D. H. Starbuck

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Darius Henry Starbuck (September 15, 1818 - May 26, 1887) was a North Carolina lawyer and political figure who served as United States Attorney for the entire state, and then for the Western District of North Carolina after the state was divided into two districts.

Early life[edit]

D. H. Starbuck was born Darius Henry Starbuck in Guilford County, North Carolina on September 15, 1818.[1][2] He was the son of Reuben and Mary Beeson Starbuck. Reuben was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts on November 4, 1787, the son of Gayer and Rachel Folger Starbuck.[3] His mother Mary was born in Guilford County on September 28, 1789, the daughter of Benjamin and Rachel Green Beeson.[1][4] Both of his parents' were born into Quaker families. His parents married on February 12, 1812 in Guilford.[1] Darius was one of eight siblings:

  • Melinda Starbuck (1812 - 1846)
  • Uriel Starbuck (1814 - 1844)
  • Elihu Starbuck (1816 - 1889)
  • Darius Henry Starbuck (1818 - 1887)
  • Lewis Starbuck (1822 - 1877)
  • Benjamin Beeson Starbuck (1827 - 1876)
  • Thomas Clarkson Starbuck (1832 - 1906)
  • Matilda Starbuck (1834 - 1844)[5][4]

Darius's father, Reuben, worked as a farmer in Guilford County. Darius and his brothers worked on the family farm while growing up there.[6] In 1820 and 1830 an elderly woman, aged between 80 and 89 in 1830, is living in the Starbuck household.[7] This is likely to be Darius's paternal grandmother, Rachel Folger Starbuck, as she was widowed in 1814.[1][5][8] A young man aged between 19 and 25 was also living in the family household in 1820, he was also working on the family farm at that time.[9] The Starbucks were early members of the Dover Monthly Meeting, having appeared in the church's records within the first few months of services.[10]

Professional life[edit]

Starbuck graduated from New Garden College, before studying law under John Adams Gilmer. In 1840 he was admitted to the bar.[11] After settling in Salem around 1849,[12] he soon took to his law practice in Forsyth.[13]

Following the secession of South Carolina from the Union on December 20, 1860, citizens of Forsyth County were reported in local newspapers as having sparred over the subject of the possibility of the future secession of North Carolina. The county's Whig newspaper, The People's Press, is cited as having advised its readers to "watch their tongues" in response to the recent outbreak of quarreling. A public meeting was arranged to be held at the court house in Winston on December 29 to discuss this issue. In 1860, Forsyth had a population of 12,692, of that population an estimated 800 citizens attended the meeting that day, roughly 16% of the total population. R. L. Patterson, who was asked to serve as chairman of the meeting, said that the event was held for members of the community to "counsel together" — "and to see if there was not some common ground on which all [local] parties could unite in the present crisis." D. H. Starbuck was one of five men who addressed the meeting. It was Starbuck's motion that the chairman appoint a committee of fifteen gentlemen to draft resolutions on how the meeting should act. Starbuck was among the men appointed to the committee. Rufus Watson Wharton[14] with whom Starbuck had previously shared a residence in 1850,[13] was also among them. Other notable members included lawyer and editor of The Western Sentinel Col. John Wesley Alspaugh,[15] Dr. Beverly Jones, Dr. T. F. Keehln, Col. Joseph Masten, lawyer John Watson, and Judge Thomas J. Wilson. After two hours the committee returned with eleven resolutions. These resolutions consisted largely of rhetoric that was being argued throughout the country already. Notably, one of these resolutions proposed levying high tariffs on states which did not cooperate with the return of fugitive slaves. The fourth resolution stated "that waiving the Constitutional question of the power of a State to secede from the Union, such act of secession, if effected peaceably, is not an appropriate and adequate remedy for the injuries under which the Southern States are now laboring. To depart from the Union, leaving behind in the hands of her supposed enemies, all her accumulations of eighty years, in which she had proportional rights, would be a sacrifice on the part of a State, except under pressure of overruling necessity, as incompatible with her dignity as her interests.” The eleventh resolution called for the publication of these resolutions in all local newspapers, and that copies of these resolutions should be sent to the General Assembly and Congress. It was reported that all fifteen committee members voted unanimously in favor of the resolutions. The choice to vote unanimously was likely an influence of the Quaker teaching of Consensus decision-making, due to the community's religious heritage. To attest to the political attitudes shared among members of both political parties in Forsyth after the court house meeting, both The People's Press and the county's Democratic newspaper, The Western Sentinel, agreed that North Carolina should not secede from the Union. The People's Press ran a headline on the meeting stating, "Secession has no abiding place in Forsyth." The Western Sentinel concluded its report of the events more cautiously with the statement "Union if we can, otherwise it's alternative."[16]

Starbuck served as a delegate from Forsyth County to the state constitutional conventions of 1861 and 1865.[17] He was first appointed to the U.S. Attorney's post in December 1865 by President Andrew Johnson. In 1868, he was elected a state superior court judge, but declined the office in hopes of continuing as U.S. Attorney under the new administration of Ulysses S. Grant. Grant eventually did reappoint Starbuck in 1870. In 1872, when the state was divided into eastern and western districts, Starbuck was made the first U.S. attorney for the western district, while his old post in Raleigh, now the eastern district, went to Richard C. Badger. In 1876 he was replaced in the western district by Virgil S. Lusk.

