|• Mayor||Erion Veliaj (SP)|
|• Municipality||1,110.03 km2 (428.58 sq mi)|
|• Administrative Unit||41.8 km2 (16.1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||110 m (360 ft)|
|• Municipality density||720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal Code||1001-1028, 1031|
Tirana i// (Standard Albanian: Tiranë; regional Gheg Albanian: Tirona) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Albania. It is the administrative, cultural, economic, and industrial center of Albania.
The population of the city proper at the 2015 census was 610,070 and the municipality of Tirana, created in 2015, has a total population of 800,986. It is the biggest metropolitan area in Albania, and the only one with a population of over 500.000. The city is host to many public institutions and public and private universities, and is the centre of the political, economic, and cultural life of the country.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Health
- 6 Culture
- 7 Education
- 8 Municipality
- 9 Economy
- 10 Environment
- 11 Transport
- 12 Media
- 13 Sports
- 14 Gallery
- 15 See also
- 16 Notable people
- 17 International relations
- 18 Notes and references
- 19 Further reading
- 20 External links
The Municipality of Tirana is located at (41.33°N, 19.82°E) in Tirana County, about 32 kilometers (20 mi) inland. Tirana's average altitude is 110 meters (360 ft) above sea level and its highest point measures 1,828 m (5,997.38 ft) at Mali me Gropa. The city is mostly surrounded by hills, with Dajti Mountain on the east and a slight valley opening on the north-west overlooking the Adriatic Sea in the distance. The Tiranë river runs through the city, as does the Lanë stream.
The city has four artificial lakes: the Tirana Artificial Lake around which was built the Big Park, Paskuqani Lake, Farka Lake, Tufina Lake, and other smaller lakes or reservoirs.
The present Tirana municipality was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Baldushk, Bërzhitë, Dajt, Farkë, Kashar, Krrabë, Ndroq, Petrelë, Pezë, Shëngjergj, Tirana, Vaqarr, Zall-Bastar and Zall-Herr, that became municipal units. The seat of the municipality is the city Tirana. The total population is 557,422 (2011 census), in a total area of 1110.03 km2. The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 418,495.
The area occupied by Tirana has been populated since the Paleolithic era, dating back 10,000 to 30,000 years ago, as suggested by evidence from tools excavated near Mount Dajt's quarry and in Pellumba Cave. As argued by various archaeologists, Tirana and its suburbs are filled with Illyrian toponyms, as its precincts are some of the earliest inhabited regions in Albania. The Illyrians called the settlement Tërana.
The oldest discovery in downtown Tirana was a Roman house, later transformed into an aisleless church with a mosaic-floor, dating to the 3rd century A.D., with other remains found near a medieval temple at Shengjin Fountain in the eastern suburbs. A castle possibly called Tirkan or Theranda, whose remnants are found along Murat Toptani Street, was built by Emperor Justinian in 520 A.D. and restored by Ahmed Pasha Toptani in the 18th century. The area had no special importance in Illyrian and classical times. In 1510, Marin Barleti, an Albanian Catholic priest and scholar, in the biography of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg, Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis (The story of life and deeds of Skanderbeg, the prince of Epirotes), referred to this area as a small village.
Ottoman rule and World War I
Records from the first land registrations under the Ottomans in 1431–32 show that Tirana consisted of 60 inhabited areas, with nearly 2,028 houses and 7,300 inhabitants. Tirana is mentioned since 1572 as "Borgo di Tirana". In 1614, Sulejman Bargjini, a local ruler, built the Old mosque, a small commercial centre, and a hammam (Turkish bath).
