Earl of Lennox

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Earldom of Lennox
Blason Maison de Lennox.svg
Arms of Lennox: Argent, a saltire between four roses gules
Creation date12th century
PeeragePeerage of Scotland
First holderDavid of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon (first known)
Former seat(s)Balloch Castle

The Earl or Mormaer of Lennox was the ruler of the district of the Lennox in western Scotland.

Ancient earls[edit]

Loch Lomond, the heart of the Lennox
Map of Scotland showing the Lennox

The first earl recorded is Ailin I, sometimes called 'Alwin'. He is traditionally said to have been created Earl of Lennox by King Malcolm IV in 1154, but this is likely too early a date. [Note: Other sources say Arkil (Arkyll) was the first mormaer. He fled Northumberland for Scotland about 1070 and was made Mormaer of Levenax by Malcolm. That title was in the 12th century changed to earl of Lennox.] The earldom may in fact have been created in the late twelfth century by King William the Lion for his brother David, and after David gained the higher title Earl of Huntingdon, he resigned the Earldom of Lennox and it passed to Ailin.

Earl Ailin's parentage and background is unknown. His line continued as Earls of Lennox until the time of Earl Duncan in the fifteenth century. Duncan's daughter Isabella married Murdoch, son of Robert, Duke of Albany. Duncan hoped this marriage would improve the family's prospects, but it would in fact be their downfall. Duke Robert had infamously murdered David, the heir to the throne, and when David's brother James became king, he wreaked his vengeance: almost the entire family were executed, including Earl Duncan, despite the fact he had had no part in the murder.

Isabella was imprisoned in Tantallon Castle, but she escaped execution, and succeeded her father as Countess of Lennox. All four of her sons died in her lifetime: two from King James's retribution, and two from natural causes. She had several grandsons, but none of them were legitimate, and the earldom therefore died with her around the year 1457.

Stewart earls[edit]

Arms of Stewart of Darnley, Earls of Lennox: Or, a fess chequy argent and azure

In 1473 the earldom was reclaimed by Sir John Stewart of Darnley, who was the grandson of Elizabeth Lennox, daughter to Earl Duncan and sister to Countess Isabella. In 1565 his great-great-great-grandson Henry, Lord Darnley married Mary, Queen of Scots. He would be murdered at Kirk o' Field in 1567, and therefore on the death of his father Earl Matthew, the earldom of Lennox passed to James, the son of Henry and Mary. James would accede as King of Scots a few months later, and the title consequently merged with the Crown.

In 1572, the earldom was conferred upon King James's uncle Charles. He did not long enjoy the title, for he died four years later at the age of twenty-one. It was next granted to the king's great-uncle Robert in 1578. This Robert, described as being "symple and of lyttle action or accomte", was persuaded to exchange the earldom of Lennox for the earldom of March, so that the king could give the former title to his friend and cousin Esmé. In 1581, Esmé's earldom was raised to a dukedom, and his line continued as Dukes of Lennox until the time of his great-grandson Charles, who died childless in 1672 after drowning at Elsinore while on a diplomatic mission to the Danish government.

In 1675, the Dukedom of Lennox was conferred upon Charles, bastard son of King Charles II, along with the English Dukedom of Richmond and several other titles. However, he would later sell his lands in the Lennox to the Duke of Montrose, meaning he became Duke of Lennox in name alone. This line survives today, and is currently headed by another Charles. Despite being Stewarts, they used "Lennox" as their surname, which was changed to "Gordon-Lennox" in the 19th century after the fourth Duke married Lady Charlotte Gordon, sister and heiress to George, Duke of Gordon.

List of earls and dukes of Lennox[edit]

Earls of Lennox (12th century)[edit]

The title became extinct c. 1459, as all four sons of Countess Isabella died without legitimate issue.

Earls of Lennox (2nd creation) (1488)[edit]

Quartered arms of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, displaying an inescutcheon of Lennox

Earls of Lennox, third creation (c. 1571)[edit]

Earls of Lennox, fourth creation (1578)[edit]

Earls of Lennox, fifth creation (1580)[edit]

Dukes of Lennox, first creation (1581)[edit]

Dukes of Lennox, second creation (1675)[edit]

Stewart family[edit]

Arms of Stewart, Dukes of Richmond and Lennox and Seigneurs d'Aubigny: Quarterly of 4, 1&4: Royal arms of King Charles VII of France within a bordure gules charged with eight buckles or; 2&3: Stewart of Darnley within a bordure engrailed gules for difference; overall an inescutcheon of Lennox[1]
The Château d'Aubigny-sur-Nère, paternal home of Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox, 1st Earl of Lennox. Built by Sir Robert Stewart, 4th Seigneur d'Aubigny (c. 1470 – 1544) and known to the French today as le château des Stuarts