View of the floor of the 1880 Republican National Convention in Chicago, Illinois, to which Starbuck was a delegate

In 1880, Starbuck was one of ten men appointed to a committee to select Republican delegates from the state of North Carolina to vote in the 1880 National Convention. The other nine members of the committee were lawyer[18] and Collector of the Port of Wilmington W. P. Cannady, former District 1 State Senator from Pasquotank County[19] C. W. Grandy, D. A. Jenkins, James H. Harris, Orlando Hubbs, Col. Lott Williams Humphreys,[20][21] the state Collector of Internal Revenue Dr. John James Mott, former District 7 Collector[22] Pinkney Rollins, who was at the time of his committee appointment a Clerk in the Loans Division of the Treasury Department, and the committee's chairman Col. Thomas B. Keogh. Before the committee first met on January 29, 1880, it was believed that all members of the committee were supporters of president Grant, with the exception of Cannady, who was widely known to be a fervent supporter of Secretary Sherman. However, by the day of the committee meeting, when delegates would be elected, 5 new members had shifted their allegiances to Sherman. Among those five, were Darius Starbuck, along with Grandy, Harris, Mott, and Rollins. It was revealed, according to a nationally syndicated newspaper account which ran in the The New York Times, that Cannady, after having been privy to a personal conference with Sherman, had agreed to secure other committee members' loyalties by promising favors and government office appointments. If a majority of committee members sided with Sherman, the delegate selection could be packed with Sherman supporters. According to the article, originally published in a Raleigh newspaper on February 3, "Cannady, casting around for the next capture, fixed his eye upon D. H. Starbuck, of Winston." — "[He] has been in very comfortable worldly circumstances ever since [his time as US Attorney], for such an office can be made profitable." — "It was not known that Starbuck still had any hard feelings about [Grant's choice not to reappoint Starbuck as US Attorney], but Cannady knew his man. To [Starbuck] was sent [former] Senator Joseph C. Abbott, now a Special Agent of the Treasury at $6 per day, with duties to secure Sherman delegates. Abbott approached Starbuck on the sore side of the lost District Attorneyship; he vividly portrayed to him his injuries in being so unjustly displaced, and insinuated that it would be the easiest thing in the world to get back again, especially as the term of Mr. Lusk, the present United States District Attorney, expired in May next. All he had to do was come out for Sherman. Starbuck came out." The author went on to write that two days before the committee was to meet, "[Starbuck] declared his conviction that the interests of [himself] and the Republican Party demanded the election of Sherman delegates to the National Convention —— Mr. Starbuck to be one of them." To be stated more clearly, Starbuck chose to nominate himself as one of his state's delegates at the Republican National Convention.[23] In a follow-up to that report, first published on March 10, it was said that, "There [had] been so much disgust at the action of the State Committee on the 29th of January, that it is now asserted that Messrs. J. H. Harris and D. H. Starbuck have recanted and are for Grant. The pressure may become so great that they will properly represent the sentiment of the party at Chicago, but their action cannot be foretold." It was also reported at this time that a new appointment deal had been struck with Starbuck in the event of a presidential win for Sherman. Gen. Rufus Barringer was to have been given the appointment of US Attorney for the Western District, though the choice to remove Lusk from his post had not yet been definitively decided, as Lusk had recently declared support for Sherman. Even so, the likelihood of Barringer's appointment was still considered to be "probable", as Lusk had "been compelled in the execution of his office to make himself very unpopular, and [had] no influence in his district." Now, "Starbuck stipulated that if Sherman succeeded, he [Starbuck] should succeed Dr. W. H. Wheeler as the Collector of the Fifth District." This decision was made because of Wheeler's allegiance to Grant.[24] John Sherman did not become president, nor did he win his party's nomination. Starbuck was never appointed as District 5 Collector.

