|Developmental coordination disorder|
|Other names||Developmental motor coordination disorder, dyspraxia|
|Many people with dyspraxia have difficulty with tying shoelaces.|
|Symptoms||Motor skills deficit and informational processing difficulties|
|Complications||Learning difficulties, low self-esteem, little to no engagement in physical activities like sports leading to obesity|
|Usual onset||Early childhood|
|Differential diagnosis||Motor impairments due to another medical condition, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,dysgraphia, joint hypermobility syndrome, Hypotonia fetal alcohol spectrum disorder|
|Frequency||5–6% (of all age groups)|
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), also known as developmental motor coordination disorder, developmental dyspraxia or simply dyspraxia (from Ancient Greek praxis 'activity'), is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired coordination of physical movements as a result of brain messages not being accurately transmitted to the body. Deficits in fine or gross motor skills movements interfere with activities of daily living. It is often described as disorder in skill acquisition, where the learning and execution of coordinated motor skills is substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age. Difficulties may present as clumsiness, slowness and inaccuracy of performance of motor skills (e.g., catching objects, using cutlery, handwriting, riding a bike, use of tools or participating in team sports or swimming). It is also often accompanied by difficulty with organisation and/or problems with attention, working memory and time management.
A diagnosis of DCD is reached only in the absence of other neurological impairments such as cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, or Parkinson's disease. The condition is lifelong and its onset is in early childhood. It is thought to affect about 5% of the population.
Signs and symptoms
- 6A04 Developmental motor coordination disorder
Developmental motor coordination disorder is characterised by a significant delay in the acquisition of gross and fine motor skills and impairment in the execution of coordinated motor skills that manifest in clumsiness, slowness, or inaccuracy of motor performance. Coordinated motor skills are substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age and level of intellectual functioning. Onset of coordinated motor skills difficulties occurs during the developmental period and is typically apparent from early childhood. Coordinated motor skills difficulties cause significant and persistent limitations in functioning (e.g., in activities of daily living, school work, and vocational and leisure activities). Difficulties with coordinated motor skills are not solely attributable to a Disease of the Nervous System, Disease of the Musculoskeletal System or Connective Tissue, sensory impairment, and not better explained by a Disorder of Intellectual Development.— The ICD-11 International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (2018)
The American Psychiatric Association (APA)'s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, DSM-5 classifies Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) as a discrete motor disorder under the broader heading of neurodevelopmental disorders. It is often described as a disorder in skill acquisition or motor learning, where the learning and execution of coordinated motor skills is substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age. Various areas of development can be affected by DCD and these may persist into adulthood.
In children, DCD may exhibit as delays in early development of sitting, crawling, walking; poor ability or difficulties with childhood activities such as running, jumping, hopping, catching, sports and swimming; slowness; frequent tripping and bruising; poor handwriting skills; difficulties with self care; difficulties with skills such as using cutlery or tying shoelaces; poor spatial understanding; difficulty following instructions; poor time management; and often losing objects.
In adulthood, in addition to a childhood history as above, the condition may manifest as a difficulty learning new motor skills or applying skills in a different or busy environment, poor organisation and time management skills, missed deadlines and lateness for appointments (or earliness as a coping strategy), and awkward pauses before answering in conversation. There is often a history of underachievement in education or the workplace. Although skills can be acquired, such as neat handwriting, handwriting speed will then be much lower than expected.
Evidence from research and clinical practice indicates that DCD is not just a physical disorder, and there may be deficits in executive functions, behavioural organisation and emotional regulation that extend beyond the motor impairments and which are independent of diagnoses of co-morbidities. In addition to the physical or motor impairments, developmental coordination disorder is associated with problems with memory, especially working memory. This typically results in difficulty remembering instructions, difficulty organizing one's time and remembering deadlines, increased propensity to lose things or problems carrying out tasks which require remembering several steps in sequence (such as cooking). Whilst most of the general population experience these problems to some extent, they have a much more significant impact on the lives of dyspraxic people. However, many dyspraxics have excellent long-term memories, despite poor short-term memory. Many dyspraxic people benefit from working in a structured environment, as repeating the same routine minimises difficulty with time-management and allows them to commit procedures to long-term memory.
People with developmental coordination disorder sometimes have difficulty moderating the amount of sensory information that their body is constantly sending them, so as a result these dyspraxic people may be prone to sensory overload and panic attacks.
Moderate to extreme difficulty doing physical tasks is experienced by some people with dyspraxia, and fatigue is common because so much energy is expended trying to execute physical movements correctly. Some dyspraxic people have hypotonia, low muscle tone, which can also detrimentally affect balance.
