. ^ Hill, Benjamin (February 8, 2011). "Isotopes to Host Triple-A Championship". Minor League Baseball. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
  15. ^ Heneghan, Kelsie (July 1, 2021). "Playoffs return to the Minor Leagues". Retrieved July 1, 2021.
  16. ^ a b Richard, Kevin (July 14, 2021). "MiLB turns Triple-A extended season to tourney–kinda". Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  17. ^ "Durham claims Triple-A Final Stretch championship". October 4, 2021. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
  18. ^ Jackson, Josh (January 15, 2015). "Triple-A, Double-A to Implement Pitch Clock". Archived from the original on April 17, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  19. ^ "MiLB announces pace-of-play rules for 2018". March 14, 2018. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  20. ^ "MiLB announces pace-of-play rules for 2019". March 29, 2019. Archived from the original on March 29, 2019. Retrieved March 29, 2019.

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