Committee for the National Defence of Kosovo

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Members of the Committee in Shkodër, Albania, 1918. Trio in the center of middle row, from left to right: Qazim Begolli, Kadri Prishtina, Hysni Curri.

The Committee for the National Defence of Kosovo (Albanian: Komiteti i Mbrojtes Kombëtare së Kosovës) was an Albanian organization illegally founded in Shkodër at the beginning of November 1918. It was mainly consisted of the political exiles from Kosovo and was led by Hoxha Kadri from Priština.[1] It existed in looser form since May 1915.

History[edit]

Objectives and members[edit]

Prominent members were Hasan Pristina, Bajram Curri,[1] Bedri Pejani, Sali Nivica, Avni Rustemi, Elez Isufi,[2] Eshref Frashëri, Hysni Curri, and Sotir Peçi.[3]

The main objectives of the committee were to:[1]

  1. campaign against the borders of the Principality of Albania, established on the basis of London Treaty 1913
  2. liberate Kosovo
  3. unite all Albanian inhabited lands

Activity in Yugoslavia[edit]

The committee organizationally and financially supported the kachaks in Kosovo and Skopje. On 6 May 1919 the Committee called for a general uprising in Kosovo and other Albanian regions in Yugoslavia. This led to a large scale revolt in Drenica involving around 10,000 people under Azem Galica. The uprising was quelled by the Yugoslav army.[2] The confrontation continued through the years 1920 and 1921,[4] 1923,[5][6] with a revival in 1924. One of the achievements was the creation of the "neutral zone" around Junik which would serve for jeopardizing the frontier and providing ammunition and other logistical support for the Kachaks.

Endeavors with Albanian governments[edit]

In 1920, Beqir Vokshi represented the Committee in an assembly held at Trieste organized by the Italian scholar and politician Gabriele D'Annunzio, well known for his activism and support for Italian, Croat, and Albanian irredentist groupings. In this meeting, D'Annunzio promised armament to the Kosovars.[7] Indeed, in the summer of 1920, a ship with armament came in Shengjin. The "delivery" preoccupied the Albanian government and specifically the Minister of Interior Ahmet Zogu. He sent Sejfi Vllamasi and Xhemal Naipi to negotiate with the Committee for rejecting the delivery, promising money (20,000 Golden Franks). After Curri and Pejani rejected Zogu's offer, the Prefecture of Shkodra sent units of gendarmes to stop the delivery form being handed over. This was the first big contradiction between the Committee and Zogu.[8]

The Committee leaders as Bajram Curri (initially only),[9] Hasan Prishtina, Elez Isufi, and Zija Dibra organized in the Albanian Revolt of 1922 when their forces marched toward Tirana.[10] They reached the northeastern neighborhoods of the capital, went into skirmish with the government forces led by Prenk Pervizi and withdrew only after the intervention of British diplomat Harry Eyres.[11] They were first given death sentence by the military court and later received amnesty.[12]

In January 1923, conflict will rise between the Committee leaders as Prishtina, Curri and Galica and pro-Zogu elements. Beqir Vokshi (1895–1923), and Sali Bajraktari of Junik were operating in the Neutral Zone of Junik for convincing the population to stop the support for the irredentist chetas and accept the law and order. After a sharp discussion with Hasan Prishtina on 21 January regarding to Vokshi's activity of convincing many fighters not to support Prishtina in his next attempt of overthrowing Zogu's government, Vokshi, who had resigned from the Committee since the 1921 and was officially listed as member of Albanian military units, was assassinated in skirmish with Azem Galica's men, together with one of his collaborators on 22 January. The assassination was not received well as Vokshi was a known leader and nephew of Sulejman Vokshi, one of the heroes of the League of Prizren. Vokshi's supporters sought revenge and the larger conflict was avoided only after the intervention of the Sali Rama and his guerrillas from Rugova. Following the events, the Albanian army entered Junik and later handed it over to the Yugoslav forces. The kachaks moved inside Kosovo. The Neutral Zone of Junik ceased existing.[13][14][15]

