Duke of Albany

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Dukedom of Albany
Coat of Arms of Leopold, Duke of Albany.svg
Creation date24 May 1881
CreationSixth
MonarchQueen Victoria
PeeragePeerage of the United Kingdom
First holderPrince Leopold
Last holderPrince Charles Edward
Remainder tothe 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten
Subsidiary titlesEarl of Clarence
Baron Arklow
StatusSuspended
Extinction dateSuspended
28 March 1919
Arms of the Albany Stewarts

Duke of Albany was a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and later the British royal family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor.

History[edit]

The Dukedom of Albany was first granted in 1398 by King Robert III of Scotland on his brother, Robert Stewart, the title being in the Peerage of Scotland. "Albany" was a broad territorial term representing the parts of Scotland north of the River Forth, roughly the former Kingdom of the Picts. The title (along with the Dukedom of Rothesay) was the first Dukedom created in Scotland. It passed to Robert's son Murdoch Stewart, and was forfeited in 1425 due to the attainder of Murdoch.

The title was again created in 1458 for Alexander Stewart but was forfeit in 1483. His son John Stewart was restored to the second creation in 1515 but died without heirs in 1536. In 1541 Robert, second son of James V of Scotland, was styled Duke of Albany, but he died at less than a month old. The fourth creation, along with the Earldom of Ross and Lordship of Ardmannoch, was for Mary, Queen of Scots' king consort Lord Darnley, whose son, later James VI of Scotland, I of England and Ireland, inherited the titles on his death. That creation merged with the Scottish crown upon James's ascension. The title, along with the title of Duke of York, with which it has since been traditionally coupled, was created for a fifth time in 1604 for Charles, son of James VI and I. Upon Charles's ascent to the throne in 1625, the title of Duke of Albany merged once again in the crowns.

The title was next granted in 1660 to Charles I's son, James, by Charles II. When James succeeded his elder brother to the throne in 1685, the titles again merged into the crown. The cities of New York and Albany, New York, were thus both named after James, as he was the Duke of York and of Albany. The pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, gave the title Duchess of Albany to his illegitimate daughter Charlotte; she died in 1789.

The title "Duke of York and Albany" was granted three times by the Hanoverian kings.

HRH Prince Charles Edward, the last person to hold the title, was deprived thereof in 1919.

The title of "Albany" alone was granted for the fifth time, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, in 1881 to Prince Leopold, the fourth son of Queen Victoria. Prince Leopold's son, Prince Charles Edward (who had succeeded as reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1900), was deprived of the peerage in 1919 for bearing arms against the United Kingdom in World War I. Under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917, the legitimate lineal male heir of the 1st Duke of Albany was allowed to petition the British Crown for the restoration of the peerages. Because subsequent descendants have married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, there were no people alive who can make such a petition. The last person eligible to do so was Friedrich Josias, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who died in 1998. Prior to 2013, the marriages of the male descendants of the 2nd Duke were invalid in the UK. However the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 specified otherwise in section 3(5).

Dukes of Albany[edit]

First creation, 1398[edit]

Other titles (1st Duke): Earl of Fife (1371), Earl of Buchan (1374–1406), Earl of Atholl (1403–1406)
Other titles (2nd Duke): Earl of Menteith (bef 1189), Earl of Fife (1371), Earl of Buchan (1374)

Second creation, 1458[edit]

Other titles (1st Duke): Earl of March (1455), Earl of Mar and Earl of Garioch (1482)
Other titles (2nd Duke): Earl of March (1455)
  • John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany (1481–1536), only legitimate son of the 1st Duke, was restored to his father's dukedom and Earldom of March in 1515. The honours became extinct upon his death without issue

Only styled, 1541[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Arthur Stewart
House of Stuart
1541–1541
no portrait 7 November 1677
Falkland Palace, Falkland
son of King James V and Queen Mary
not married 12 December 1677
Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh
aged 8 days

Third creation, 1565[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry Stuart
House of Stuart
1565–1567
also: Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch (1565)
Henry Stuart 19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline
son of Matthew Stewart and Lady Margaret Douglas
Mary, Queen of Scots
29 July 1565
1 child
10 February 1567
Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh
aged 21
James Stuart
House of Stuart
1567
also: Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch (1565);
Duke of Rothesay (1398)
James Stuart 19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh
son of Mary, Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany
Princess Anne of Denmark
29 July 1565
9 children
27 March 1625
De Vere Theobalds Estate, Cheshunt
aged 58
Prince James succeeded as James VI in 1567 upon his mother's abdication, and his titles merged with the crown.

Fourth creation, 1600[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles Stuart
House of Stuart
1600–1625[1]
also: Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Ross, Lord Ardmannoch (1600–1625);
Duke of York (1605–1625);
Prince of Wales (1616), Duke of Cornwall (1337) and Duke of Rothesay (1398)
Charles Stuart 19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline
son of King James I and Queen Anne
Henrietta Maria of France
13 June 1625
9 children
30 January 1649
Whitehall Palace, London
aged 48
Prince Charles succeeded as Charles I in 1625 upon his father's death, and his titles merged with the crown.