Gross motor control
Whole body movement and motor coordination issues mean that major developmental targets including walking, running, climbing and jumping can be affected. The difficulties vary from person to person and can include the following:
- Poor timing.
- Poor balance (sometimes even falling over in mid-step). Tripping over one's own feet is also common.
- Difficulty combining movements into a controlled sequence.
- Difficulty remembering the next movement in a sequence.
- Problems with spatial awareness, or proprioception.
- Trouble picking up and holding onto simple objects such as pencils, owing to poor muscle tone or proprioception.
- Clumsiness to the point of knocking things over, causing minor injuries to oneself and bumping into people accidentally.
- Difficulty in determining left from right.
- Cross-laterality, ambidexterity, and a shift in the preferred hand are also common in people with developmental coordination disorder.
- Problems with chewing foods.
Fine motor control
Fine-motor problems can cause difficulty with a wide variety of other tasks such as using a knife and fork, fastening buttons and shoelaces, cooking, brushing teeth, styling hair, shaving, applying cosmetics, opening jars and packets, locking and unlocking doors, and doing housework.
- Learning basic movement patterns.
- Developing a desired writing speed.
- Establishing the correct pencil grip.
- Handwriting that is difficult to read and may miss words in sentences or place words in the incorrect order
- The acquisition of graphemes – e.g. the letters of the Latin alphabet, as well as numbers.
Developmental verbal dyspraxia
Developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD) is a type of ideational dyspraxia, causing speech and language impairments. This is the favoured term in the UK; however, it is also sometimes referred to as articulatory dyspraxia, and in the United States the usual term is childhood apraxia of speech (CAS).
Key problems include:
- Difficulties controlling the speech organs.
- Difficulties making speech sounds.
- Difficulty sequencing sounds within a word, and
- Difficulty sequencing sounds forming words into sentences.
- Difficulty controlling breathing, suppressing salivation and phonation when talking or singing with lyrics.
- Slow language development.
Associated disorders and secondary consequences
DCD is known to co-occur with other neurodevelopmental disorders. Most commonly, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) co-occurs in an estimated 50% of cases, but other co-occurring conditions are autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), Developmental Speech and Language Disorder and Developmental Learning Disorder.
People who have developmental coordination disorder may also have one or more of these other co-morbid conditions:
- Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
- Dyscalculia (difficulty with numbers).
- Dysgraphia (an inability to write neatly or draw).
- Dyslexia (difficulty with reading and spelling).
- Hypotonia (low muscle tone).
- Nonverbal learning disorder.
- Sensory processing disorder.
- Visual perception deficits.
However, a person with DCD is unlikely to have all of these conditions. The pattern of difficulty varies widely from person to person; an area of major weakness for one dyspraxic person can be an area of strength or gift for another. For example, while some dyspraxic people have difficulty with reading and spelling due to dyslexia, or with numeracy due to dyscalculia, others may have brilliant reading and spelling or mathematical abilities. Co-morbidity between ADHD and DCD is particularly high.
Sensory processing disorder
Sensory processing disorder (SPD) concerns having oversensitivity or undersensitivity to physical stimuli, such as touch, light, sound, and smell. This may manifest itself as an inability to tolerate certain textures such as sandpaper or certain fabrics such as wool, oral intolerance of excessively textured food (commonly known as picky eating), being touched by another individual (in the case of touch oversensitivity) or it may require the consistent use of sunglasses outdoors since sunlight may be intense enough to cause discomfort to a dyspraxic person (in the case of light oversensitivity). An aversion to loud music and naturally loud environments (such as clubs and bars) is typical behavior of individuals with dyspraxia who have auditory oversensitivity, while only being comfortable in unusually warm or cold environments is typical of a dyspraxic person with temperature oversensitivity. Undersensitivity to stimuli may also cause problems, as individuals do not receive the sensory input they need to understand where their bodies are in space. This can make it even more challenging to complete tasks. Dyspraxic people who are undersensitive to pain may injure themselves without realising it. Some dyspraxic people may be oversensitive to some stimuli and undersensitive to others.
Developmental Language Disorder
Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) research has found that students with developmental coordination disorder and normal language skills still experience learning difficulties despite relative strengths in language. This means that, for students with developmental coordination disorder, their working memory abilities determine their learning difficulties. Any strength in language that they have is not able to sufficiently support their learning.
Students with developmental coordination disorder struggle most in visual-spatial memory. When compared to their peers without motor difficulties, students with developmental coordination disorder are seven times more likely than typically developing students to achieve very poor scores in visual-spatial memory. As a result of this working memory impairment, students with developmental coordination disorder have learning deficits as well.