During this period, the Et'hem Bey Mosque, built by Molla Bey of Petrela, was constructed. It employed the best artisans in the country and was completed in 1821 by Molla's son Etëhem, who was also Sulejman Bargjini's grandnephew. In 1800, the first newcomers arrived in the settlement, the so-called ortodoksit. They were Vlachs from villages near Korçë and Pogradec, who settled around modern day Park on the Artificial Lake. They started to be known as the llacifac and were the first Christians to arrive after the creation of the town. After Serb reprisals in the Debar region, thousands of locals fled to Tirana. In 1807, Tirana became the center of the Sub-Prefecture of Krujë-Tirana. After 1816, Tirana languished under the control of the Toptani family of Krujë. Later, Tirana became a Sub-Prefecture of the newly created Vilayet of Shkodër and Sanjak of Durrës. In 1889, the Albanian language started to be taught in Tirana's schools, while the patriotic club Bashkimi was founded in 1908. On 28 November 1912, the national flag was raised in agreement with Ismail Qemali. During the Balkan Wars, the town was temporarily occupied by the Serbian army and it took part in uprising of the villages led by Haxhi Qamili. In 1917, the first city outline was compiled by Austro-Hungarian architects.
Capital city and Monarchy
On 8 February 1920, the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed Tirana as the temporary capital of Albania, which had gained independence in 1912. The city retained that status permanently on 31 December 1925. In 1923, the first regulatory city plan was compiled by Austrian architects. The centre of Tirana was the project of Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini, well known architects of the Benito Mussolini period in Italy. Brasini laid the basis for the modern-day arrangement of the ministerial buildings in the city centre. The plan underwent revisions by Albanian architect Eshref Frashëri, Italian architect Castellani and Austrian architects Weiss and Kohler. The rectangular parallel road system of Tirana e Re district took shape, while the northern portion of the main Boulevard was opened.
In the political sphere, Tirana experienced such events as intermittent attacks on the mountain pass of Shkalla e Tujanit (Tujan's Staircase) by the army of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and forces loyal to Zogu. In 1924, Tirana was at the centre of a coup d'état led by Fan S. Noli. Since 1925, when they were banned in Turkey, the Bektashis, an order of dervishes who take their name from Haji Bektash, a Sufi saint of the 13th and 14th centuries, made Tirana their primary settlement. Modern Albanian parliamentary building served as a club of officers. It was there that, in September 1928, Zog of Albania was crowned King Zog I, King of the Albanians.
The period between the 1930s and 1940s was characterized by the completion of the above architectural projects, clashes between occupying forces and local resistance and the coming to power of the communists. In 1930, the northern portion of modern Dëshmorët e Kombit (National Martyrs) Boulevard was finished and named Zog I Boulevard. Meanwhile, the ministerial complex, boulevard axis, Royal Palace (Palace of the Brigades), former municipal building, and the National Bank were still under construction. The latter is the work of the renowned Italian architect Vittorio Ballio Morpurgo. In addition, Tirana served as the venue for the signing, between Fascist Italy and Albania, of the Pact of Tirana.
World War II and Socialism
In 1939, Tirana was captured by Fascist forces appointing a puppet government. In the meantime, Italian architect Gherardo Bosio was asked to elaborate on previous plans and introduce a new project in the area of present-day Mother Teresa Square. By the early 1940s, the southern portion of the main boulevard and surrounding buildings were finished and renamed with Fascist names. A failed assassination attempt was made on Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by a local resistance activist during a visit in Tirana. In November 1941, two emissaries of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ), Miladin Popović and Dušan Mugoša, managed to call a meeting of three Albanian communist groups and founded the Communist Party of Albania, of which Enver Hoxha would shortly emerge as the leader.
The town soon became the center of the Albanian communists, who mobilized locals against Italian fascists and later Nazi Germans, while spreading ideological propaganda. On 17 November 1944, the town was liberated after a fierce battle between the Communists and German forces. The Nazis eventually withdrew and the communists seized power.
From 1944 to 1991, the city experienced ordered development with a decline in architectural quality. Massive socialist-styled apartment complexes and factories began to be built, while Skanderbeg Square was redesigned with a number of buildings being demolished. For instance, Tirana's former Old Bazaar and the Orthodox Cathedral were razed to the ground for the erection of the Soviet-styled Palace of Culture. The Italian-built municipal building was detonated and the National Historical Museum was constructed instead, while the structure housing the Parliament of Albania during the monarchy was turned into a children's theater.