Fifth creation, 1660[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
James Stuart
House of Stuart
1633/1644–1685[2]
also: Duke of York (1633/1644), Earl of Ulster (1659)
James Stuart 14 October 1633
St. James's Palace, London
son of King Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria
Anne Hyde
3 September 1660
8 children

Mary of Modena
21 November 1673
7 children
16 September 1701
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris
aged 67
Prince James succeeded as James II in 1685 upon his brother's death, and his titles merged with the crown.

Sixth creation, 1881[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Prince Leopold
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
1882–1884
also: Earl of Clarence and Baron Arklow (1881)
Prince Arthur 7 April 1853
Buckingham Palace, London
son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert
Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont
27 April 1882
2 children
28 March 1884
Villa Nevada, Cannes
aged 30
Prince Charles Edward
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
1884–1919
also: Earl of Clarence and Baron Arklow (1881)
Prince Arthur 19 July 1884
Claremont, Esher
son of Prince Leopold and Princess Helena
Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein
11 October 1905
5 children
6 March 1954
Coburg
aged 69
The Titles Deprivation Act 1917 deprived the title on 28 March 1919.

Family tree[edit]

Family tree: Dukes of Albany
Robert II of Scotland
(1316–r.1371–1390)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1398
Robert III of Scotland
(1337–r.1390–1406)
Robert Stewart,
1st Duke of Albany

(c. 1340–1420)
James I of Scotland
(1394–r.1406–1437)
Murdoch Stewart,
2nd Duke of Albany

(1362–1425)
Dukedom forfeit, 1425
James II of Scotland
(1430–r.1437–1460)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1458
James III of Scotland
(1451–r.1460–1488)
Alexander Stewart,
1st Duke of Albany

(1454–1485)
Forfeit 1479, restored 1482, forfeit 1483
James IV of Scotland
(1473–r.1488–1513)
John Stewart,
2nd Duke of Albany

(1484–1536)
Dukedom restored, 1515
James V of Scotland
(1512–r.1513–1542)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1541DUKE OF ALBANY, 1565
Prince Arthur Stewart,
Duke of Albany
(1541)
Mary, Queen of Scots
(1542–1587, r.1542–1567)
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley,
1st Duke of Albany

(1545–1567)
Prince James, 2nd Duke of Albany
King James VI & I
(1566–r.1567(Scot)/1603(Eng)–1625)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1604
Princess Elizabeth Stuart
(1596–1662)
m. Frederick V of the Palatinate
Prince Charles, Duke of Albany
King Charles I
(1600–r.1625–1649)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1660
Sophia of Hanover
(1630–1714)
m. Ernest Augustus of Brunswick
King Charles II
(1630–r.1660–1685)
Prince James, Duke of Albany
King James II
(1633–1701, r.1685–1688)
DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1716
King George I
(1660–r.1714–1727)
Ernest Augustus,
Duke of York and Albany

(1674–1728)
Queen Mary II
(1662–r.1689–1694)
Queen Anne
(1665–r.1702–1714)
King George II
(1683–r.1727–1760)
Prince Frederick Louis,
Prince of Wales

(1707–1751)
DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1760
King George III
(1738–r.1760–1820)
Prince Edward,
Duke of York and Albany

(1739–1767)
DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1784
King George IV
(1762–r.1820–1830)
Prince Frederick,
Duke of York and Albany

(1763–1827)
King William IV
(1765–r.1830–1837)
Prince Edward,
Duke of Kent

(1767–1820)
Queen Victoria
(1819–r.1837–1901)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1881
King Edward VII
(1841–r.1901–1910)
Prince Leopold,
1st Duke of Albany

(1853–1884)
King George V
(1865–r.1910–1936)
Charles Edward,
2nd Duke of Albany

(1884–1954)
Dukedom forfeit, 1919
King Edward VIII
(1894–1972, r.1936)
King George VI
(1895–r.1936–1952)
Queen Elizabeth II
(1926–r.1952–)

Dukes of Albany in fiction[edit]

  • Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville's play Gorboduc includes Fergus, the Duke of Albany, who tries to claim the British throne after Gorboduc's death through his royal descent.
  • William Shakespeare's King Lear includes as a major character the Duke of Albany, who is husband to Lear's daughter Goneril.
  • In the movie Kate & Leopold, Leopold is the Duke of Albany, presumably meant to be the same person as the historic Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, who would have held the title at that time, as the fictitious character comments that his surname is Mountbatten (a later surname of the British royal family, which is an Anglicised version of the German surname Battenberg).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gregg, Pauline (1981), King Charles I, London: Dent
  2. ^ Callow, John, The Making of King James II: The Formative Years of a King, Sutton Publishing, Ltd, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 2000. Page