In the years following Starbuck's fade from political life, he returned to his law practice in Forsyth. He was mentioned by name in the biography of John Cameron Buxton.[25] In it, it is said that by the time of Buxton's arrival in Winston around 1875, "Watson[26] and [William B.] Glenn"[27] — "[with] Colonel Joseph Masten, and Judges [Thomas] J. Wilson and D. H. Starbuck had the entire [law] practice of Forsythe County." It goes on to say that Masten, Wilson, and Starbuck soon there after "retired on account of age", creating a void in the city's law practice which Buxton was able to, in part, help fill.[28]

Personal life[edit]

1840-1848: Young adulthood[edit]

Darius, now about 21, and all of his siblings were counted in the household of their father in Guilford County in 1840.[6] Starbuck's mother died on July 17 of that year at the age of 50. She was buried in the Dover Friends Meeting Church Cemetery in Colfax, where the family attended meetings.[4] Uriel, Starbuck's oldest brother, was disowned in the Dover Friends Meeting Church records on May 27, 1841. Following his brother's dismissal, Darius himself was disowned from the Quaker church on March 30, 1843.[12] On July 14, 1844, his youngest sister Matilda died at the age of 10. She was also buried in the Dover Friends Meeting Church Cemetery.[29] Uriel died at the age of 30 on November 23, 1844. Though Uriel had been disowned by the church, he was still allowed burial with his family in the church's cemetery.[30] His oldest sister Melinda died on December 12, 1846 at the age of 34, she was also buried with her family.[31] Respectively, Darius was 24, 25, and 27 at the times of his siblings' deaths. Starbuck's father, Reuben, remarried some time after 1845 and before 1850. Reuben's second wife was Rachel Trueblood Stanley.[32] Her birth was recorded on November 21, 1809 in Guilford County, the daughter of Isaac and Mary Outland Trueblood.[1] Rachel's first husband, Jesse Stanley, died around 1845.[33] Before his death the couple had at least two sons, Jesse Stanly, Jr., and James H. Stanley. Both of Jesse Jr. and James would go on to spend the remainder of their youths in the household(s) of Reuben Starbuck.[32] Both step-sons received properties in the divisions of Reuben's estate, James having been given the Endsley-Morgan House, one of many properties owned by Reuben.[34]

1849-1855: Move to Winston-Salem[edit]

1849 street plan of Winston showing the two lots first purchased by Starbuck.
1849 street plan of Winston showing the two lots first purchased by Starbuck.

Starbuck is believed to have moved to Winston-Salem around 1849.[12] Modern accounts purport that around this time he purchased three lots (lots 50, 51, and 52) from the Salem Moravian Church for $503 during one of the earliest land auctions in Winston. Near the corner of Main and First Streets, the property fronted 300 feet on Main Street.[35][36] Church records, however, say that Darius purchased lots 51 and 52 for $327 and $76, totaling $403; lot 50 was originally purchased by a Mr. Cecil.[37]:6[38]:7243 Nevertheless, Starbuck acquired lot 50 at some point during this early period in Winston's history. Today these three lots are at 101 North Main Street, the site of the current Winston-Salem City Hall, and across the street from the Wells Fargo Center.[39][40] Starbuck's associate Thomas J. Wilson also purchased lots during these early land auctions.[38]:7243

1891 Bird's eye view of the corner of Main and First Streets in Winston-Salem. Starbuck's two-story home can be seen prominiently.
1891 Bird's eye view of the corner of Main and First Streets in Winston-Salem. Starbuck's two-story home can be seen prominiently.

On the three lots acquired in 1849, Starbuck completed the construction of his home in Winston in 1851. Standing amidst a grove of trees, the Starbuck home was a colonial-style brick mansion.[41] Described by all accounts as "beautiful", the Starbuck mansion was one of the first palatial homes in Winston. The editor of the Salem newspaper, the People's Press, wrote in 1852, "An occasional walk to our adjoining neighbor Winston never fails to impress us with the growing importance of the place." — "New and tasty buildings have been erected in 1851 and others are in progress. The citizens of Winston mostly display that neatness in the erection of their dwellings which strikes the beholder."[35][36]

Starbuck, now age 30, appears in the 1850 Census living at the residence of landlord Adam Butner. Along with Butner's wife and seven children, Augustus Staub (a farmer from Prussia) and Rufus Watson Wharton (a lawyer from Beaufort County) are also listed as residents in the home.[11][13][42][43] According to the Slave Schedule of that year, Darius owned one male slave, aged 37 years.[44] Starbuck's older brother Elihu was disowned by the Quaker church on August 29 of this census year.[12] Sometime after the 1850 census and before a special state census which was conducted on July 22, 1852, Darius's younger brother Benjamin moved to Warren County, Iowa.[45][46] Darius was about 32 years old at the time of his brother's departure to the west. At least one letter survives that attests Darius maintained contact with Benjamin after the move.[47] On October 23, 1854, the Aufseher Collegium of the Salem Moravian community refused an application by a married member of the church, William Shore, to purchase "a lot behind that of Mr. Starbuck, east of Winston, to build a house."[48]:5884