During June 1924, the Committee members would support the so-called June Revolution. The Committee was one of the 5 pillars of the Noli' movement (together with the army, liberal beys, the progressives, and the Shkodrans - catholic leaders from Shkodër), though they we not invited to be part of the new government.[16] Nevertheless, there was cooperation and support between the Committee and Noli government. According to the Belgrade newspaper Vreme, Noli and the head of the Committee were working closely together. An article on the Morning Post of November 17, 1924 stated that "the Yugoslav government was in possession that the Soviets have provided moral and material help to the Croat peasant leader Stjepan Radić, Noli, the Committee of Kosovo, and the Macedonian revolutionary organizations".[17] With rise of Ahmet Zogu in power, who was a sworn enemy of the Kosovar irredentists,[18] the Committee was banned as a sign of Zogu's appreciation for Yugoslavian support and most of Committee's leaders fled the country.[19] Many of them joined the KONARE ("Revolutionary National Committee") founded by Noli, and Bashkimi Kombëtar ("The National Union") founded in Vienna by Sotir Peçi, Xhemal Bushati, Angjelin Suma, and Ali Këlcyra. The Committee would receive some financial support from Comintern with Kosta Boshnjaku and Noli as intermediaries.[20] The head of the Committee back then were Ibrahim Gjakova, Bedri Pejani, and Qamil Bala.

Assassination of leadership[edit]

In June 1924 Avni Rustemi was shot and died shortly later. It was clear that Ahmet Zogu was behind the attack.[21] On July 15 Azem Galica fell in Kosovo betrayed by the Zogu's agents.[22] Elez Isufi was shot and died in December 1924 during Zogu' offensive against Noli's government.[9][23] In 1925, Asllan Curri and Zija Dibra were captured and killed by the gendarmes of Zogu's right hand and brother-in-law Ceno Beg Kryeziu. Both were shot in dubious circumstances during their way to the prison with the same pretext of "having tried to escape".[22][24][25] Bajram Curri would continue fighting and was killed on March 29, 1925. He shot himself for not surrendering alive as was surrounded by Zogist troops while fighting in a cave near Dragobia. In 1933, Hasan Prishtina was killed by Zogu's agent Ibrahim Celo in a cafe in Thessaloniki.[22][26]

Tentative for reestablishment[edit]

According to Sejfi Vllamasi's memories, after the affiliation with Italy, King Zog accepted in 1936 the re-establishment of the Committee by even offering wages for the leadership under Qazim Koculi.[20] Nevertheless, the Committee would not function anymore. Meanwhile, by that time, Hasan Prishtina, Zija Dibra, Curri, and Rustemi would be eliminated by Zogu. After the death of Curri and Prishtina, the Committee had gone into lethargy.


In 1936, there is a revival in the Committee with new members as Sali Moni (Bajraktari), Xhaferr Spahija from Tropojë, Mehmed Alija from Vlanë, Has, Baftijar Kollovozi of Luma, Murat Kaloshi, etc. The cells were directed by Ismet Bey Kryeziu of Gjakova, a former representative in the Parliament of Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and Salih Bey Vuçitërni, a Kosovar Albanian politician who had come to Albania in early '20s. Both were trusted men of Zog, unlike the original members during the foundation. A small correspondent cell existed in Kosovo, stationed in Mitrovica led by Ferhat Draga, another person in good relations with Zog. Other members there were Xhafer Deva, Shaban Mustafa, and Mustafa Aliu, all from Mitrovica.

Despite its presence, the committee's work was limited to diplomacy, propaganda, and recruiting, rather than any military activity. Its existence was strongly influenced by ups and downs of the relations between Zog's governments and Yugoslavia.[27]

The Italian-German occupation of World War II would change the situation in Kosovo.[28]

Representation[edit]