Ludovic Stewart, 1st Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox[edit]

Ludovic Stewart, 1st Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox (1574–1624), was the eldest son and heir of Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox, 1st Earl of Lennox (1542–1583), a Roman Catholic French nobleman of Scottish ancestry who on his move to Scotland at the age of 37 became a favorite of the 13-year-old King James VI of Scotland (later James I of England), of whose father, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, he was a first cousin. In 1579/80 Esmé Stewart was created Earl of Lennox, Lord Darnley, Aubigny and Dalkeith and in 1581 he was created Duke of Lennox, Earl of Darnley, Lord Aubigny, Dalkeith, Torboltoun and Aberdour.[2]

The founder of the French branch of the Stewart family of Darnley in Renfrewshire, Scotland, was Sir John Stewart of Darnley (c. 1380 – 1429), 1st Seigneur de Concressault, 1st Seigneur d'Aubigny, 1st Comte d'Évreux, a famous warrior who commanded the Scottish army in France assisting the French King Charles VII to expel the invading English forces under King Henry V during the Hundred Years War. He was much appreciated by the French king who showered him with honours and landed estates and granted him the "glorious privilege of quartering the royal arms of France with his paternal arms".[1] The residence of the Stewart family in France was the Château d'Aubigny, Aubigny-sur-Nère, in the ancient county of Berry.

King James I regarded all Esmé's family with great affection, and instructed his son King Charles I to do well by them. Charles faithfully fulfilled this obligation, and as a result the Lennox family had considerable influence at the Scottish and English Courts over the next two generations. In 1603 as well as being granted the reversion of Cobham Hall, he was also granted the possession of Temple Newsam Hall in Yorkshire, the birthplace of Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, father of King James I and first cousin of Ludovic's father. In 1613 Ludovic Stewart was created Baron of Settrington (of Yorkshire) and Earl of Richmond (of Yorkshire) and in 1623 Earl of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne and Duke of Richmond.[3] He married three times but died on 16 February 1623/4, aged 50, without legitimate issue,[4] when all his titles, excepting those inherited from his father, became extinct. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, in the Richmond Vault[5] in the Henry VII Chapel (that king formerly having been Earl of Richmond) above which survives his magnificent black marble monument by Hubert Le Sueur with gilt-bronze recumbent effigies of himself and his wife.

Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox[edit]

Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox (1579–1624), younger brother and heir, who had succeeded his father as 7th Seigneur d'Aubigny (which French title was able to be passed directly to a younger son). He died on 30 July 1624 of spotted fever, just 5 months after his elder brother. He married Katherine Clifton, 2nd Baroness Clifton (c. 1592 – 1637) of Leighton Bromswold, Huntingdonshire, as a consequence of which in 1619 he was created Baron Stuart of Leighton Bromswold and Earl of March. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

James Stewart, 1st Duke of Richmond, 4th Duke of Lennox[edit]

James Stewart, 1st Duke of Richmond, 4th Duke of Lennox (1612–1655), son and heir, a third cousin of King Charles I. In 1624 King James I created the 12-year-old newly-fatherless James Stewart as Duke of Richmond and in 1628, following the death of Frances Howard (Lady Cobham), he gained vacant possession of Cobham Hall, which became his main residence. He was a key member of Royalist party in the English Civil War and in 1641–42 he served as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, which office was administered from nearby Dover Castle in Kent. He married Mary Villiers, daughter of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham.

Esmé Stuart, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 5th Duke of Lennox[edit]

Esmé Stuart, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 5th Duke of Lennox (1649–1660) was the infant son the 1st Duke. On his father's death when he was aged 6, and following the defeat of the royalist faction in the Civil War, he and his mother went into exile in France, where he died of the smallpox aged 10 in 1660 (the year of the Restoration of the Monarchy), when his titles passed to his first cousin Charles Stewart, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, where survives his monument, a black obelisk surmounted by an urn containing his heart.[5]

Charles Stewart, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox[edit]

Charles Stewart, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox (1639–1672) was the only son of George Stewart, 9th Seigneur d'Aubigny (1618–1642) (a younger brother of the 1st & 4th Duke), by his wife Katherine Howard, a daughter of Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk. He was appointed joint Lord Lieutenant of Kent and Vice-Admiral of Kent. With the Civil War over and the Stuart monarchy restored, he re-built the central block at Cobham Hall, between 1662 and 1672, to the design of the architect Peter Mills.[6] His "Gilt Hall" of 1672 (with marble wall decorations added in the 18th c. by James Wyatt) was considered by King George IV to be the finest room in England.[6] He married three times but died childless.