1856-1868: Marriage and family[edit]

Ellen Blickensderfer was born on February 14, 1834 in Lititz, Pennsylvania. She was the daughter of Capt. Henry Blickenderfer (1808 - 1896) and Elvina Lucinda Beitel (1812 - 1904).[49][50][51] Mr. and Mrs. Blickenderfer were both born into Moravian communities in Lititz and Nazareth, Pennsylvania, respectively. Mr. Blickenderfer began a lifelong occupation in cigar and snuff trading in Lititz in 1830, and worked as a hotelkeeper in at least three hotels between 1848 and 1865. During the term of Governor George Wolf he was "commissioned as a captain of a volunteer company in Lititz and commanded it for seven years." As a "staunch Democrat" who "voted for every Democratic candidate from the time of Andrew Jackson to that of Winfield S. Hancock", he served as a member of numerous city councils, as a tax collector, and in various lesser offices.[52] Blickenderfer was also a prominent member of the Free Masons, Odd Fellows, Red Men, and Knights Templar. He was the treasurer of the Knights Templar's Lancaster Commandry No. 13, and at the time of his death was the oldest living member of the Red Men in Lancaster, having joined in 1858.[53] Ellen was the eldest of thirteen siblings to survive infancy, having only one older sibling, a sister named Beata, who was stillborn.[52][54] Her younger siblings include, James (b. 1835), William (1837 - 1930), Edward (1839 - 1887), Richard (1841 - 1929), Mary Weidler (1842 - 1936), Henry Jr. (1843 - 1844), Jacob (1845 - 1913), Harry (1846 - 1891), Emma Dorwart (1848 - 1915), and Albert (1850 - 1851).[49][55]

Ellen moved to the Moravian settlement in Salem in 1844, aged about ten at the time of her arrival.[56]:4762 Soon there after Ellen was adopted by Dr. Friedrich Heinrich Schumann (Frederick Henry Shuman) and his second wife Theodora Schultz Schumann (Shuman). Friedrich and Theodora never had children together, though Friedrich had fathered two sons with his first wife, Johanna, named Parmenio (1803 - 1838) and Timoleon (1807 - 1810).[57] As stated in Moravian church records, on June 4, 1844, "Dr. Schumann has adopted the girl Ellen Blickensdoerfer from Lititz."[56]:4783 Only two months prior, a 16-year-old girl by the name of Amelia Marshall, who worked for Dr. Schumann, died unexpectedly on March 12.[56]:4765 In 1847, at about age 13, Ellen joined the Salem choir of older girls.[56]:4945 Ellen, at about 17 years of age, requested to "go to Pennsylvania for an extended visit" on February 26, 1851.[37]:5588 Evidently, her request was granted as the Personalia of the Congregation in Salem For the Year 1851 lists that she was confirmed by the church and "admitted to the choir of the single sisters" while away on a visit to Lititz.[37]:5615 A year later, atage about 18, Ellen entered the girl's boarding school in Salem.[48]:5740

On September 26, 1855, "the single Sr. Ellen Blickensderfer", about 21 years old, took another trip home to Pennsylvania.[48]:5943 While there she married Darius Starbuck on January 1, 1856, in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Their wedding announcement ran in the Raleigh Register on January 23, 1856.[58] Upon the newly wedded couple's return to Winston-Salem, the Salem Collegium made a decision to allow Ellen to remain a member of the church despite her choice to marry outside the Moravian faith.[48]:5998 The couple's first child, Mary Theodora Starbuck (nicknamed Dora), was born October 14, 1856, and baptized by the Moravian church on December 12.[59]:2132[60][61][48]:6011 Their second daughter, Ella R. Starbuck, was born July 25, 1859, and baptized on August 7.[62][63][64]:6671 Around this time, Darius's youngest brother, Thomas Clarkson, was disowned from the Quaker meeting in Colfax on May 29, 1858.[12]

At the time of the 1860 Census Darius (41) and Ellen (25) were officially living in Salem, although their home's location in Winston, on the border with Salem, may have led to confusion with the census taker. They were living with their two daughters, Mary S. (4) and Ella (1). In 1860 Darius's real estate was valued at $3,400, and his personal estate at $8,000. At this time he was working as a lawyer.[65] On August 20, 1866, Darius purchased lot 111 from the Moravian church for $89.55.[38]:7243 Darius and Ellen's third child, and only son, Henry Reuben Starbuck, was born September 23, 1866, and baptized on August 15.[66][67][64]:6674