The Committee was very influential in North Albania and especially around Shkodër. It sent its delegates to the Congress of Lushnje of 1920. Eshtref Frashëri was elected to represent the Committee, while Hysni Curri and Xhemal Prishtina to represent the Prefecture of Kosovo (Has-Tropojë-Lumë) and the Irredentist Kosovo.
Kadri Prishtina (Hoxha Kadri) was the main representative and contact person to foreign authorities. All the memorandums, protests notes, request and other correspondence were prepared by him, translated by Bedri Pejani, and delivered usually with the help of American Red Cross or some French military commander stationed in the city. The Committee would act as the distributor of American Red Cross deliveries of medicaments, food, and clothes throughout North Albania.[29]

Though KONARE, and also directly, the Committee of Kosovo participated in the Balkan Federation, a Comintern agency for the communization of nationally disaffected nations of the Balkans, thereby continuing Bajram Curri's early contacts (since 1921) with the Soviets. But as the policy of the defense of Yugoslavia became the official positioning of the Communists in the 1930s, that line of support faded.[30]

The Committee collaborated with other nationalist movements that had risen inside Yugoslavia in response to Serbian hegemony. Mainly through Zija Dibra, its leaders would get in contact and meet with Stjepan Radić,[31] leader of Croatian People's Peasant Party, Bulgarian VMRO revolutionaries Todor Aleksandrov and Petar Chaulev, and Montenegrin Marko Raspopović who had settled in Shkodër.[32] King Zog's secret police would collaborate with Serbian counterparts in eliminating them too.[32]

Press[edit]

The newspaper Populli ("The people"), republished in May 1918 by Sali Nivica in Shkodër, became the unofficial journal of the Committee. It gave a big support to the Committee and propagandized struggle against the Serbian occupation in Kosovo,[33] as well as against Italian's imperialistic politics towards Albania. After Nivica's assassination in 1920, it continued under the direction of Bedri Pejani.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: a modern history. I.B.Tauris. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-86064-541-9. Soon after peace was signed, at the beginning of November 1918, the Committee for Defence of Kosova ... was set up illegally in Shkoder
    ... Two of the most prominent members were Hasan Pristina and Bajram Curri ...
     
  2. ^ a b Robert Elsie (November 15, 2010), Historical Dictionary of Kosovo, Historical Dictionaries of Europe, 79 (2 ed.), Scarecrow Press, p. 64, ISBN 978-0810872318 
  3. ^ Jahrbuch für Geschichte der UdSSR und der volksdemokratischen Länder Europas, 11, Berlin: Rütten & Loening, 1967, p. 117, ISSN 0863-1603, OCLC 8188497 
  4. ^ Bujar Lulaj (2012-09-22), Rrefimet e sekretarit konfidencial te Bajram Currit (in Albanian), Dielli, retrieved 2014-01-31, Në vitin 1920 gazeta “Populli” do njoftonte se në Kosovë bëhen luftime të rrepta midis çetave kryengritëse dhe ushtrisë. Azem Galica bënte betejë, Idriz Seferi, po kështu Hasan Budakova ishin në krye të çetave. Tahir Zajmi e lajmëronte Bajram Currin se: Morali i shqiptarëve të Kosovës është aq i mirë saqë smund të tregohet…Kjo letër e entuziazmoi Bajram Currin. Edhe në vitin 1921 që mbahet mend si vit i masakrës së shfrenuar serbe mbi popullsinë, janë zhvilluar luftime në Gjilan, Tetovë, Prizren, Kaçanik, Prishtinë, Mitrovicë, Kumanovë etj. 
  5. ^ Studia Albanica (in French), 26, Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës; Instituti i Historisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë), 1989, p. 29, ISSN 0585-5047, OCLC 1996482 
  6. ^ Studime historike (in Albanian), 41, Akademia e Shkencave, Instituti i Historisë, 1987, p. 63, ISSN 0563-5799, OCLC 3648264 
  7. ^ Ekrem Vlora (1973). Lebenserinnerungen: 1912 bis 1925 [Memoirs: 1912-1925] (in German). Walter de Gruyter. p. 154. ISBN 9783486475715. 
  8. ^ Fatos Baxhaku (2012-10-13), Zija Dibra: Të fshehtat e një vrasjeje [Zija Dibra, the secrets of an assassination] (in Albanian), Gazeta Shqip, retrieved 2014-02-16, Pesë vjet para vrasjes së Dibrës, në 1920, poeti dhe politikani italian, Gabriele D’Anuncio, organizoi në Trieste një mbledhje të të gjitha organizatave nacionaliste, popujt e të cilëve kishin mbetur nën sundimin serb, tashmë në Jugosllavinë e porsakrijuar. Përfaqësues i kosovarëve dhe i Komitetit të Shkodrës, sipas Eqrem bej Vlorës, në këtë takim ishte “atdhetari i vjetër Beqir Vokshi”. Në këtë mbledhje D’Anuncio u premtoi kosovarëve armatim me qëllim që këta të nisnin “çlirimin e Kosovës” duke sulmuar nga ana e Kukësit. Vapori me armë mbërriti në Shëngjin në verën e 1920. Asokohe Lufta e Vlorës ishte në kulmin e saj. Ushtria jugosllave u bë gati për ndërhyrje në anë të Bunës. Ahmet Zogu, ministër i Brendshëm në atë kohë ishte kundër shkarkimit të armëve të D’Anuncios në Shqipëri ...
    E çara e parë e fortë mes krerëve kosovarë dhe Ahmet Zogut kishte ndodhur ... [Five years before Dibra's assassination, in 1920, the Italian poet and politician Gabrielle D'Annunzio organized in Trieste a meeting of all nationalist organizations, from the populations which had remained under Serbian rule, now inside the newly created Yugoslavia. As a representative of the Kosovars and the Committee of Shkodra, according to Ekrem Vlora, the "old patriot Beqir Vokshi" went to the meeting. In this meeting, D'Annunzio promised to the Kosovars armament so they could start "the liberation on Kosovo" attacking from Kukes. The ship with armament arrived in Shengjin in the summer of 1920. Back then, the Vlora War was in its peak. The Yugoslav army was ready to intervene from the Buna's side. Ahmet Zogu, Minister of the Interior of that time, was against the delivery of the armament of D'Annunzio in Albania ...
    The first shutter between Kosovar leaders and Zogu had happened ...]
     