The northern portion of the main boulevard was renamed Stalin Boulevard and his statue erected in the city square. As private car ownership was banned, mass transport consisted mainly of bicycles, trucks and buses. After Hoxha's death, a pyramidal museum was constructed in his memory by the government.
Prior to and after the proclamation of Albania's self-isolationist policy, a number of high-profile figures paid visits to the city, such as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai and East German Foreign Minister Oskar Fischer. In 1985, Tirana served as the ceremonial venue of Enver Hoxha's funeral. A few years later, Mother Teresa became the first religious figure to visit the country following Albania's long declared anti-religious atheist stance. She paid respect to her mother and sister resting at a local cemetery. Starting at the campus and ending at Skanderbeg Square with the toppling of Enver Hoxha's statue, the city saw significant demonstrations by University of Tirana students, demanding political freedoms in the early 1990s.
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On the political aspect, the city witnessed a number of events. Personalities visited the capital, such as former U.S. Secretary of State James Baker and Pope John Paul II. The former visit came amidst the historical setting after the fall of communism, as hundreds of thousands were chanting in Skanderbeg Square Baker's famous saying of "Freedom works!". Pope John Paul II became the first major religious leader to visit Tirana, though Mother Teresa had visited few years prior. During the Balkans turmoil in the mid-1990s, the city experienced dramatic events such as the unfolding of the 1997 unrest in Albania and a failed coup d'état on 14 September 1998. In 1999, following the Kosovo War, Tirana Airport became a NATO airbase, serving its mission in the former Yugoslavia.
Starting in 2000, former Tirana mayor Edi Rama (mayor 2000 - 2011) under the Ilir Meta government, undertook a campaign to demolish illegal buildings around the city centre and on Lana River banks to bring the area to its pre-1990 state. In an attempt to widen roads, Rama authorized the bulldozing of private properties so that they could be paved over, thus widening streets. Most main roads underwent reconstruction, such the Ring Road (Unaza), Kavaja Street and the main boulevard. He has been accused of corruption and mismanagement of funds by the opposition, including corruption in the granting of building permits. Rama led the initiative to paint the façades of Tirana's buildings in bright colours (known as Edi Rama colours - very bright pink, yellow, green, violet) although much of their interiors continued to degrade. Rama's critics claimed that he focused too much attention on cosmetic changes without fixing any of the major problems such as shortages of drinking water and electricity. A richer calendar of events was introduced and a Municipal Police force established.
In 2007, U.S. President George W. Bush marked the first time that such a high ranking American official visited Tirana. A central Tirana street was named in his honor. In 2008, the 2008 Gërdec explosions were felt in the capital as windows were shattered and citizens shaken. On 21 January 2011, Albanian police clashed with opposition supporters in front of the Government building as cars were set on fire, three persons killed and 150 wounded. Since 2005 the southeast region of Tirana, mainly Farke and Petrela has had a burst becoming the preferred destination with many residence complexes being built and having the current biggest mall in Albania, TEG. In the 2015 municipality election power was transferred from the Democratic Party of Albania, representative, Lulzim Basha, to the Socialist Party candidate Erion Veliaj. The country underwent a territorial reform which unified communes with municipalities leaving 61 of them. Thirteen of Tirana's communes were integrated as administrative units joining the existing eleven. Since then Tirana is undergoing major changes in law enforcement and new projects as well as continuing the ones started by his predecessor. In their first few council meeting 242 social houses got allocated to needing families. Construction permits were suspended until the capital's development plan is revised and synthesized. In addition the municipality will audit all permits granted in the previous years.
Tirana has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa in the Köppen climate classification) and receives just enough summer precipitation to avoid Köppen's Csa Mediterranean climate classification, since every summer month has more than 40 millimetres (1.6 in) of rainfall, with hot and moderately dry/humid summers and cool and wet winters. Some snow falls almost every winter, but it usually melts quickly.
|Climate data for Tirana (1961–1990, extremes 1940–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.2
|Average high °C (°F)||11.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.7
|Average low °C (°F)||1.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−9.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||143
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||13||13||14||13||12||7||5||4||6||9||16||16||128|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74||73||69||72||68||69||62||64||71||70||76||79||71|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||124||125||165||191||263||298||354||327||264||218||127||88||2,544|
|Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[note 1]|
|Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)|
|Source:  [a]|
According to data from the National Census in 2011, the Urban areas of Tirana include 526,017 people. The rural areas of Tirana County, which are known as the suburbs of Tirana, include 223,348 people. Altogether, the figure for the whole county is counted as 749,365 people. The number of women slightly beats the number of men in the county, with 370,587 men, and 378,778 women.