Children with Ellen Blickensderfer
  1. Mary Theodora "Dora" Starbuck Ebert
    • Birth: October 14, 1856 in Winston, Forsyth, NC, USA
    • Death: February 29, 1924 in Old Richmond, Forsyth, NC, USA
    • Burial: March 2, 1924 in Salem Moravian God's Acre, Winston-Salem, Forsyth, NC, USA[60][61]
  2. Ella R. Starbuck Montague
    • Birth: July 25, 1859 in Winston, Forsyth, NC, USA
    • Death: January 7, 1910 in Winston, Forsyth, NC, USA
    • Burial: January 9, 1910 in Salem Cemetery, Winston-Salem, Forsyth, NC, USA[62][63]
  3. Henry Reuben Starbuck, Sr.
    • Birth: September 23, 1866 in Winston, Forsyth, NC, USA
    • Death: June 21, 1958 in Winston-Salem, Forsyth, NC, USA
    • Burial: June 23, 1958 in Salem Cemetery, Winston-Salem, Forsyth, NC, USA[66][67]

1869-1887: Final years[edit]

During Reconstruction in 1869, the "twin cities" of Salem and Winston conducted a census to evaluate the post-civil war population of the cities. It was found that "Winston had a population of 406, while Salem had 905". — "The white families in Winston numbered 71 and colored 26." The family of D. H. Starbuck was named in the census.[68]

At the time of the 1870 Census Darius (51) was living with his wife Ellen (36) and three children—Mary T. (13), Ellen (11), and Henry R. (3). At this time his real estate was valued at $18,800 and his personal estate at $7,100. Darius was working as a U.S. District Attorney at this time. His daughters, Dora and Ella, were attending school at this time at the Salem Female Academy.[59]:1101 Also living in the household in 1870 were a young girl named Anna Hege (7), a domestic servant named James Fulk (19), and brother-in-law Jacob Blickenderfer (25).[69] This Anna Hege may have been Anna Trimella Hege Butner, the daughter of George W. and Harriet Rebecca Hege.[70][71][72] A published genealogy of the Blickensderfer family was being compiled around this time, in it Ellen and Darius were listed as parents to one son and three daughters.[55] While Ellen's 1900 census entree would suggest that she never gave birth to more than 3 biological children,[73] this genealogy together with the 1870 census may suggest that the couple informally adopted Anna Hege at some point during reconstruction. Ellen's brother, Jacob, was working as a paymaster on the railroad in 1870.[69] Other records show that Jacob ran a Notions Store in Salem.[52][74][75]

Late in life, at the age of 53 and after 15 years of marriage, Darius chose to join his wife's faith. He was baptized by the Moravian church on March 24, 1872.[38]:7256 The only entree in the Moravian church diaries to refer to Darius as a "brother" of the church is after this date, when on January 26, 1874, the Salem Collegium denied his request to purchase lands "east of the [railroad] by the acre."[38]:7092 Later that year, however, on August 14, 1874, Darius purchased three lots. The first having 9 acres and 153 rods, the second having 17 acres and 24.5 rods, and the third having 7 acres and 42 rods, he purchased them from the church for $859.20.[38]:7248 A year prior, on February 14, 1873, during a rowdy benefit for the Salem reading club which started around 7 p.m., a Mr. and Mrs. O. (members of the church) "took tea and spent the evening at Mr. Starbuck's" home.[38]:7020–7021 On December 20 of that year, Starbuck was either elected or re-elected as Noble Grand of the local Odd Fellows Lodge - Salem Lodge No.36.[76] It was reported by the People's Press on March 26, 1874 that "Mr. Starbuck has a fine display of Geraniums, Lilies, [and] Japonicas." The very next day (March 27), a Mr. D. Bailey purchased 7 acres from the church for $175, but deeded this property to Starbuck.[38]:7249 The People's Press ran a lengthy article on May 7, 1874 concerning Starbuck's brother-in-law Jacob Blickenderfer's involvement in an attempted robbery. The article also mentions local architect Elias Alexander Vogler,[77] A. Vogler, and "Henry Edwards from Greensboro".[74]

This 1891 map of Winston-Salem includes Dr. Seth Jones Montague's physician and surgeon's office in it's business directory.
This 1891 map of Winston-Salem includes Dr. Seth Jones Montague's physician and surgeon's office in it's business directory.

