Disdyakis triacontahedron

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Disdyakis triacontahedron
Disdyakis triacontahedron
animated
Type Catalan
Conway notation mD or dbD
Coxeter diagram CDel node f1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png
Face polygon DU28 facets.png
scalene triangle
Faces 120
Edges 180
Vertices 62 = 12 + 20 + 30
Face configuration V4.6.10
Symmetry group Ih, H3, [5,3], (*532)
Rotation group I, [5,3]+, (532)
Dihedral angle 164° 53' 17"
Dual polyhedron truncated icosidodecahedron
Properties convex, face-transitive
Disdyakis triacontahedron
Net

In geometry, a disdyakis triacontahedron, hexakis icosahedron or kisrhombic triacontahedron[1] is a Catalan solid with 120 faces and the dual to the Archimedean truncated icosidodecahedron. As such it is face uniform but with irregular face polygons. It looks a bit like an inflated rhombic triacontahedron—if one replaces each face of the rhombic triacontahedron with a single vertex and four triangles in a regular fashion one ends up with a disdyakis triacontahedron. That is, the disdyakis triacontahedron is the Kleetope of the rhombic triacontahedron. It also has the most faces among the Archimedean and Catalan solids, with the snub dodecahedron, with 92 faces, in second place.

If the bipyramids and the trapezohedra are excluded, the disdyakis triacontahedron has the most faces of any other strictly convex polyhedron where every face of the polyhedron has the same shape.

Symmetry[edit]

The edges of the polyhedron projected onto a sphere form 15 great circles, and represent all 15 mirror planes of reflective Ih icosahedral symmetry, as shown in this image. Combining pairs of light and dark triangles define the fundamental domains of the nonreflective (I) icosahedral symmetry. The edges of a compound of five octahedra also represent the 10 mirror planes of icosahedral symmetry.

Disdyakis triacontahedron.png
Disdyakis triacontahedron
Disdyakis triacontahedron dodecahedral.png
Dodecahedron
Disdyakis triacontahedron icosahedral.png
Icosahedron
Disdyakis triacontahedron rhombic triacontahedral.png
Rhombic triacontahedron
Spherical
Icosahedral reflection domains.png
Alternately colored
Spherical disdyakis triacontahedron.png
Edges as great circles
Spherical compound of five octahedra.png
compound of five octahedra

Orthogonal projections[edit]

The disdyakis triacontahedron has three types of vertices which can be centered in orthogonally projection:

Orthogonal projections
Projective
symmetry
[2] [6] [10]
Image Dual dodecahedron t012 f4.png Dual dodecahedron t012 A2.png Dual dodecahedron t012 H3.png
Dual
image
Dodecahedron t012 f4.png Dodecahedron t012 A2.png Dodecahedron t012 H3.png

Uses[edit]

Disdyakis triacontahedron on a dodecahedron

The disdyakis triacontahedron, as a regular dodecahedron with pentagons divided into 10 triangles each, is considered the "holy grail" for combination puzzles like the Rubik's cube. This unsolved problem, often called the "big chop" problem, currently has no satisfactory mechanism. It is the most significant unsolved problem in mechanical puzzles.[2]

This shape was used to create d120 dice using 3D printing.[3] More recently, the Dice Lab has used the Disdyakis triacontahedron to mass market an injection moulded 120 sided die.[4] It is claimed that the d120 is the largest number of possible faces on a fair dice, aside from infinite families (such as right regular prisms, bipyramids, and trapezohedra) that would be impractical in reality due to the tendency to roll for a long time.[5]

Related polyhedra[edit]

It is topologically related to a polyhedra sequence defined by the face configuration V4.6.2n. This group is special for having all even number of edges per vertex and form bisecting planes through the polyhedra and infinite lines in the plane, and continuing into the hyperbolic plane for any n ≥ 7.

With an even number of faces at every vertex, these polyhedra and tilings can be shown by alternating two colors so all adjacent faces have different colors.

Each face on these domains also corresponds to the fundamental domain of a symmetry group with order 2,3,n mirrors at each triangle face vertex.

References[edit]

External links[edit]