Combat support hospital
A combat support hospital (CSH, pronounced "cash") is a type of modern United States military field hospital. The CSH is transportable by aircraft and trucks and is normally delivered to the Corps Support Area in standard military-owned demountable containers (MILVAN) cargo containers. Once transported, it is assembled by the staff into a tent hospital to treat patients. Depending upon the operational environment (e.g., battlefield), a CSH might also treat civilians and wounded enemy soldiers. The CSH is the successor to the mobile army surgical hospital. As of November 2017, the United States Army and United States Army Reserve are in the process of reorganizing the combat support hospitals into smaller, modular units called "field hospitals".
The size of a combat support hospital is not limited, since tents can be chained together; it will typically deploy with between 44 and 248 hospital beds, with 44 beds being most common (ATP 4.02-5 Casualty Care, May 2013) For patient care the CSH is climate-controlled, and has pharmacy, laboratory, X-Ray (often including a CT Scanner) and dental capabilities (ATP 4-02.5 Casualty Care, May 2013). It provides its own power from generators.
The great operational advantage of the deployable medical systems (DEPMEDS) facility is the use of single or double expanding ISO containers or units to create hard-sided, air conditioned, sterile operating rooms and intensive care facilities, which can produce surgical outcomes similar to that seen in fixed facility hospitals, and do so in an austere environment.
Because they are large and relatively difficult to move, combat support hospitals are not the front line of battlefield medicine. battalion aid stations, forward support medical battalions and forward surgical teams are usually the first point of contact medical care for wounded soldiers. The CSH receives most patients via helicopter air ambulance, and stabilizes these patients for further treatment at fixed facility hospitals. Ideally, the CSH is located as the bridge between incoming helicopter ambulances and outgoing air force aircraft.
The CSH is capable of providing definitive care for many cases. Current medical doctrine does not encourage wounded soldiers, if they are not expected to quickly return to operational status, to stay in the combat zone. This is a pragmatic decision as the resources are usually available to bring them home quickly. Military aircraft constantly fly into a theater of operations loaded with equipment and supplies, but often lack a back cargo. Given that adequate "airlift" is usually present, it is easy to evacuate wounded promptly. For this reason the CSH bed capacity is not as heavily used as in past conflicts.
The CSH will generally have a ground ambulance company attached. This company consists of approximately four platoons of ground ambulances commanded by a medical service corps officer. The ground ambulance company in cooperation with available air ambulances (MEDEVAC) is responsible for the movement of sick and wounded from the battalion aid station and other forward-deployed locations to the CSH, as well as evacuation through an established medical treatment chain leading ultimately, for those seriously sick or wounded, to hospitals in the Continental United States in cooperation with resources in the U.S. Air Force.
The CSH is larger than its predecessor, the mobile army surgical hospital. It is commanded by a colonel, rather than a lieutenant colonel.
A fully manned CSH has over 600 people when fully staffed 248 beds. The modular nature of the organization allows for partial deployments, and the full unit is not often deployed (ATP 4.02-5 Casualty Care, May 2013).
History and past configurations
In 1973 and 1974, the 28th Surgical Hospital MASH helped phase-in new designs for operating rooms and patient facilities from the previous canvas tents. Since then all other configurations of army deployable hospitals have been inactivated or reconfigured to the CSH configuration. The last to convert was the 212th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital.
In the mid 1970s the "MUST" designation was applied, (medical unit, self contained, transportable). During the "Cold War", with the possible conflict with the Warsaw Pact, active duty MUST units were staffed by all the basic personnel necessary (medics, X-ray techs, pharmacists, cooks, clerks etc.) Doctors, nurses and specialist would be mobilized and mate up with the unit in the field. The unit would be flown to West Germany, withdraw pre-positioned complete hospital MUST equipment and military vehicles from warehouses and then deploy. It contained all necessary functions to provide care for 200 beds, including two intensive care units, eight medical wards, an emergency room, four operating rooms, an orthopedic room, a laboratory, an X-ray, a pharmacy and the unit's transport vehicles. It consisted of hard containers, which would be transported to the designated site, then the wheels would be removed and then expanded. They housed the operating rooms, laboratory, X-ray, and pharmacy. Inflatable shelters were used to provide double wall insulated areas for the patient care areas of the hospital. These "inflatables" required a power system called a "utility pack" (also known as a "U-pack" or "power station") to provide utility services, heat, cooling, inflation, hot water, and filtered air from CBR contaminants. The utility pack (power plant, utility, gas turbine engine driven - Libby Welding Co. Model LPU-71, Airesearch Model PPU85-5, AmerTech Co. Model APP-1, or Hollingsworth Model JHTWX10/96), powered by a centrifugal flow gas turbine engine, provided electricity (60 Hz AC, 400 Hz AC, and 24vdc). At 250 beds the hospital required eight U-packs. Each consumed 30 gallons of jet fuel per hour. After several years of using inflatables they were abandoned in the mid 1980s, largely due to the weight of the inflatables, and the amount of fuel required just to keep the tents from collapsing.