Family tree[edit]

Stewart & Lennox Family Tree: Earls and Dukes of Lennox
EARL OF LENNOX, 1488
John Stewart,
1st Earl of Lennox

(c.1430–1495)
Matthew Stewart,
2nd Earl of Lennox

(1488–1513)
John Stewart,
3rd Earl of Lennox

(c.1490–1526)
EARL OF LENNOX, 1578
(DISCLAIMED 1580)
Matthew Stewart,
4th Earl of Lennox

(1516–1571)
Robert Stewart,
1st (6th) Earl of Lennox

(c.1517–1586)
John Stewart,
5th Seigneur d'Aubigny
(c.1519–1567)
EARL OF LENNOX, 1571EARL OF LENNOX, 1580
DUKE OF LENNOX, 1581
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
(1545–1567)
m. Mary, Queen of Scots
Charles Stuart,
1st (5th) Earl of Lennox

(1555–1576)
Esmé Stewart,
1st Earl of Lennox,
1st Duke of Lennox

(1542–1583)
DUKE OF RICHMOND, 1623
King James VI & I
(1566–r.1567(Scot)/1603(Eng)–1625)
Ludovic Stewart,
2nd Duke of Lennox,
1st Duke of Richmond

(1574–1623)
Esmé Stewart,
3rd Duke of Lennox

(1579–1624)
DUKE OF RICHMOND, 1641
King Charles I
(1600–r.1625–1649)
James Stewart,
4th Duke of Lennox,
1st Duke of Richmond

(1612–1655)
George Stewart,
9th Seigneur d'Aubigny

(1619–1642)
King Charles II
(1630–r.1660–1685)
Esmé Stewart,
5th Duke of Lennox,
2nd Duke of Richmond

(1649–1660)
Charles Stewart,
6th Duke of Lennox,
3rd Duke of Richmond

(1639–1672)
DUKE OF RICHMOND, 1675
DUKE OF LENNOX, 1675
Charles Lennox,
1st Duke of Richmond & Lennox

illegitimate
(1672–1723)
Charles Lennox,
2nd Duke of Richmond & Lennox

(1701–1750)
Lennox sisters
Charles Lennox,
3rd Duke of Richmond & Lennox

(1735–1806)
Lord George Lennox
(1737–1805)
Charles Lennox,
4th Duke of Richmond & Lennox

(1764–1819)
Charles Gordon-Lennox,
5th Duke of Richmond & Lennox

(1791–1860)
DUKE OF GORDON, 1876
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,
6th Duke of Richmond & Lennox,
1st Duke of Gordon

(1818–1903)
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,
7th Duke of Richmond & Lennox,
2nd Duke of Gordon

(1845–1928)
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,
8th Duke of Richmond & Lennox,
3rd Duke of Gordon

(1870–1935)
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,
Lord Stettrington
(1899–1919)
Frederick Charles Gordon-Lennox,
9th Duke of Richmond & Lennox,
4th Duke of Gordon

(1904–1989)
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,
10th Duke of Richmond & Lennox,
5th Duke of Gordon

(1929–2017)
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,
11th Duke of Richmond & Lennox,
6th Duke of Gordon

(b. 1955)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cust, Lady Elizabeth, Some Account of the Stuarts of Aubigny, in France, London, 1891, pp.12-14 [1]
  2. ^ G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, n.s., vol. VII, 1929, p.603
  3. ^ G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, n.s., vol.7, p.606
  4. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911
  5. ^ a b "Ludovic, Frances & Esme Stuart". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  6. ^ a b British Listed Buildings. "Cobham Hall (Including Kitchen and Stable Court), Cobham, Kent". britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  • Anderson, John, "The Celtic Earls of Lennox" in Sir James Paul (ed.) The Scots Peerage Vol. 5, (Edinburgh, 1909), pp. 324–343
  • Steuart, A., "Stewart, Duke of Lennox" in Sir James Paul (ed.) The Scots Peerage Vol. 5, (Edinburgh, 1909), pp. 344–362
  • Grant, Francis, "Lennox, Duke of Lennox" in Sir James Paul (ed.) The Scots Peerage Vol. 5, (Edinburgh, 1909), pp. 363–371
  • Brown, Michael, "Earldom and Kindred: The Lennox and Its Earls, 1200–1458" in Steve Boardman and Alasdair Ross (eds.) The Exercise of Power in Medieval Scotland, c.1200–1500, (Dublin/Portland, 2003), pp. 201–224
  • Neville, Cynthia J., Native Lordship in Medieval Scotland: The Earldoms of Strathearn and Lennox, c. 1140–1365, (Portland & Dublin, 2005)

Further reading[edit]