Psychological domain: Children with DCD may struggle with lower self-efficacy and lower self-perceived competence in peer and social relations. Some demonstrate greater aggressiveness and hyperactivity.
Social domain: Children may be more vulnerable to social rejection and bullying, possibly resulting in higher levels of loneliness.
Assessments for developmental coordination disorder typically require a developmental history, detailing ages at which significant developmental milestones, such as crawling and walking, occurred. Motor skills screening includes activities designed to indicate developmental coordination disorder, including balancing, physical sequencing, touch sensitivity, and variations on walking activities.
The criteria are as follows:
- Motor coordination will be greatly reduced, although the intelligence of the child is normal for the age.
- The difficulties the child experiences with motor coordination or planning interfere with the child's daily life.
- The difficulties with coordination are not due to any other medical condition
- If the child does also experience comorbidities such as intellectual or other developmental disability; motor coordination is still disproportionally affected.
Currently there is no single "gold standard" assessment test for DCD. Various screening tests may be used, including the following.
Screening tests that can be used to assess developmental coordination disorder
- Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement-ABC – Movement-ABC 2)
- Peabody Developmental Motor Scales- Second Edition (PDMS-2)
- Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP-BOT-2)
- Motoriktest für vier- bis sechsjährige Kinder (MOT 4–6)
- Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder (KTK)
- Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2)
- Maastrichtse Motoriek Test (MMT)
- Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III and WAIS-IV)
- Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WAIT-II)
- Test Of Word Reading Efficiency Second Edition (TOWRE-2)
- Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCD-Q). The DCD-Q has been translated into many languages. For French-speaking populations, a Canadian-French version  and a European-French version are available.
- Children's Self-Perceptions of Adequacy in, and Predilection for Physical Activity (CSAPPA)
A baseline motor assessment establishes the starting point for developmental intervention programs. Comparing children to normal rates of development may help to establish areas of significant difficulty.
However, research in the British Journal of Special Education has shown that knowledge is severely limited in many who should be trained to recognise and respond to various difficulties, including developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia and deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP). The earlier that difficulties are noted and timely assessments occur, the quicker intervention can begin. A teacher or GP could miss a diagnosis if they are only applying a cursory knowledge.
"Teachers will not be able to recognise or accommodate the child with learning difficulties in class if their knowledge is limited. Similarly GPs will find it difficult to detect and appropriately refer children with learning difficulties."
Developmental coordination disorder is classified in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a motor disorder, in the category of neurodevelopmental disorders.
The exact proportion of people with the disorder is unknown since the disorder can be difficult to detect due to a lack of specific laboratory tests, thus making diagnosis of the condition one of elimination of all other possible causes/diseases. Approximately 5–6% of children and adults are affected by this condition. and approximately 2% are severely affected.
DCD is a lifelong neurological condition that is expected to be as common in males as it is in females. Currently however, the diagnosis criteria favour males which results in over 80% of males being diagnosed before the age of 16 compared to only 22% for females.
Some people with the condition find it helpful to find alternative ways of carrying out tasks or organizing themselves, such as typing on a laptop instead of writing by hand, or using diaries and calendars to keep organized. A review completed in 2017 by Cochrane of task-oriented interventions for DCD resulted in inconsistent findings and a call for further research and randomized controlled trials.
Collier first described developmental coordination disorder as "congenital maladroitness". A. Jean Ayres referred to developmental coordination disorder as a disorder of sensory integration in 1972, while in 1975 Sasson Gubbay, MD, called it the "clumsy child syndrome". Developmental coordination disorder has also been called "minimal brain dysfunction", although the two latter names are no longer in use.
Other names include developmental apraxia, disorder of attention and motor perception (DAMP) dyspraxia, developmental dyspraxia, "motor learning difficulties", perceptuo-motor dysfunction, and sensorimotor dysfunction.
In popular culture
- Helen Burns, a character from Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, is alleged to have been based on the author's dyspraxic elder sister Maria Brontë.
- Ryan Sinclair, a companion of the Doctor in the BBC science fiction television programme Doctor Who, has the disorder. The character debuted in 2018.
People who have publicly stated they have been diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder include:
- actor Daniel Radcliffe,
- photographer David Bailey,
- model Cara Delevingne,
- singer Florence Welch,
- politician Emma Lewell-Buck,
- Rugby Union player Ellis Genge,
- actor Will Poulter,
- singer Mel B,
- actor Olive Gray,
- author Holly Smale,
- games critic John "TotalBiscuit" Bain,
- musician Toyah Willcox,
- comedian Harriet Kemsley.
