Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Dhu'l-Qa'dah, or alternatively Zulqida (Arabic: ذو القعدة, also transliterated Ḏū l-Qaʿdah, IPA: [ðʊlˈqɑʕda]) is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months in Islam during which warfare is prohibited, hence the name "Master of Truce".
The most correct and most traditionally widespread transliteration of the month according to the thirteenth century Syrian jurist al-Nawawi is Dhu'l Qa'dah. Al-Nawawi also mentions that a smaller group of linguists allow the transliteration Dhu'l-Qi'dah, however. In modern times, it is most commonly referred to as Dhu'l Qi'dah although this is neither linguistically nor historically the strongest position.
The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the tropical year, Dhu'l-Qi'dah migrates throughout the seasons. For example, some estimated start and end dates for Dhu al-Qa'dah are as follows:
- 1426 AH – first day: December 2, 2005; last day: December 31, 2005
- 1427 AH – first day: November 22, 2006; last day: December 21, 2006
- 1428 AH – first day: November 11, 2007; last day: December 10, 2007
- 1429 AH – first day: October 31, 2008; last day: November 29, 2008
- 1436 AH – first day: August 16, 2015; last day: September 14, 2015
- 1437 AH – first day: August 4, 2016; last day: September 1, 2016
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- 5 AH, the Muslims took part in the Battle of the Trench
- 6 AH, Truce of Hudaubiyah
- 6 AH, Pledge of the Tree
- 7 AH, The first pilgrimage - the return to Mecca for the performance of Umrah by Muhammad and his Companions
- 1 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Birth anniversary of Fātimah bint Mūsā
- 1 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
- 8 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Hajj was made incumbent upon Muslims in 8 A.H.
- 11 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Birth anniversary of Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Twelver Imam
- 23 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, martyrdom of Ali al-Ridha according to one tradition
- 25 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, Arabic: يوم دحو الارض, the day earth was laid beneath Ka'ba and birth date of Ibrahim and Jesus.
- 29 Dhu'l-Qi'dah, martyrdom of Muhammad al-Jawad, the ninth Twelver Imam
In Islamic eschatology about the Mahdi
- Amr bin Shuaib reported from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah said:
In Dhu al-Qi'dah (Islamic month), there will be fight among the tribes, Muslim pilgrims will be looted and there will be a battle in Mina in which many people will be slain and blood will flow until it runs over the Jamaratul Aqba (one of the three stone pillars at Mina). The man they seek will flee and will be found between the Rukn (a corner of the Kaaba containing the Black Stone) and the Maqam of Prophet Abraham (near Ka'ba). He will be forced to accept people's Bay'ah (being chosen as a Leader/Caliph). The number of those offering Bay'ah will be the same as the number of the people of Badr (Muslim fighters who participated in the Battle of Badr at time of Prophet Mohammad). Then, the dweller of Heaven and the dweller of the Earth will be pleased with him.