List of combat support hospitals
- 10th Combat Support Hospital (10th CSH) (Fort Carson, Colorado)
- 14th Combat Support Hospital (14th CSH) (Fort Benning, Georgia)
- 21st Combat Support Hospital (21st CSH) (Fort Hood, Texas)
- 28th Combat Support Hospital (28th CSH) (Fort Bragg, North Carolina)
- 31st Combat Support Hospital (31st CSH) (Fort Bliss, Texas)
- 47th Combat Support Hospital (47th CSH) (Fort Lewis, Washington)
- 86th Combat Support Hospital (86th CSH) (Fort Campbell, Kentucky)
- 115th Combat Support Hospital (115th CSH) (Fort Polk, Louisiana)
- Reserves / National Guard
- 228th Combat Support Hospital (228th CSH) (Fort Sam Houston, Texas)
- 256th Combat Support Hospital (256th CSH) (Twinsburg, Ohio)
- 75th Combat Support Hospital (75th CSH) (Tuscaloosa, Alabama)
- 325th Combat Support Hospital (325th CSH) (Independence, Missouri)
- 328th Combat Support Hospital (328th CSH) (Fort Douglas, Utah)
- 349th Combat Support Hospital (349th CSH) (Bell, California)
- 345th Combat Support Hospital (345th CSH) (Jacksonville, FL)
- 352nd Combat Support Hospital (352nd CSH) (Camp Parks, California)
- 396th Combat Support Hospital (396th CSH) (Vancouver, Washington)
- 399th Combat Support Hospital (399th CSH) (Fort Devens, Massachusetts)
- 405th Combat Support Hospital (405th CSH) (Worcester, Massachusetts)
- 452nd Combat Support Hospital (452nd CSH) (Milwaukee, Wisconsin)
- 801st Combat Support Hospital (801st CSH) (Fort Sheridan, Illinois)
- 865th Combat Support Hospital (865th CSH) (Utica, New York)
- 121st Combat Support Hospital (121st CSH) (Camp Humphreys, Pyeongtaek, South Korea)
- 212th Combat Support Hospital (212th CSH) (Rhine Ordnance Barracks, Germany)
94th Combat Support Hospital (94th CSH), North Little Rock, Arkansas
- Active duty combat support hospitals
- 4th Combat Support Hospital (4th CSH) (Fort McClellan, Alabama)
- 5th Combat Support Hospital (5th CSH) (Fort Bragg, North Carolina)
- 16th Combat Support Hospital (16th CSH) (Fort Riley, Kansas)
- 41st Combat Support Hospital (41st CSH) (Fort Sam Houston, Texas)
- 46th Combat Support Hospital (46th CSH) (Fort Devens, Massachusetts)
- 67th Combat Support Hospital (67th CSH) (Germany)
- 48th Combat Support Hospital (48th CSH), reorganized to 410th Hospital Center, November 2017 (Fort George G. Meade, Maryland)
- 114th Combat Support Hospital (114th CSH) (Minneapolis, Minnesota)
- 309th Combat Support Hospital (309th CSH) (Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts)
- 337th Combat Support Hospital (337th CSH) (Indianapolis, Indiana)
- 339th Combat Support Hospital (339th CSH) (Coraopolis, Pennsylvania)
- 344th Combat Support Hospital (344th CSH) (Fort Totten, New York, transferred to Fort Dix, New Jersey)
- 369th Combat Support Hospital (369th CSH) (San Juan, Puerto Rico)
- 377th Combat Support Hospital (377th CSH) (Chattanooga, Tennessee)
- 914th Combat Support Hospital (914th CSH) (Columbus, Ohio)
- Military medicine
- 45th Portable Surgical Hospital
- Ibn Sina Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq
- Casualty Clearing Station
- List of former United States Army medical units
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (June 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Mraz, Steve (17 October 2006). "Last MASH unit becomes Combat Support Hospital, improves capabilities". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "EMERGENCY TREATMENT SECTION : Department of Defense : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
- "Distinctive Unit Insignia". www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil. Retrieved 2016-12-17.
- "Lineage and Honors - 41st Combat Support Hospital". United States Army Center of Military History.
-  'Army Combat Support Hospitals Converting to New Modular Field Hospitals' US Army Medical Materials Command
- PBS NOVA: Life and Death in the War Zone
- The Journey, by surgeon E. T. Rulison, Jr., M.D., F.A.C.S., firsthand account and photographs of the 51st Evacuation Hospital during World War II
- The Nurses of the 51st Evac Hospital In WWII, by nurse First Lieutenant Tillie (Horath) Kehrer, firsthand account and photographs of the 51st Evacuation Hospital during World War II
- Author Webcast Interview and Firsthand Account of Rule Number Two: Lessons I Learned in a Combat Hospital based on Dr. Heidi Squier Kraft seven months with a Marine Corps surgical company in Iraq, ISBN 9780316067904
- Lineage and Honors - Hospitals at the United States Army Center of Military History archives