  9. ^ a b Fan Noli (1988), Vehbi Bala; Nasho V. Jorgaqi, ed., Vepra: Publicistika (1925–1949), Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë, pp. 8, 24, OCLC 247409295 
  10. ^ Ivo Banac (1988). The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics. Cornell University Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-0801494932. In March 1922, Bajram Curri, Hasan Bej Prishtina, and Elez Jusufi, and important kacak leader, tried to overthrow the government in Tirana, but failed. 
  11. ^ Aleks Buda (1985), Fjalor enciklopedik shqiptar, Akademia e Shkencave e RPSSH, p. 614, OCLC 15296028 
  12. ^ Fehmi Sufaj (2000), Historia e burgjeve të Shqipërisë gjatë shek. XX [History of Albanian prisons in the 20th century], Albin, p. 81, ISBN 9789992732496, Elez Isufi, Zija Dibra, Jusuf Xhelili e Hysen Eles Isufi të falen nga dënimi me vdekje në litar, dhënë në mungesë prej gjyqit ushtarak të Tiranës 
  13. ^ Ajet Haxhiu (1982), Shota dhe Azem Galica, Shtëpia Botuese "8 Nëntori", pp. 194–197, OCLC 255488782, ... më 14 shkurt 1921, kryetari i Komitetit, Hoxha Kadri Prishtina, njoftonte se lutja e Beqir Vokshit për dorëheqje si anëtar i qendrës së Komitetit pranohej ... [on 14 February 1921, Hoxha Kadri Prishtina, announced that the resign of Beqir Vokshi as a member of Committee Center was accepted ...]
    Shkaku i vrasjes eshte se Beqir Vokshi ne rastin e levizjes qe u be kunder Krumes kishte pase mberrite me e ndalu popullin e "Zones Neutrale" nga te marrunit pjese ... [The motive of the assassination is that Beqir Vokshi in the case of the movement against Kruma had managed to stop the population of the "Neutral Zone" from participating ...]
     