- Asperger syndrome
- Nonverbal learning disorder
- Autism spectrum
- Aging movement control
- Deficits in attention, motor control and perception
- KE family
- Lists of language disorders
- Motor coordination
- Motor control
- Multisensory integration
- Sensory-motor coupling
- Working memory
- Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
- Smits-Engelsman et al. 2015.
- Blank et al. 2019.
- Saban & Kirby 2018.
- Meachon, Semp & Alpers 2022.
- Dyspraxia Foundation 2022.
- Green & Payne 2018.
- Alloway, Rajendran & Archibald 2009.
- Biggs 2005.
- Barnhart et al. 2003.
- Missiuna et al. 2006.
- Geuze 2005.
- Wilson & McKenzie 1998.
- Polatajko & Cantin 2005.
- Rosenblum 2013.
- Lacquaniti 1989.
- Vargha-Khadem et al. 2005.
- Bacon & Rappold 2012.
- Scharff & Petri 2011.
- Fliers, Franke & Buitelaar 2011.
- Dziuk et al. 2007.
- Jeste 2011.
- Miyahara 2013.
- Alloway 2008.
- Lucas et al. 2016.
- Pieters et al. 2012.
- Van Waelvelde et al. 2012.
- Pickering 2012, p. 28.
- Poletti 2011.
- Elbasan, Kayihan & Duzgun 2012.
- Schoemaker et al. 2001.
- Barkley 1990.
- Goulardins et al. 2015.
- Cravedi et al. 2017.
- Miller et al. 2007.
- Fitts 2019.
- Dyspraxia Ireland 2022.
- Alloway 2007.
- Alloway, Temple 2007.
- Zwicker, Harris & Klassen 2013.
- Gibbs, Appleton & Appleton 2007.
- Zwicker 2012.
- Henderson & Henderson 2003.
- Kirby & Sugden 2007.
- Cools et al. 2009.
- Wright & Sugden 1996.
- Venetsanou et al. 2011.
- Ellinoudis et al. 2011.
- Schoemaker et al. 2012.
- Venetsanou et al. 2007.
- Venetsanou et al. 2009.
- Lucas et al. 2013.
- Kambas et al. 2012.
- Grant 2009.
- Schoemaker et al. 2006.
- Martini, St-Pierre & Wilson 2011.
- Ray-Kaeser et al. 2019.
- Hay, Hawes & Faught 2004.
- Kirby, Davies & Bryant 2005.
- Pearsall-Jones, Piek & Levy 2003.
- DSM-5-TR, p. 74.
- Blank et al. 2012.
- Gaines et al. 2008.
- CanChild 2016.
- NHS 2019.
- Miyahara et al. 2017.
- Ayres 1972.
- Willoughby & Polatajko 1995.
- Gillberg & Kadesjö 2003.
- Gubbay 1978.
- Magalhães, Missiuna & Wong 2006.
- Kirby et al. 2010.
- Psynso 2022.
- Gerken 2018.
- Irvine 2008.
- Walsh 2016.
- Haskell 2015.
- Hussey 2008.
- Irvine 2013.
- Beater 2019.
- Hennessy 2018.
- Williams 2013.
- Thompson 2019.
- Anchor 2021a.
- Smale 2021.
- Bain 2020.
- Anchor 2021b.
- Kemsley 2018.
- American Psychiatric Association (February 2022) [adopted in 2019]. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association Publishing. pp. 74–77. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596. ISBN 978-0-89042-559-6. LCCN 2021051782.
- "6A04 Developmental motor coordination disorder". International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11). World Health Organisation. February 2022 [adopted in 2019]. 6A04. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
- Alloway TP (January 2007). "Working memory, reading, and mathematical skills in children with developmental coordination disorder" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 96 (1): 20–36. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2006.07.002. hdl:1893/800. PMID 17010988.
- Alloway TP, Archibald L (2008). "Working memory and learning in children with developmental coordination disorder and specific language impairment". Journal of Learning Disabilities. 41 (3): 251–62. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.541.7017. doi:10.1177/0022219408315815. PMID 18434291. S2CID 18426621.
- Alloway TP, Rajendran G, Archibald LM (2009). "Working memory in children with developmental disorders" (PDF). Journal of Learning Disabilities. 42 (4): 372–82. doi:10.1177/0022219409335214. hdl:1893/863. PMID 19380495. S2CID 8291472.
- Alloway TP, Temple K (2007). "A Comparison of Working Memory Profiles and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Moderate Learning Difficulties". Applied Cognitive Psychology. 21 (4): 473–487. doi:10.1002/acp.1284.
