||This article may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The ʿUmrah (Arabic: عمرة) is a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year, in contrast to the Hajj. In Arabic, Umrah means "to visit a populated place." In the Sharia, Umrah means to perform Tawaf round the Kaaba and Sa'i between Al-Safa and Al-Marwah, after assuming Ihram (a sacred state), either from a Miqat like Zu 'l-Hulafa, Juhfa, Qarnu 'l-Manāzil, Yalamlam, Zāt-i-'Irq, Ibrahīm Mursīa, or a place in Hill. It is sometimes called the 'minor pilgrimage' or 'lesser pilgrimage', the Hajj being the 'major' pilgrimage and which is compulsory for every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it. The Umrah is not compulsory but highly recommended.
- Perform a tawaf "طواف", which consists of circling the Kaaba seven times in an anticlockwise direction. Men are encouraged to do this three times at a hurried pace, followed by four times, more closely, at a leisurely pace.
- Perform a sa'i "سعي", which means rapidly walking seven times back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah. This is a re-enactment of Hajar's frantic search for water. The baby Ishmael cried and hit the ground with his foot (some versions of the story say that an angel scraped his foot or the tip of his wing along the ground), and water miraculously sprang forth. This source of water is today called the Well of Zamzam.
- Perform a halq or taqsir, meaning a shaving of the hair. A taqsir is a partial shortening of the hair typically reserved for women who cut a minimum of one inch or more of their hair. A halq is a complete shave of the head, usually performed on men. Both of these signify the submission of will to God over glorifying physical appearances. The head shaving/cutting is reserved until the end of Umrah.
These rituals complete the Umrah, and the pilgrim can choose to go out of ihram. Although not a part of the ritual, most pilgrims drink water from the Well of Zamzam. Various sects of Islam perform these rituals with slightly different methods.
The peak times of pilgrimage are the days before, during and after the Hajj and during the last ten days of Ramadan.
There are two types of Umrah, depending on whether one wishes to combine the Umrah with Hajj: al-Umrat al-mufradah al-mustaqillah 'an al-Hajj (al-Umrat al mufradah) and al-Umrat al-mundammah ila al-Hajj (Umrat al-tammatu).
al-Umrat al mufradah refers to Umrah that is performed independently of Hajj.
Umrat al-tammatu refers to Umrah that is performed in conjunction with Hajj. More precisely, the rituals of the Umrah are performed first and then the Hajj rituals are performed.
Difference between Hajj and Umrah
- Both are Islamic pilgrimages, the main difference is their level of importance and the method of observance.
- Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam. It is obligatory for every Muslim once in their lifetime, provided they are physically fit and financially capable.
- Hajj is performed during a designated Islamic month. However, Umrah can be performed at any time.
- Both seem similar in the start. Umrah can be performed in less than a few hours while Hajj is more time consuming, and involves more rituals.
The first military campaign related to the Umrah was the Nakhla Raid ordered by Muhammad, Abdullah ibn Jahsh's was the commander of this expedition. During this raid one of Abdullah ibn Jahsh's men, Ukkash ibn Mihsan, was shaven in head to hide the real purpose of their journey and to give the Quraysh the impression of lesser Hajj (Umra); for it was the month (Rajab) when hostilities were forbidden. When the Quraysh saw the shaven head of Ukkash, they thought that the group was on its way for pilgrimage and they felt relieved and began to set up camp. They said, "These people seek the 'Umrah, so there is no need to fear them." The sacred months of the Arab Pagans were the 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar according to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri.
Muhammad also ordered the Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Batn Edam) in December 629 to divert the attention from his intention of attacking Mecca. He despatched 8 men to attack a caravan passing through Edam. During this expedition one Muslim was killed by another Muslim. After this, verse 4:94 of the Quran was revealed. Ibn Kathir interprets this as, God asking Muslims to be more careful when fighting "in the way of Allah", as to reduce the chance of killing Muslims accidentally, as happened in this incident.
Finally Muhammad ordered and took part in the almost entirely peaceful Conquest of Mecca in December 629. After the conquest the people of Makkah who had persecuted and driven away the early Muslims, and had fought against the Muslims due to their beliefs, were afraid of retribution. However, Muhammad forgave even the most ardent of enemies of Islam to establish safe sanctuary in their homes. This was a significant moment where Muhammad showed mercy as opposed to revenge to the people of Makkah. Thus, the right to perform Umrah and Hajj were guaranteed.
- Mohamed, Mamdouh N. (1996). Hajj to Umrah: From A to Z. Amana Publications. ISBN 0-915957-54-X.
- Hawting, G. R. (1980). "The Disappearance and Rediscovery of Zamzam and the 'Well of the Ka'ba'". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 43 (1): 44–54 (44). doi:10.1017/S0041977X00110523 (inactive 2017-01-18). JSTOR 616125.
- Islamic World, p. 20
- Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, pp. 245–246, ISBN 978-9960-899-55-8
- Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman, Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 2 (Part 2): Al-Baqarah 142 to Al-Baqarah 252 2nd Edition, p. 139, MSA Publication Limited, 2009, ISBN 1861796765. (online)
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 129
- Emory C. Bogle (1998), Islam: origin and belief, University of Texas Press, p. 19.
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 214-215.
- Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 218. ISBN 978-9960897714. Note: 6th Month, 8AH = September 629
- Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 164. ASIN B0007JAWMK.
THE SARIYYAH OF ABO QATADAH IBN RIB'I AL- ANSARl TOWORDS BATN IDAM.
- Sahih Muslim, 43:7176
- Ibn Kathir, Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman (translator) (November 2009). Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 5 (Part 5): An-Nisaa 24 to An-Nisaa 147 2nd Edition. p. 94. ISBN 9781861796851.
- Tafsir ibn Kathir Juz, Pg 94, By Ibn Kathir, Translation by Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman
- Say not to anyone who greets you: "You are not a believer;, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Text Version
- Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 165–174. ASIN B0007JAWMK.
- The Hajj According to the Five Schools of Islamic Fiqh (Part 1), by 'Allamah Muhammad Jawad Mughniyyah (translated from Arabic by Ali Quri Qara'i), al-Tawhid, Vol. II, No.4,