Starbuck's brother-in-law, Jacob Bickenderfer, married his first wife Adelia Cornelia Ackerman, daughter of Alex and Serena Rebecca Snipe Ackerman, on September 25, 1876.[38]:7258 Starbuck's daughter, Mary Theodora, married Eugene Augustus Ebert, son of Christian and Lucinda Elisabeth Rothass Ebert, on September 20, 1877.[78] Eugene worked as a dry goods merchant, likely in his father millinery shop.[79][74] His daughter, Ella Starbuck, married Seth Jones Montague, son of Henry Walter and Ann Elizabeth Jones Montague, on December 4, 1879.[80] Seth was a physician and surgeon who took up work in Winston-Salem after moving there from Wake County, where he grew up on Harmony Plantation, which is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[81][82]

Starbuck purchased ten shares of stock with the North Carolina Railroad Company in or before 1872,[83] but by 1878 his shares in the railroad company had grown to twenty.[84] As the Wachovia National Bank was founded in 1879, Darius's 16 shares of stock in the company had to have been purchased subsequently.[85]:5

Now enumerated as 62, in 1880 Darius was living with his wife Ellen (46), son Henry (14), son-in-law Seth Montague (29), and daughter Ella Montague (21). No longer state attorney, he had returned to his private law practice. A housekeeper named Rebecca Sheek (25) also lived in the household.[81] Now married, his daughter Dora Ebert (23) had moved with her husband, Eugene Ebert (30), to Salem Chapel, where they were raising their son Eugene (2). They employed a housekeeper by the name of Pena Kinnaman (25).[79] Ellen's brother Jacob (35) had also moved to Salem Chapel with his first wife Cornelia (25), where they raised their children Harry (3) and Edward (7 months), the latter of whom was born in November 1879. Their housekeeper was Settie McQuistan (18).[75] Still a resident of Guilford County, and by then retired,[86] Starbuck's father, Reuben, died on October 4, 1880.[87]

Starbuck's son, Henry Reuben, married Nancy Lee "Nannie" Agurs, daughter of Capt. John Lafayette and Mary Mobley Agurs, before 1891.[88][89] Their family home, the Conrad-Starbuck House, is now on the National Register of Historic Places.

Slavery[edit]

On February 24, 1840 Darius Starbuck was written into the will of his "friend" Thomas Adams of Stokes County; Starbuck was also named executor of this will. This was witnessed by Thomas J. Wilson. In the will, Starbuck was named heir to an enslaved family owned by Adams upon the death of his wife Lucy, on the condition that Starbuck would emancipate them "as soon as the law will allow." They were named Syphax, Letty, and their children Syphax L., Mary Addine (Mary Magdeline), and Sarah Jane (Sally).[90] The will was notarized on 15 July 1843.[91] On June 22, 1844, however, Starbuck purchased the family for $85.20. Mr. and Mrs. Adams were to continue using Syphax and his family for labor until both of their deaths. Under the new terms Starbuck was to instead free the family after they had "worked out the consideration money and interest". This mandated that the family work as Indentured servants for Starbuck until the price Starbuck had paid for them—with interest—was returned to him either through labor or by payment. This bill of sale also mentions two more children, Emeline (Nancy Adeline) and Lewis. At the time of purchase in 1844 Syphax was aged about 26 and his wife Letty was about 30. This deed of sale was witnessed by John Hasten, who had to confirm this in court in April 1845.[12] The estate files of Thomas Adams were probated in 1848.[91]

According to the Slave Schedule of 1850, Darius owned one male slave who was reported to census takers as being 37 years old.[44] This may have been Syphax Adams who appears by his fluctuating age in written records to have not known his exact age.[12][90][91] As Starbuck's home in Winston was built in 1851, it is possible that Syphax's labor may have been used during the brick mansion's construction.[36] On March 15, 1857, Syphax's daughter, Nancy Adaline Adams, requested to become a member of the Salem African Moravian Church, a month later she began receiving instruction, and by October 11 she was baptized by the church.[64]:6233–6234 The church register in October 1857 listed her as, "Nancy Adelia, a single woman, property of Darius Starbuck."[64]:6693