- "Olive Gray | Dyspraxic Actor, Musician and Poet by The Dyspraxic Help 4U Podcast". Anchor. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
- "Toyah Willcox Life Story | Punk Princess | Longevity & Success | Dyspraxic Star by The Dyspraxic Help 4U Podcast". Anchor. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
- Ayres AJ (1972). "Types of sensory integrative dysfunction among disabled learners". The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 26 (1): 13–8. PMID 5008164.
- Bacon C, Rappold GA (November 2012). "The distinct and overlapping phenotypic spectra of FOXP1 and FOXP2 in cognitive disorders". Human Genetics. 131 (11): 1687–98. doi:10.1007/s00439-012-1193-z. PMC 3470686. PMID 22736078.
- Bain, John. "Sorry, diagnosed dyspraxic with a step-son who as you probably know has adhd and aspergers. This is a topic I care deeply about". Twitter. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
- Barkley RA (1990). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-0-89862-443-4. OCLC 21335369.
- Barnhart RC, Davenport MJ, Epps SB, Nordquist VM (August 2003). "Developmental coordination disorder". Physical Therapy. 83 (8): 722–31. doi:10.1093/ptj/83.8.722. PMID 12882613.
- Beater, Emily (5 March 2019). "Studying with dyspraxia: 'I never truly understood an academic text'". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
- Biggs V (2005). "3 A Survival Guide to School". Caged in chaos : a dyspraxic guide to breaking free. London; Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84310-347-9. OCLC 57316751.
- Blank R, Smits-Engelsman B, Polatajko H, Wilson P (January 2012). "European Academy for Childhood Disability (EACD): recommendations on the definition, diagnosis and intervention of developmental coordination disorder (long version)". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 54 (1): 54–93. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04171.x. PMID 22171930.
- Blank R, Barnett AL, Cairney J, Green D, Kirby A, Polatajko H, et al. (March 2019). "International clinical practice recommendations on the definition, diagnosis, assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of developmental coordination disorder". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 61 (3): 242–285. doi:10.1111/dmcn.14132. PMC 6850610. PMID 30671947.
- "Consensus Statements". CanChild. 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2022.
- Cools W, Martelaer KD, Samaey C, Andries C (June 2009). "Movement skill assessment of typically developing preschool children: a review of seven movement skill assessment tools". Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 8 (2): 154–68. PMC 3761481. PMID 24149522.
- Cravedi E, Deniau E, Giannitelli M, Xavier J, Hartmann A, Cohen D (4 December 2017). "Tourette syndrome and other neurodevelopmental disorders: a comprehensive review". Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. 11: 59. doi:10.1186/s13034-017-0196-x. PMC 5715991. PMID 29225671.
- "What is Dyspraxia". Dyspraxia Foundation. Retrieved 15 August 2022.
- "Dyspraxia/DCD Ireland - Adults with Dyspraxia/DCD". www.dyspraxia.ie. Retrieved 9 September 2022.
- Dziuk MA, Gidley Larson JC, Apostu A, Mahone EM, Denckla MB, Mostofsky SH (October 2007). "Dyspraxia in autism: association with motor, social, and communicative deficits". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 49 (10): 734–9. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00734.x. PMID 17880641.
- Elbasan B, Kayıhan H, Duzgun I (April 2012). "Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder". Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 38 (1): 14. doi:10.1186/1824-7288-38-14. PMC 3395584. PMID 22546072.
- Ellinoudis T, Evaggelinou C, Kourtessis T, Konstantinidou Z, Venetsanou F, Kambas A (2011). "Reliability and validity of age band 1 of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--second edition". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 32 (3): 1046–51. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2011.01.035. PMID 21333488.
- Fitts, Diana (25 March 2019). "Explaining Motor Dyspraxia in Children and Ways to Address It". The Sensory Toolbox. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
- Fliers EA, Franke B, Buitelaar JK (2011). "[Motor problems in children with ADHD receive too little attention in clinical practice]". Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (in Dutch). 155 (50): A3559. PMID 22186361.
- Gaines R, Missiuna C, Egan M, McLean J (January 2008). "Educational outreach and collaborative care enhances physician's perceived knowledge about Developmental Coordination Disorder". BMC Health Services Research. 8: 21. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-21. PMC 2254381. PMID 18218082.
- Gerken, Tom (8 October 2018). "Doctor Who: How the dyspraxic assistant became my hero". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- Geuze RH (2005). "Postural control in children with developmental coordination disorder". Neural Plasticity. 12 (2–3): 183–96, discussion 263–72. doi:10.1155/NP.2005.183. PMC 2565450. PMID 16097486.