When it comes to religion, Muslims (including the large Bektashi minority in Albania,) make up 65% of Tirana's population. About 11% of people in Tirana identify as some denomination of Christian, 3% are atheist, and 4% identify as "believers without denomination". An interesting stat in the religious makeup of Tirana is the 15% (113,000 people) who preferred not to answer the survey question. This hesitance to not answer may come from the days of Communism in Albania under Enver Hoxha, where he famously proclaimed "The only religion for an Albanian is Albanianism," and then banned all organized religion in Albania.
In 1703, Tirana had about 4,000 inhabitants and by 1820 the number tripled to 12,000. The first census, conducted a few years after becoming capital, showed a total population of 10,845. During the 1950s, Tirana experienced rapid industrial growth and the population increased to about 137,000. After the end of communist rule in 1991, Tirana experienced its fastest population growth when people from rural areas moved to the capital for better economic opportunities. In 1990, Tirana had 250,000 inhabitants, but the large-scale influx increased the population to well over 500,000.
^a Population figures are given inside city limits at that time.
The largest hospital in Tirana is Mother Theresa Hospital (Qëndra Spitalore Universitare Nënë Tereza), which is associated with University of Tirana, Faculty of Medicine. A number of private hospitals have been opened.
The center of Tirana was conceived as a monumental space. To achieve this goal, the old bazaar of Tirana, the City hall, the Orthodox Cathedral and an old assemble of shops, hotels, bars and traditional houses were demolished and substituted by important buildings such as the Palace of Culture, Hotel Tirana, National Museum, “Scanderbeg Square”, and a group of residential buildings. The only historical objects that were taken under protection were the Mosque of Et'hem Bey and the Old Clock Tower as well as the Complex of Ministries. Now, it includes the National Library and the National Opera and Ballet of Albania. The city serves as a venue for the Tirana Biennale, Tirana Jazz Festival, Summer Day, White Night on 28 November, Rally Albania, Buy Albanian Regional Delicacies Expo, and Tirana Fashion Week.
4ever Green Tower and the Cathedral of Resurrection
Mount Dajt overlooking the city and accessible via cable car
Tirana is home to five well-preserved traditional houses (museum-houses), 56 cultural monuments, eight public libraries and the National Library of Albania Biblioteka Kombëtare. Since 2011, a Tourist Information Office was opened, located behind the National History Museum, with useful information on Tirana and Albania.
Tirana is host to academic institutions such as the University of Tirana, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Agricultural University of Tirana, Academy of Physical Education and Sports, University of Arts (Academy of Arts of Albania), the Academy of Sciences of Albania, and the Skanderbeg Military University, national and international academic research institutions, as well as NGOs. English Base is an English Language school in Tirana.
Tirana has seen the creation of private academic institutions, including: Albanian University (U.F.O - Universitas.Fabrefacta Optime), Epoka University, University of New York, Tirana, European University of Tirana, Luarasi University, Academy of Film and Multimedia "Marubi".
The Municipality of Tirana is divided into 24 administrative units referred to as Njësi Bashkiake/Administrative (Municipal/Administrative Units). These have their own appointed mayor and council, and sometimes are known as Mini-Bashki (Mini-Municipality).
In 2000, the centre of Tirana from the central campus of Tirana University up to Skanderbeg Square was declared the place of Cultural Assembly, and given state protection. The historical core of the capital lies around pedestrian only Murat Toptani Street, while the most prominent city district is Blloku.
Until recently the city lacked a proper address system. In 2010, the municipality undertook the installing of street name signs and entrance numbers while every apartment entrance was physically stamped.