  14. ^ Gjurmime Albanologjike. Seria e shkencave historike. Prishtina: Instituti Albanologjik i Prishtinës. 1982. pp. 232–233. ISSN 0436-0273. OCLC 1461456. 
  15. ^ Noel Malkolm (2004), Kosovo: a chain of causes 1225 B.C. - 1991 and consequences 1991-1999, Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, ISBN 9788672080988, OCLC 244121915, ... at the end of January 1923 he sent the Albanian army into the Junik 'neutral zone', driving out all the kacaks ... 
  16. ^ Robert Clegg Austin (2012), Founding a Balkan State: Albania's Experiment with Democracy, 1920-1925, University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, p. 56, ISBN 978-1442644359, Only after considerable discussion and compromise did a permanent cabinet emerge on June 16 that was a coalition of four of the five pillars of the insurrection: the army, liberal beys, the progressives, and the Shkodrans. The Committee of Kosovo was excluded. 
  17. ^ Robert Clegg Austin (2012), Founding a Balkan State: Albania's Experiment with Democracy, 1920-1925, University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, pp. 139–140, ISBN 978-1442644359 
  18. ^ Robert Clegg Austin (2012), Founding a Balkan State: Albania's Experiment with Democracy, 1920-1925, University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, p. 15, ISBN 978-1442644359, It was progressive in the sense that it would had welcomed assistance from the Soviets to achieve its ends and would stop at nothing to eliminate Zogu, who was the 'sworn enemy of the Kosovar rebels and irredentists'. 
  19. ^ Tim Judah (October 1, 2002). Kosovo: War and Revenge; Second Edition. Yale University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0300097252. 
  20. ^ a b Sejfi Vllamasi (2000), Marenglen Verli, ed., Ballafaqime politike në Shqipëri (1897–1942): kujtime dhe vlerësime historike, Shtëpia Botuese "Neraida", ISBN 9992771313, archived from the original on 2014-02-02, Një pjesë e emigrantëve të “Konares” e të “Komitetit të Kosovës” ishin vendosur në Zara, Porto Franko, pasi atje jetesa relativisht ka qënë më e lirë. Me këtë pretekst shkuam e u vendosëm atje edhe Xhemal Bushati dhe unë, duke shpëtuar kështu nga shoqërimi policor. Pas një muaji, në kohën e drekës, me anë të një barke, Xhemal Bushati, Ahmet Dakli, Qazim Mulleti, Dan Hasani, Riza Dani dhe unë bashkë me gruan time, kaluam në Preko, qytet i vogël jugosllav, dhe prej këtej shkuam në Zagreb ...
    Përveç kësaj pjese, edhe emigrantët kosovarë irredentistë, të grupuar e të organizuar nën emrin “Komiteti i Kosovës”, si grup, u ndihmuan edhe ata nga “Cominterni”. Ky komitet drejtohej nga një qëndër e përbërë prej major Ibrahim Gjakovës, Bedri Pejës e Qamil Balës ...
    Nga ana tjetër, Milto Noçka na komunikoi pranimin nga ana e Zogut të formimit të një “Komiteti të Kosovës”, me kryetar Qazim Koculin e me anëtarë Kol Tromarën e Bedri Pejën me rrogë 30 (tridhjetë) napolona ari për kryetarin e nga 20 (njëzet) napolona ari për çdo anëtar ...
     