- Gibbs J, Appleton J, Appleton R (June 2007). "Dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder? Unravelling the enigma". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 92 (6): 534–9. doi:10.1136/adc.2005.088054. PMC 2066137. PMID 17515623.
- Gillberg C, Kadesjö B (2003). "Why bother about clumsiness? The implications of having developmental coordination disorder (DCD)". Neural Plasticity. 10 (1–2): 59–68. doi:10.1155/NP.2003.59. PMC 2565425. PMID 14640308.
- Goulardins JB, Rigoli D, Licari M, Piek JP, Hasue RH, Oosterlaan J, Oliveira JA (10 July 2015). "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder: Two separate disorders or do they share a common etiology". Behavioural Brain Research. 292: 484–492. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.07.009. PMID 26168770. S2CID 26450970.
- Grant, David (21 February 2009). "The Psychological Assessment of Neurodiversity". Neurodiversity in Higher Education: 33–62. doi:10.1002/9780470742259.ch3. ISBN 9780470741597.
- Green, D.; Payne, S. (2018). "Understanding Organisational Ability and Self-Regulation in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder". Current Developmental Disorders Reports. 5 (1): 34–42. doi:10.1007/s40474-018-0129-2. PMC 5818572. PMID 29497596.
- Gubbay SS (October 1978). "The management of developmental apraxia". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 20 (5): 643–6. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1978.tb15283.x. PMID 729912. S2CID 39438353.
- Haskell R (19 June 2015). "Cara Delevingne Opens Up About Her Childhood, Love Life, and Why Modeling Just Isn't Enough". Vogue. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Hay JA, Hawes R, Faught BE (April 2004). "Evaluation of a screening instrument for developmental coordination disorder". The Journal of Adolescent Health. 34 (4): 308–13. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.07.004. PMID 15041000.
- Henderson SE, Henderson L (2003). "Toward an understanding of developmental coordination disorder: terminological and diagnostic issues". Neural Plasticity. 10 (1–2): 1–13. doi:10.1155/NP.2003.1. PMC 2565424. PMID 14640303.
- Hennessy, Jason (6 September 2018). "Ellis Genge Was The Talk Of Television Last Night Following This Incredible Interview".
- Irvine C (17 August 2008). "Harry Potter's Daniel Radcliffe has dyspraxia". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- Irvine C (28 September 2013). ""I'd love to wear eyeliner, but that requires a steady hand" Labour MP Emma Lewell-Buck struggled with clumsiness, until a diagnosis of dyspraxia helped her become a politician". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- Jeste SS (April 2011). "The neurology of autism spectrum disorders". Current Opinion in Neurology. 24 (2): 132–9. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e3283446450. PMC 3160764. PMID 21293268.
- Kambas A, Venetsanou F, Giannakidou D, Fatouros IG, Avloniti A, Chatzinikolaou A, et al. (2012). "The Motor-Proficiency-Test for children between 4 and 6 years of age (MOT 4-6): an investigation of its suitability in Greece". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 33 (5): 1626–32. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.04.002. PMID 22543059.
- Kemsley, Harriet (2018). "The Big Interiew with Harriet Kemsley". Dyspraxia Life Magazine. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
- Kirby A, Sugden DA (April 2007). "Children with developmental coordination disorders". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 100 (4): 182–6. doi:10.1177/014107680710011414. PMC 1847727. PMID 17404341.
- Kirby A, Edwards L, Sugden D, Rosenblum S (2010). "The development and standardization of the Adult Developmental Co-ordination Disorders/Dyspraxia Checklist (ADC)". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 31 (1): 131–9. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2009.08.010. PMID 19819107.
- Kirby A, Davies R, Bryant A (2005). "Do teachers know more about specific learning difficulties than general practitioners?". British Journal of Special Education. 32 (3): 122–126. doi:10.1111/j.0952-3383.2005.00384.x. ISSN 0952-3383.
- Lacquaniti F (August 1989). "Central representations of human limb movement as revealed by studies of drawing and handwriting". Trends in Neurosciences. 12 (8): 287–91. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(89)90008-8. PMID 2475946. S2CID 7862444.
- Lucas BR, Latimer J, Doney R, Ferreira ML, Adams R, Hawkes G, et al. (September 2013). "The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form is reliable in children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities". BMC Pediatrics. 13: 135. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-135. PMC 3844452. PMID 24010634.
- Lucas, Barbara R; Doney, Robyn; Latimer, Jane; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Hawkes, Genevieve; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J (2016). "Impairment of motor skills in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in remote Australia: The Lililwan Project". Drug and Alcohol Review. Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs. 35 (6): 719–727. doi:10.1111/dar.12375. PMID 26879822. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
- Magalhães LC, Missiuna C, Wong S (November 2006). "Terminology used in research reports of developmental coordination disorder". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 48 (11): 937–41. doi:10.1017/S0012162206002040. PMID 17044965.