In 1995, a Land Management Task Force composed of Albanian urban planners, PADCO (a US-based consulting firm), GHK (UK-based consulting firm), and the Graduate School of Design of Harvard University prepared a preliminary structural plan for the Tirana metropolitan area. The plan was updated by PADCO in 2002 into a Strategic Plan for Greater Tirana, which covered the metropolitan area.
In 2002, two German consultants, GTZ GmbH (German Technical Cooperation), and IOER (Institute of Ecological and Regional Development) compiled a development study for the Tirana-Durrës region.
Most of these proposals did not go through the established approval procedures and have unclear legal status. The preparation of a new master plan for Tirana was under way for almost a decade (2002–2011). Two interim reports prepared by Urbaplan - a Swiss consultant, and CoPlan - an Albanian urban planning institute were released in 2007 and 2008 respectively. However, the plan was turned down by the National Planning Council of Albania (KRRTRSH). In the meantime, the Municipality announced in 2011 that a new regulatory plan would be prepared within 2012.
Tirana is Albania's heart of economy. It is Albania's major industrial and financial centre. Since the 1920s, it has experienced rapid growth and established many industries for agricultural products and machinery, textiles, pharmaceuticals, metal products, and services.
Tirana began to develop at the beginning of the 16th century, when a bazaar was established, and its craftsmen manufactured silk and cotton fabrics, leather, ceramics and iron, silver, and gold artifacts. Sited in a fertile plain, the Tirana area exported 2,600 barrels of olive oil and 14,000 packages of tobacco to Venice by 1769. In 1901, it had 140,000 olive trees, 400 oil mills, and 700 shops.
The ABA Business Center, the 4ever Green Tower and the TID tower, an 80-metre (260-foot) business tower were being constructed in the city. Tirana has malls, such as City Park, QTU and Tirana East Gate.
The city suffers from problems related to overpopulation, such as waste management, high levels of air pollution and significant noise pollution. Over the last decades, air pollution has become a pressing concern as the number of cars has increased. These are mostly 1990s and early 2000s diesel cars, while it is widely believed that the fuel used in Albania contains larger amounts of sulfur and lead than in the European Union. Another source of pollution are PM10 and PM2.5 inhaled particulate matter and NO2 gases resulting from rapid growth in the construction of new buildings and expanding road infrastructure. Untreated solid waste is present in the city and outskirts. Additionally, there have been complaints of excessive noise pollution. Despite the problems, the Big Park at the Tirana Artificial Lake has some effect on absorbing CO2 emissions, while over 2 000 trees have been planted around sidewalks. The work of four new parks began in the summer of 2015 located in: Kashar, Farke, Vaqarr, and Dajt. these parks are part of the new urban planning striving to increase the concentration of green spaces in the capital.
The city serves as the meeting point for national roads SH1, SH2 and SH3. Construction of the outer big ring highway started in 2011. In the near future, Tirana will have a transportation hub combining all transportation in one place near Kashar.
Local transport within Tirana is by bus or taxi. Official taxis have yellow plates with red text and usually use taximeter.
Coach and minibus (furgon) services also run to the coast and northern and southern Albania from Tirana. International coach services connect to Greece, via Korçë or Kakavije, to Kosovo[note 2] via the new Durrës-Morine highway, and to the Republic of Macedonia via Struga.
Tirana International Airport is Albania's only international airport and is located close to the country’s capital Tirana. The airport is located in the village of Rinas 6 nautical miles (11 kilometres; 6.9 miles) northwest of Tirana.
There are passenger services to Durrës and Librazhd, via Elbasan. As of September 2013, the Tirana Railway Station north of Skanderbeg Square was dismantled and moved to Kashar, the latter renovated in May 2015. The existing line was replaced with a bus service located alongside the coach terminal at the north end of Boulevard Zogu I. The line extending from Librazhd to Pogradec was discontinued in 2012.
In the northwestern district of Tirana, Laprakë a new station will be built, which is planned as a multi-functional terminal for railway, tram and bus. Until its opening, the railway transport between Tirana and Kashar remains closed.