  21. ^ R. J. Crampton (1997). Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century - And After (2 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0415164238. They did. On 20 April Avni Rustemi was murdered in Tirane and was absolutely clear that Zog was behind the attack. 
  22. ^ a b c Ivo Banac (1988). The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics. Cornell University Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-0801494932. Azem Bejta and his main force of a thousand kacaks were betrayed to the Yugoslav gendarmes at the very end of disorders that marked the change in power. Bejta fell on July 15. On December 24, Zogu was back in power at the head of a Belgrade-sponsored regime. He quickly suppressed the Kosovo Committee, had Zija Dibra murdered "while attempting to escape", sent his troops to kill Bajram Curri, and scattered the other Kosovar leaders. Nine years later, in 1933, his agents killed Hasan Bej Prishtina in Greece. 
  23. ^ Abas Ermenji (1996). Vendi që zë Skënderbeu në historinë e Shqipërisë. Çabej. p. 438. OCLC 40654402. Një qëndresë që bëri Elez Isufi, në Peshkopi, u thye, dhe ai vetë u vra. Po ashtu mbaroi edhe qëndresa e Bajram Currit. Pasi mblodhi fuqi të tjera në Dibër e Mat, Ahmet Zogu hyri në Tiranë më 24 të Dhjetorit 1924. 
  24. ^ Hazir Mehmeti (2013-05-07), Hysni Curri, zëri që thërret prehjen në Atdhe [Hysni Curri, the voice that calls to repose in the homeland] (in Albanian), AlbanianPress, retrieved 2014-02-09, Me ndihmën e hijes së tij të zezë Cena Beg Kryeziu, burgoset Asllan Curri dhe vritet bashkë me dy shokë në përcjellje prej Krumës për në Shkodër nga mercenarët e Zogut nën pretekstin “deshi me ik” si kamuflazhe e fshehjes së krimit. 
  25. ^ Fatos Baxhaku (2012-10-13), Zija Dibra: Të fshehtat e një vrasjeje [Zija Dibra, the secrets of an assassination] (in Albanian), Gazeta Shqip, retrieved 2014-02-09, Zija Dibra u vra. Ish-kapiten Zija Dibra, ministër tjetër herë në kabinetin e Pandeli Evangjelit, i akuzuar për çështje bolshevike, tek internohej në Berat, duke kaluar katundin Harizaj të Qarkut të Kavajës, u mundua të arratisej e t’ikë prej duarsh nji aspiranti, i cili e shoqnonte deri në Berat. Kështu, duke qenë i hypur në kalë, atë e ngau me gjithë fuqinë përpara. Aspiranti i bërtiti nja dy herë të qëndronte, por mbasi s’e dëgjoi, e qëlloi në kokë dhe e rrëzoi të vrarë prej kalit.
    Pak muaj më vonë Ceno bej Kryeziu do t’i deklaronte një gazete të Beogradit: Unë e kam zënë dhe unë e kam vrarë armikun tuaj, Marko Raspopoviç. Unë kam vrarë Zija Dibrën, Bajram Currin, Luigj Gurakuqin, për paqen tuaj e tonën…”.
    translated
    Zija Dibra got killed. Former captain Zija Dibra, minister of Pandeli Evangjeli's cabinet, accused of Bolshevism, while being sent to internment to Berat, passing through the Harizaj village of Kavaja District, tried to escape and get away from the gendarme who was accompanying him to Berat. So, being up on a hose, he rode straight ahead as fast as he coould. The gendarme called him twice to stop, but as he did not listen to him, he shot him in the head and dropped him dead from the horse.
    A few months later, Ceno bej Kryeziu would declare to a Beograd newspaper: I captured and killed your enemy, Marko Raspopovic. I killed Zija Dibra, Bajram Curri, Luigj Gurakuqin, for your peace and ours…”
     