- Martini R, St-Pierre MF, Wilson BN (December 2011). "French Canadian cross-cultural adaptation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire '07: DCDQ-FC". Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 78 (5): 318–27. doi:10.2182/cjot.2011.78.5.7. PMID 22338299. S2CID 26036407.
- Meachon EJ, Zemp M, Alpers GW (June 2022). "Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD): Relevance for Clinical Psychologists in Europe". Clinical Psychology in Europe. 4 (2): e4165. doi:10.32872/cpe.4165. PMC 9667416. PMID 36397944. S2CID 250194848.
- Miller LJ, Anzalone ME, Lane SJ, Cermak SA, Osten ET (2007). "Concept evolution in sensory integration: a proposed nosology for diagnosis" (PDF). The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 61 (2): 135–40. doi:10.5014/ajot.61.2.135. PMID 17436834. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2012.
- Missiuna C, Gaines R, Soucie H, McLean J (October 2006). "Parental questions about developmental coordination disorder: A synopsis of current evidence". Paediatrics & Child Health. 11 (8): 507–12. doi:10.1093/pch/11.8.507. PMC 2528644. PMID 19030319.
- Miyahara M (2013). "Meta review of systematic and meta analytic reviews on movement differences, effect of movement based interventions, and the underlying neural mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder". Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience. 7: 16. doi:10.3389/fnint.2013.00016. PMC 3607787. PMID 23532374.
- Miyahara, Motohide; Hillier, Susan L.; Pridham, Liz; Nakagawa, Shinichi (31 July 2017). "Task-oriented interventions for children with developmental co-ordination disorder". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 7 (8): CD010914. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010914.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 6483344. PMID 28758189.
- "Dyspraxia (developmental co-ordination disorder) in adults". 18 October 2017.
- Pearsall-Jones JG, Piek JP, Levy F (October 2010). "Developmental Coordination Disorder and cerebral palsy: categories or a continuum?". Human Movement Science. 29 (5): 787–98. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2010.04.006. PMID 20594606.
- Pickering SJ (2012). "Chapter 2: Working Memory in Dyslexia". In Packiam Alloway T, Gathercole SE (eds.). Working Memory and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-135-42134-2.
- Pieters S, Desoete A, Van Waelvelde H, Vanderswalmen R, Roeyers H (2012). "Mathematical problems in children with developmental coordination disorder". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 33 (4): 1128–35. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.02.007. PMID 22502838.
- Polatajko HJ, Cantin N (December 2005). "Developmental coordination disorder (dyspraxia): an overview of the state of the art". Seminars in Pediatric Neurology. 12 (4): 250–8. doi:10.1016/j.spen.2005.12.007. PMID 16780296.
- Poletti, Michele (2011). "Disturbo di Sviluppo della Coordinazione Motoria e Sindrome Non Verbale: esistono aree di sovrapposizione clinica?". Psicologia Clinica Dello Sviluppo (3): 525–550. doi:10.1449/35886.
- "Developmental Dyspraxia". Psynso. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
- Ray-Kaeser S, Thommen E, Martini R, Jover M, Gurtner B, Bertrand AM (23 May 2019). Lin C (ed.). "Psychometric assessment of the French European Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-FE)". PLOS ONE. 14 (5): e0217280. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1417280R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0217280. PMC 6532915. PMID 31120966.
- Rosenblum S (2013). "Handwriting measures as reflectors of executive functions among adults with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)". Frontiers in Psychology. 4: 357. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00357. PMC 3693067. PMID 23805113.
- Hussey P (15 May 2008). "Interview: Florence & The Machine". Run Riot. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- Saban MT, Kirby A (March 2018). "Adulthood in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD): a Review of Current Literature Based on ICF Perspective". Current Developmental Disorders Reports. 5 (5): 9–17. doi:10.1007/s40474-018-0126-5. S2CID 149027336.
- Scharff C, Petri J (July 2011). "Evo-devo, deep homology and FoxP2: implications for the evolution of speech and language". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 366 (1574): 2124–40. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0001. PMC 3130369. PMID 21690130.