Tirana is served by the port of Durrës, 36 km (22 mi) distant from the capital. Passenger ferries from Durrës sail to Trieste, Ancona, Otranto, Brindisi, Bari, Genoa (Italy), Zadar, Dubrovnik (Croatia), Koper (Slovenia), Bar (Montenegro), Corfu (Greece) and others. Kavaja is included in the Tirana County also.
The Ecovolis bicycle sharing system was launched in 2011. Bicycles are rented from initially four stations located at Rinia Park and along Deshmoret e Kombit Boulevard. A full day ride costs 100 leks. Cycling in the streets has been regarded as quite dangerous, because bike lanes are narrow and occupied by cars. However, in recent years, Tirana is investing in cycling infrastructure. Bike only lanes are located alongside existing sidewalks on Skanderbeg Square, Lana River and Kavaja Street, while combined bus and bike lanes are located on other main streets to alleviate overall congestion.
Tirana is the media hub of Albania. The city is home to the headquarters of the Albanian Radio and Television (RTSH), and national commercial broadcasters Top Channel and TV Klan. Radio stations operate in the capital, with the most notable being Radio Tirana, commercial Top Albania Radio and Plus 2 Radio. Tirana is home to the publication of dailies including Shqip, Zëri i Popullit, Shekulli, Gazeta Shqiptare and Koha Jonë.
Tirana is a major centre for sport in Albania. Tirana's sports clubs include KF Tirana, Partizani, and Dinamo. In football, as of April 2012, the Tirana-based teams have won a combined 57 championships out of 72 championships organized by the FSHF, i.e. 79% of them.
In Tirana there are two major stadiums, the Qemal Stafa Stadium, that holds around 20,000 spectators and the Selman Stërmasi stadium which holds around 12,000 spectators. The former was demolished in June 2016 to make way to a new national stadium. The new stadium called the National Arena will be constructed on the same site of the former Qemal Stafa Stadium and it is planned to open in 2018. It will have an underground parking, a hotel, shops and bars and will be used for entertainment events. Tirana's sports infrastructure is developing fast because of the investments from the municipality and the government. From 2007 Tirana Municipality has built up to 80 sport gardens in most of Tirana's neighborhoods. One of the latest projects is the reconstruction of the existing Olympic Park that will provide infrastructure for most intramural sports.
Below are some of the most notable personalities born in Tirana or that spent most of their lives in Tirana:
- Abdi bej Toptani, signatory of the Albanian Declaration of Independence
- Agim Zajmi, painter and scenographer
- Agim Sulaj, painter
- Albert Brojka, former Tirana Mayor
- Aleksandër Meksi, former Prime Minister
- Andrea Shundi, Albanian agronomist
- Bamir Topi, former President of Albania
- Beqir Balluku, former member of the Politburo; he was accused of being the organizer of a coup d'état in 1974 and sentenced to death
- Blendi Nallbani, football player
- Edi Rama, Prime Minister of Albania
- Elsa Lila, singer
- Erjon Bogdani, football player
- Ermonela Jaho, opera singer
- Essad Pasha, politician
- Fatos Nano, former Prime Minister of Albania
- Gjergj Xhuvani, movie director
- Igli Tare, football player
- Inva Mula, opera singer
- Ismail Ndroqi, mayor of Tiranë
- Kledi Kadiu, dancer and actor who lives and works in Italy
- Kujtim Çashku, film director and screenwriter
- Leka, Crown Prince of Albania, heir of King Zog I
- Masiela Lusha, actress, poet and writer
- Murat bej Toptani, signatory of the Albanian Declaration of Independence
- Pandeli Majko, twice Prime Minister of Albania
- Rexhep Meidani, former President of Albania
- Saimir Kumbaro, film director
- Sali Kelmendi, former Tirana Mayor
- Skënder Sallaku, comic actor
- Vedat Kokona, translator
- Klodiana Shala, athlete
- Klement Tinaj, actor
The following persons are honorary citizens:
- George Soros
- Norman Wisdom
- Wolfgang Schüssel
- Ismail Kadare
- Nikita Khrushchev
- Galeazzo Ciano
- Ibrahim Kodra
- Azem Hajdari
- Anton Yugov
- Haxhi Hafiz Sabri Koçi Grand Mufti of Albania.