  26. ^ Gail Warrander, Verena Knaus (2010). Kosovo, 2nd: The Bradt Travel Guide (2 ed.). Connecticut: the globe pequot press. p. 87. 
  27. ^ Halim Purellku (2012-12-16), Veprimtaria e Komitetit te Kosoves ne Mbreterine Shqiptare ne vitet 1934-1939 [Activity of the Committee of Kosovo in the Albanian Kingdom during the years 1934-1939] (in Albanian), ZemraShqiptare, retrieved 2014-02-06 
  28. ^ Howard Clark (2000-08-20), Civil Resistance in Kosovo, Pluto Press, p. 11, ISBN 978-0745315690 
  29. ^ Sejfi Vllamasi (2000), "VI", in Marenglen Verli, Ballafaqime politike në Shqipëri (1897–1942): kujtime dhe vlerësime historike, Shtëpia Botuese "Neraida", ISBN 9992771313, archived from the original on 2014-02-02, Pra, Komiteti nga ana e tij delegon Eshtref Frashërin për ta përfaqësuar në Kongres dhe, nga ana tjetër, për ta përfaqësuar prefekturën e Kosovës dhe Kosovën irredente, zgjodhi dy delegatë të tjerë, Hysni Currin dhe Xhemal bej Prishtinën, dy tipa me karakter të ndryshëm.
    Ai, si hoxhë dhe si shqiptar me origjinë kosovare (Prishtinë), ka qënë i pazëvëndësueshëm për atë situatë. E ka përfaqësuar pranë të huajve me dinjitet Komitetin dhe i ka zbatuar me aftësi vendimet e tij. Memorandumet, protestat e panumurta, drejtuar Konferencës së Paqës dhe qeverive të huaja rreth të drejtave kombëtare e të Kosovës irredente, me anë të Kryqit të Kuq Amerikan, e pjesërisht me anë të kolonelit francez, të gjitha këto kanë dalë nga dora e Hoxhës dhe ishin të përkthyera në frëngjishte nga dora e Bedri Pejës.
    Nga ana tjetër, Kryqi i Kuq Amerikan, me qëllim që të shtojë autoritetin e Komitetit, ndihmat e tij në ushqime, në veshëmbathje e në barna ua ndante malësorëve nëpërmjet Komitetit të Kosovës. Komiteti ka qënë drejtuesi dhe autoriteti më i lartë i politikës kombëtare të organizuar.
     
  30. ^ Ivo Banac (1988). The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics. Cornell University Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-0801494932. 
  31. ^ Ivo Banac (1988), The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics, Cornell University Press, p. 306, ISBN 978-0801494932 
  32. ^ a b Fatos Baxhaku (2012-10-13), Zija Dibra: Të fshehtat e një vrasjeje (in Albanian), Gazeta Shqip Online, retrieved 2014-12-04, Çaulev kishte takuar Hasan Prishtinën, ndërsa Aleksandrov Bajram Currin. Zija Dibra, madje u akuzua nga jugosllavët edhe si organizator i një takimi Noli-Aleksandrov, por ky takim u përgënjeshtrua nga Tirana zyrtare. Brenda pak muajsh, agjentët jugosllavë arritën të vrasin krerët e VMRO, Aleksandrovin në gusht të 1924 dhe Çaulevin, në dhjetor të 1924 teksa e kishin ndjekur deri në Milano, pas kthimit të tij nga Shqipëria.
    Një tjetër nacionalist antijugosllav që kishte lidhje me kosovarët e Shkodrës ishte malazezi Marko Raspopoviç. Ky bashkë me dy malazezë të tjerë kishte marrë pjesë madje me armë në dorë në ngjarjet e qershorit të 1924-s. Në fillim të 1925-s malazezët ishin ende në Shkodër. Një dëshmitar i kohës, Asim Kopliku, ka rrëfyer: “Mua më thirrën në konsullatën jugosllave të Shkodrës. U paraqita te konsulli jugosllav, i cili më kërkoi t’u dorëzoja Raspopoviçin bashkë me dy malazezët që kisha nën komandë. Konsulli tha se tre malazezët ishin armiq të rrezikshëm të Jugosllavisë dhe të Shqipërisë… Në kazermë bisedova gjatë me Marko Raspopoviçin. Ai e fliste mirë shqipen. I tregova rrezikun që e kanoste dhe ramë dakord që unë ta nxirrja nga Shkodra, ta përcillja deri në Bërdicë e pastaj të shkonte në Shëngjin e të hidhej në Itali. Por në Shëngjin Marko Raspopoviçin e kapën. Treshja malazeze iu dorëzua Ceno bej Kryeziut, i cili e vari Marko Raspopoviçin në Krumë”.
     
  33. ^ Robert Elsie (March 19, 2010). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. Historical Dictionaries of Europe. 75 (2 ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 330. ISBN 978-0810861886. He was also a member of the Committee for the National Defence of Kosovo (Komiteti Mbrojtja Kombëtare e Kosovës) founded in November 1918. His newspaper Populli, now edited with Maliq bey Bushati, gave the committee broad support and publicity in the struggle against the Serbian occupation of Kosovo. 

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