By the time of the 1860 Census, before the abolition of slavery, Syphax and his family were living as freed citizens of the Broadbay Township in Forsyth County.[90] By the time of Starbuck's death in 1887 he owned 322 acres—an area referred to in his will as the "Bouer Place"—in the Broadbay township;[85]:4 it is unknown whether the Adams' ever lived or worked on this property during their residence in Broadbay. On April 14, 1861, Syphax's daughter, Mary Magdalene Adams (single), was baptized into the Moravian Church on the same day as Lewis Hege (also single). At this time Mary was employed by Traugott Frederick Crist, and Lewis was a servant of George Hege.[64]:6402, 6693–6694 Lewis also served as an elder of the African Moravian Church in Salem.[48]:6112–6113, 6153, 6156[64]:6521, 6523–6524 At some point before 1862 Mary and Lewis were married. As there is no surviving record of the marriage in the church register, it is possible that the couple jumped the broom. On July 17, 1862 Lewis and Mary had a child named Arabella Hege who was baptized on November 30, 1862.[64]:6692 On February 14, 1864, however, Mary died of typhoid fever. At the time of her death she was described as "a quasi free woman of color."[64]:6521, 6696 Lewis later remarried to Dinah Ann (Malone).[64]:6634, 6694 Jane, a servant of Louisa Shober Crossland, died on June 26, 1864 at the age of 19;[64]:6696 this may have been Syphax's daughter Sarah Jane "Sally" Adams.[90] On October 23, 1864, Nathan, "a boy in care of D. H. Starbuck," was baptized by the Salem African Church. A girl by the name of Lucinda, who was a servant of Julius Edward Mickey, was also baptized this day.[64]:6524, 6694 This Lucinda could be Syphax's younger daughter Lucy Adams.[90]

On August 29, 1887, Lewis Hege, widower of Mary Magdalene Adams, was named in the land divisions of Starbuck's estate.[85]:20 A Daniel Hege also owed the estate a personal loan debt of $200 at the time of Starbucks death. The loan was originally lent on July 26, 1859[85]:8

Death[edit]

Grave of D. H. Starbuck in the Moravian God's Acre in Old Salem

D. H. Starbuck died on May 26, 1887. He was buried in "God's Acre", a Salem Moravian Graveyard, located in what is today Winston-Salem, North Carolina. His tombstone reads, "Through Christ's sufferings, death and merit, I, eternal life, inherit."[2] Following her death on March 8, 1920 of acute lobar pneumonia in Old Richmond, North Carolina, his wife was buried next to him on March ninth of that year.[51][92] Ellen's adoptive parents, as well as her adoptive father's first wife, Johanna "Jane" Salome Leinbach, are also buried in the Moravian cemetery in Salem.[57][93][94]

Estate[edit]

Starbuck's will was probated on June 21, 1887.[85]:3 His wife, Ellen, was named executrix of his estate, their son Henry a co-executor, and Thomas J. Wilson and Adolphus Hill Eller named "attorneys for [the] posthumous."[85]:2,17 Starbuck's estate, "consisting of houses and lots in Winston and lots in the country, bank stocks and other stocks, and [personal loan] notes", was estimated in 1887 to be worth from $50,000-$60,000.[85]:2 When adjusted for inflation this figure was roughly equivalent to $1,210,000-$1,460,000 in 2016.[95] His bank and railroad stocks included 20 shares in the North Carolina Railroad Company worth $2,000, 20 shares in Union First Bank worth $1,000, 15 shares in Wachovia National Bank worth $1,500, and 16 shares in the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Company worth $1,600. His other stocks included 13 shares in the Salem Woolen Supply Company worth $130, 6 shares in the Winston Water Works Company worth $60, 1 5/22 shares in the Winston Tobacco and Snuff Company worth $613, 10 shares in a Warehouse company worth $1,000, and 16 shares in The Delabole Slate Company worth $800.[85]:5 Among the pages of loan debts owed to the estate were two $200 debts from Starbuck's son-in-law Seth Jones Montague, two small debts from his brother Elihu Starbuck, a $500 debt and $547 debt from his brothers-in-law Edward Blickensderfer and Jacob Blickensderfer receptively, and a $105 debt from James "Jim" Fulk who worked as a domestic servant in the Starbuck household.[69] A Michael Fulk also owed the estate $5.[85]:5–9

The Winston-Salem City Hall, which stands today on the site of the D. H. Starbuck house

Starbuck's son, Henery Reuben, was notably given half of $5,600 of his bank and railroad stocks. His daughter, Ella, was given a number of lots in East Winston. D. H. Starbuck's mansion was divided between his three children. Henry Reuben was instructed to build four store rooms in the cellar of the Starbuck mansion and to convert the house above into a boarding house of 15 or 16 rooms. Mary Theodora was given the South store room and cellar with 30 feet of the property east of said store room, Ella was given the North store room and cellar with 30 feet of the property east of said store room, and Henry Reuben was given the other two store rooms and the new boarding house above. Ellen was given the right to live in one of these boarding rooms for the remainder of her life.[85]:21–25 The starbuck family continued to use and live in the old mansion until about 1916. After Ellen's death, and the termination of Ellen's lifelong right to live in the mansion, Henrey Reuben Starbuck sold the property to the city of Winston-Salem for $82,500 on March 29, 1920. The city demolished the house to build the Winston-Salem City Hall in its place. The construction of the city hall concluded in 1926.[39][40][41][35][36]

Legacy[edit]