- Archbishop Anastasios of Albania
- Rrok Mirdita
- Baba Reshat Bardhi
- Robert Shvarc
- Dritëro Agolli
- Hysen Kazazi
- Sadik Kaceli
- Hans Peter Furrer
- Mahatir Bin Mohammed
- Shefqet Ndroqi
- Osman Kazazi
- Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
- Eliza Dushku
- Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
- Franco Frattini
- Pope Francis
- Michael Granoff
- Stjepan Mesić
- Jeronim Bazo
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Twin towns – sister cities
Notes and references
- Station ID for Tirana is 13615 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration
- Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognised as an independent state by 109 out of 193 United Nations member states.
- "Erion Veliaj shpall fitoren në Tiranë". www.evropaelire.org. Retrieved 2015-06-23.
- Law nr. 115/2014
- Interactive map administrative territorial reform
- 2011 census results
- As argued by Prof. Dr. Muzafer Korkuti, an Albanian archeologist and researcher. "Tirane si qëndër e Historisë dhe Trashëgimisë Kulturore"
- Heppner, Harald (1994). Hauptstädte in Südosteuropa: Geschichte, Funktion, nationale Symbolkraft. Wien u.a. Böhlau. pp. 133, 135. ISBN 978-3-205-98255-5.
- To know more about the history of Tirana, please consult Tirana ne shekuj: Terona, Theranda, Tirkan, Tirannea, Tirana : monografi, disa artikuj e materiale arkivore kushtuar historisë së Tiranës by Skënder Jasa. (Victoria, 1997)
- E. J. Van Donzel (1994), Islamic Desk Reference, E.J. Brill, p. 451, ISBN 9780585305561, OCLC 45731063,
"il borgo di Tirana" is already mentioned as early as 1572
- ""Tiranasit" e ardhur rishtaz" (in Albanian). Gazeta Shqiptare. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
- Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania and King Zog: independence, republic and monarchy 1908–1939. IB Taurus. p. 140. ISBN 1-84511-013-7.
It was decided that the Congress of Lushnje was not to be dissolved until elections had been held and the new government had taken power into its hands and begun to exercise its functions in Tirana, in opposition to the Provisional Government in Italian occupied Durrës
- Kera, Gentiana. Aspects of the urban development of Tirana: 1820-1939, Seventh International Conference of Urban History. Athens, 2004.
- Bleta, Indrit. Influences of political regime shifts on the urban scene of a capital city, Case Study: Tirana. Turkey, 2010.
- "A bright and colourful new style of urban design emerges in Albania". Resource for Urban Design Information. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
- Pusca, Anca (2008). "The aesthetics of change: Exploring post-Communist spaces". Global Society. 22 (3): 369–386. doi:10.1080/13600820802090512.
- Bush greeted as hero in Albania BBC News
- "Protesters killed in Tirana rally". SETimes.com. 2011-01-21. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
- "Garden Villas, Farke".
- "Longhill". www.longhillresidence.com. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
- "Erion Veliaj takes office as Mayor of Tirana". Retrieved 2015-08-31.
- User, Super. "Reforma Territoriale - Harta - 61 bashki". www.reformaterritoriale.al. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
- "Veliaj suspends construction permits". Retrieved 2015-08-31.
- "Tirana City Council approves the allocation of social housing for 242 families". Retrieved 2015-08-31.
- Kottek, Markus; Grieser, Jürgen; Beck, Christoph; Rudolf, Bruno; Rube, Franz (June 2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classiﬁcation updated" (PDF). Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 2011-02-27.
- "Klimatafel von Tirana (Flugh.) / Albanien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Station 13615 Tirana". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
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|last1=in Authors list (help); Missing or empty
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|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tirana.|
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- Municipality of Tirana (Albanian)
- Each of the 11 divisions is an administrative unit