Duke of Albany
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|Dukedom of Albany|
|Creation date||24 May 1881|
|Peerage||Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|First holder||Prince Leopold|
|Last holder||Prince Charles Edward|
|Remainder to||the 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten|
|Subsidiary titles||Earl of Clarence
28 March 1919
- 1 History
- 2 Dukes of Albany, first creation (1398)
- 3 Dukes of Albany, second creation (1458)
- 4 Duke of Albany (1541)
- 5 Dukes of Albany, third creation (1565)
- 6 Duke of Albany, fourth creation (1604)
- 7 Duke of Albany, fifth creation (1660)
- 8 Dukes of York and Albany
- 9 Duchess of Albany, Jacobite Peerage (1783, or earlier)
- 10 Dukes of Albany, sixth creation (1881)
- 11 Family tree
- 12 Dukes of Albany in fiction
- 13 See also
- 14 References
The Dukedom of Albany was first granted in 1398 by King Robert III of Scotland on his brother, Robert Stewart, the title being in the Peerage of Scotland. "Albany" was a broad territorial term representing the parts of Scotland north of the River Forth, roughly the former Kingdom of the Picts. The title (along with the Dukedom of Rothesay) was the first Dukedom created in Scotland. It passed to Robert's son Murdoch Stewart, and was forfeited in 1425 due to the attainder of Murdoch.
The title was again created in 1458 for Alexander Stewart but was forfeit in 1483. His son John Stewart, was restored to the second creation in 1515 but died without heirs in 1536. In 1541 Robert, second son of James V of Scotland, was styled Duke of Albany, but he died at less than a month old. The fourth creation, along with the Earldom of Ross and Lordship Ardmannoch, was for Mary, Queen of Scots' king consort Lord Darnley, whose son, later James VI of Scotland, I of England and Ireland, inherited the titles on his death. That creation merged with the Scottish crown upon James's ascension. The title, along with the title of Duke of York, with which it has since been traditionally coupled, was created for a fifth time in 1604 for Charles, son of James VI and I. Upon Charles's ascent to the throne in 1625, the title of Duke of Albany merged once again in the crowns.
The title was next granted in 1660 to Charles I's son, James, by Charles II. When James succeeded his elder brother to the throne in 1685, the titles again merged into the crown. The cities of New York and Albany, New York were thus both named after James, as he was the Duke of York and of Albany. The pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, gave the title Duchess of Albany to his illegitimate daughter Charlotte; she died in 1789.
The title "Duke of York and Albany" was granted three times by the Hanoverian kings.
The title of "Albany" alone was granted for the fifth time, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, in 1881 to Prince Leopold, the fourth son of Queen Victoria. Prince Leopold's son, Prince Charles Edward (who had succeeded as reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1900), was deprived of the peerage in 1919 for bearing arms against the United Kingdom in World War I. Under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917, the legitimate lineal male heir of the 1st Duke of Albany was allowed to petition the British Crown for the restoration of the peerages. Because subsequent descendants have married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, there are now no people alive who can make such a petition. The last person eligible to do so was Friedrich Josias, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who died in 1998.
Dukes of Albany, first creation (1398)
- Other titles (1st Duke): Earl of Fife (1371), Earl of Buchan (1374–1406), Earl of Atholl (1403–1406)
- Other titles (2nd Duke): Earl of Menteith (bef 1189), Earl of Fife (1371), Earl of Buchan (1374)
- Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany (1362–1425), eldest son of the 1st Duke was attainted and his honours forfeit in 1425
Dukes of Albany, second creation (1458)
- Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany (c. 1454–1485), second son of James II, forfeited his honours in 1479, was restored in 1482, then forfeited them again in 1483
- Other titles (2nd Duke): Earl of March (1455)
- John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany (1481–1536), only legitimate son of the 1st Duke, was restored to his father's dukedom and Earldom of March in 1515. The honours became extinct upon his death without issue
Duke of Albany (1541)
Dukes of Albany, third creation (1565)
- Henry Stuart, 1st Duke of Albany (1545–1567) was king consort to Mary, Queen of Scots
- James Stuart, Duke of Rothesay (1566–1625), only child of the 1st Duke, became King in 1567
Duke of Albany, fourth creation (1604)
- Other titles: Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1616), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Rothesay etc. (1469), Duke of York (1605), Marquess of Ormond (1600), Earl of Carrick (1469), Earl of Ross (1600), Baron Renfrew (1469), Lord Ardmannoch (1600), Lord of the Isles (1540), Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1469)
Duke of Albany, fifth creation (1660)
Dukes of York and Albany
Duchess of Albany, Jacobite Peerage (1783, or earlier)
- Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany (1753–1789)
- Charlotte was Charles Edward Stuart's illegitimate daughter by his mistress Clementina Walkinshaw (known as the Countess of Albestroff) and his only child to survive infancy. She was also created a Lady of the Order of the Thistle (LT) by her father on 30 November 1784.
Dukes of Albany, sixth creation (1881)
- The Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany (1853–1884), fourth son of Queen Victoria
- Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 2nd Duke of Albany (1884–1954), posthumous only son of the 1st Duke, had his British honours suspended in 1919 for taking arms against the realm.
Line of succession
Dukes of Albany in fiction
- William Shakespeare's King Lear includes as a major character the Duke of Albany, who is husband to Lear's daughter, Goneril.
- In the movie Kate & Leopold, Leopold is the Duke of Albany. He is not, however, meant to be the same person as the historic Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, who would have held the title at that time, as the fictitious character is not a member of the royal family.