- Schoemaker MM, van der Wees M, Flapper B, Verheij-Jansen N, Scholten-Jaegers S, Geuze RH (March 2001). "Perceptual skills of children with developmental coordination disorder" (PDF). Human Movement Science. 20 (1–2): 111–33. doi:10.1016/s0167-9457(01)00031-8. PMID 11471393. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- Schoemaker MM, Flapper B, Verheij NP, Wilson BN, Reinders-Messelink HA, de Kloet A (August 2006). "Evaluation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire as a screening instrument". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 48 (8): 668–73. doi:10.1017/S001216220600140X. PMID 16836779.
- Schoemaker MM, Niemeijer AS, Flapper BC, Smits-Engelsman BC (April 2012). "Validity and reliability of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 Checklist for children with and without motor impairments". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 54 (4): 368–75. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04226.x. PMID 22320829.
- Smale, Holly [@HolSmale] (29 June 2021). "Just got my results through! I'm officially dyspraxic. Which comes as no surprise to anyone who has ever met me, but may stop me beating myself up for… beating myself up. ❤" (Tweet). Retrieved 6 June 2021 – via Twitter.
- Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Jelsma, Lemke Dorothee; Ferguson, Gillian D.; Geuze, Reint H. (14 October 2015). "Motor Learning: An Analysis of 100 Trials of a Ski Slalom Game in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder". PLOS ONE. 10 (10): e0140470. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1040470S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140470. PMC 4605617. PMID 26466324.
- Thompson, Alexandra (2019). "Mel B opens up about her ADHD, ADD and dyspraxia - but what are they?". uk.style.yahoo.com. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
- Van Waelvelde H, Hellinckx T, Peersman W, Smits-Engelsman BC (August 2012). "SOS: a screening instrument to identify children with handwriting impairments". Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. 32 (3): 306–19. doi:10.3109/01942638.2012.678971. hdl:1854/LU-2103056. PMID 22515913. S2CID 7120214.
- Vargha-Khadem F, Gadian DG, Copp A, Mishkin M (February 2005). "FOXP2 and the neuroanatomy of speech and language" (PDF). Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 6 (2): 131–8. doi:10.1038/nrn1605. PMID 15685218. S2CID 2504002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Venetsanou F, Kambas A, Aggeloussis N, Serbezis V, Taxildaris K (November 2007). "Use of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency for identifying children with motor impairment". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 49 (11): 846–8. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00846.x. PMID 17979863.
- Venetsanou F, Kambas A, Aggeloussis N, Fatouros I, Taxildaris K (August 2009). "Motor assessment of preschool aged children: A preliminary investigation of the validity of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency - short form". Human Movement Science. 28 (4): 543–50. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2009.03.002. PMID 19443065.
- Venetsanou F, Kambas A, Ellinoudis T, Fatouros I, Giannakidou D, Kourtessis T (2011). "Can the movement assessment battery for children-test be the "gold standard" for the motor assessment of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder?". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 32 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2010.09.006. PMID 20940096.
- Walsh, John (2 January 2016). "David Bailey was a scowling, socially mobile rude boy". The Independent.
- Williams, Holly (25 August 2013). "The big picture: How Will Poulter shook off the tough tearaway tag to". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- Willoughby C, Polatajko HJ (September 1995). "Motor problems in children with developmental coordination disorder: review of the literature". The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 49 (8): 787–94. doi:10.5014/ajot.49.8.787. PMID 8526224.
- Wilson PH, McKenzie BE (September 1998). "Information processing deficits associated with developmental coordination disorder: a meta-analysis of research findings". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 39 (6): 829–40. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00384. PMID 9758192.
- Wright HC, Sugden DA (December 1996). "A two-step procedure for the identification of children with developmental co-ordination disorder in Singapore". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 38 (12): 1099–105. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1996.tb15073.x. PMID 8973295. S2CID 43599945.
- Zwicker JG, Missiuna C, Harris SR, Boyd LA (November 2012). "Developmental coordination disorder: a review and update". European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 16 (6): 573–81. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2012.05.005. PMID 22705270.
- Zwicker JG, Harris SR, Klassen AF (20 April 2012). "Quality of life domains affected in children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review". Child: Care, Health and Development. 39 (4): 562–580. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2012.01379.x. PMID 22515477.
- Polatajko H, Fox M, Missiuna C (1995). "An International Consensus on Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder". Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 62 (1): 3–6. doi:10.1177/000841749506200101. S2CID 75856620.
- Mandich A, Polatajko HJ (November 2003). "Developmental coordination disorder: mechanisms, measurement and management". Human Movement Science. 22 (4–5): 407–11. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2003.09.001. PMID 14624825.
- Talukdar, A (2012). Dyspraxia/DCD pocketbook (PDF). Teachers' Pocketbooks. Hampshire; UK: Management Pocketbooks. ISBN 978-1906610388. OCLC 1162296987.