Following Starbuck's death in 1887, his only son, Henry Reuben Starbuck, took over the family's law practice. Henry attended the Salem Boys School as a child, and graduated from the University of North Carolina with a BA degree. Henry spent a year studying law under Col. George Nathaniel Folk[96] in Caldwell County. He was admitted to the bar by 1888. After having received his own license two years prior in 1886, Adolphus Hill Eller[97] moved to Forsyth, where he became a partner with Henry in the family practice.[98] Henry Starbuck met Eller while they were both attending the University of North Carolina, where the two were roommates. Henry Reuben Starbuck was elected as a Superior Court Judge in 1894. Upon his elevation to the bench, Eller took over the former Starbuck offices alone. In 1913, Eller added Richard Gordon Stockton[99] as a new partner.[100] Henry Reuben Starbuck kept his position as Superior Court Judge for eight years. He was elected to the North Carolina Senate in 1909 and 1911. In 1925 the state legislature appointed him as the first Judge of the newly created Forsyth County Court, where he was reappointed by the Governor for three additional terms. After his time in the Forsyth County Court, Henry Reuben returned to law practice with his son William. He continued to practice until a few months before his death in 1958.[39]

Ancestry[edit]

Painting of the Society of Friends Meeting House at New Garden, Guilford County, North Carolina, where Starbuck's great great-grandparents Richard and Charity Grubb Beeson were early members.[101]
Home of Starbuck's great-grandfather Thomas Starbuck.
Home of Starbuck's fourth great-grandfather Tristram Coffin.

Darius is the descendant of Nantucket, Massachusetts settler Peter Foulger and his wife Mary Morrell Foulger through two family lines, one starting with their son Eleazer Folger (1648 - 1716) and his wife Sarah Gardner Folger (c. 1651 - 1792), and the second through their daughter Experience Folger Swain (d. 1739) and her husband John Swain (c. 1664 - 1738). Darius is a descendant of both siblings through his paternal grandmother Rachel Folger Starbuck (December 30, 1747 - August 30, 1842).[102][103] Through both siblings Darius is the first cousin four times removed of Benjamin Franklin. Darius's distant cousin J. A. Folger would go on to found the Folgers Coffee Company in 1850. Darius is the fourth great-grandson of the Nantucket settler Tristram Coffin through his daughter Mary Coffin Starbuck (1645 - 1719). Tristram served as the first chief magistrate of Nantucket. Starbuck's fifth cousin through Coffin was the renowned abolitionist, women's rights activist, and social reformer Lucretia Coffin Mott, who will be featured on the United States ten-dollar bill starting in 2020. Darius is also a descendant of the Starbuck Family of Nantucket, known for whaling. The family is an inspiration for the Moby-Dick character Starbuck, who is the namesake of Starbucks Coffee.

The Endsley-Morgan House in Colfax, Guilford County, North Carolina, one of many properties once owned by Starbuck's father, is today on the National Register of Historic Places.[34] The historic Col. Isaac Beeson House, also in Colfax, is that of Starbuck's eponymous maternal great-grandfather. The home of Starbuck's paternal great-grandfather, Thomas Starbuck, is among those still standing in the Nantucket Historic District in Nantucket, Massachusetts.[104] The Coffin House located in Newbury, Massachusetts, home of Starbuck's ancestor Tristram Coffin, is a non-profit museum today.

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

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  122. ^ "North Carolina Estate Files, 1663-1979"; database with images, FamilySearch, Phebe Beeson, 1830-1831, Guilford County, North Carolina; digital folder number 007641345, Family History film 2,168,207; from the State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina. Retrieved on March 5, 2017.
  123. ^ a b c Lewis County Historical Society (1996). Pioneer Families of Lewis County, Kentucky, Indexed. Lewis County, Kentucky: Windmill Publications. The Strode/Stroud family of Lewis and Fleming Counties originated from Samuel Strode who died in 1765 in Loudon County, Virginia. He and his wife, Ann, were known to have one son and four daughters: Susanna; Martha who married Andrew Potts; Mary who married Jonas Potts; Phebe who married Isaac Beeson; and Samuel who married Nancy Watson. 
  124. ^ Edward Green Sen. (grave marker). Friendship Methodist Church Cemetery, Monticello, Guilford, North Carolina: Find a Grave. May 1835. Retrieved February 27, 2017. 
  125. ^ In Memory of Edward Green (grave marker). Old Chestnut Level Presbyterian Cemetery, Quarryville, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania: Find a Grave. September 1757. Retrieved February 27, 2017. 
  126. ^ Margaret Green (grave marker). Friendship Methodist Church Cemetery, Monticello, Guilford, North Carolina: Find a Grave. July 1840. Retrieved February 27, 2017.